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Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528358


The COVID-19 pandemic is a highly dramatic concern for mankind. In Italy, the pandemic exerted its major impact throughout the period of February to June 2020. To date, the awkward amount of more than 131,000 deaths have been reported. Post-mortem autopsy was performed on a very modest number of patients who died from COVID-19 infection, leading to a first confirmation of an immune-thrombosis of the lungs as the major COVID-19 pathogenesis, likewise for SARS. Since then (June-August 2020), no targeted early therapy considering this pathogenetic issue was approached. The patients treated with early anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anticoagulant, and antibiotic therapy confirmed that COVID-19 was an endothelial inflammation with immuno-thrombosis. Patients not treated or scarcely treated with the most proper and appropriate therapy and in the earliest, increased the hospitalization rate in the intensive care units and also mortality, due to immune-thrombosis from the pulmonary capillary district and alveoli. The disease causes widespread endothelial inflammation, which can induce damage to various organs and systems. Therapy must be targeted in this consideration and in this review, we demonstrate how early anti-inflammatory therapy treats endothelia inflammation and immune-thrombosis caused by COVID-19, by using drugs we are going to recommend in this paper.

Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107777, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225264


An increasing amount of reports in the literature is showing that medical ozone (O3) is used, with encouraging results, in treating COVID-19 patients, optimizing pain and symptoms relief, respiratory parameters, inflammatory and coagulation markers and the overall health status, so reducing significantly how much time patients underwent hospitalization and intensive care. To date, aside from mechanisms taking into account the ability of O3 to activate a rapid oxidative stress response, by up-regulating antioxidant and scavenging enzymes, no sound hypothesis was addressed to attempt a synopsis of how O3 should act on COVID-19. The knowledge on how O3 works on inflammation and thrombosis mechanisms is of the utmost importance to make physicians endowed with new guns against SARS-CoV2 pandemic. This review tries to address this issue, so to expand the debate in the scientific community.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxidants, Photochemical/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106879, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919641


OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the potential efficacy of a novel approach to treat COVID-19 patients, using an oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) mixture, via a process called Oxygen-Ozone- Immunoceutical Therapy. The methodology met the criteria of a novel, promising approach to treat successfully elderly COVID-19 patients, particularly when hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) Experimental design: We investigated the therapeutic effect of 4 cycles of O2-O3 in 50 hospitalized COVID-19 subjects suffering from acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), aged more than 60 years, all males and undergoing non invasive mechanical ventilation in ICUs. RESULTS: Following O2-O3 treatment a significant improvement in inflammation and oxygenation indexes occurred rapidly and within the first 9 days after the treatment, despite the expected 14-20 days. A significant reduction of inflammatory and thromboembolic markers (CRP, IL-6, D-dimer) was observed. Furthermore, amelioration in the major respiratory indexes, such as respiratory and gas exchange markers (SatO2%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio), was reported. CONCLUSION: Our results show that O2-O3 treatment would be a promising therapy for COVID-19 patients. It leads patients to a fast recovery from ARDS via the improvement of major respiratory indexes and blood gas parameters, following a relatively short time of dispensed forced ventilation (about one to two weeks). This study may encourage the scientific community to further investigate and evaluate the proposed method for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/instrumentation , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Ozone/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome