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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2227248, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990388

ABSTRACT

Importance: A lack of timely and high-quality data is an ongoing challenge for public health responses to COVID-19 among people experiencing homelessness (PEH). Little is known about the total number of cases of COVID-19 among PEH. Objective: To estimate the number of COVID-19 cases among PEH and compare the incidence rate among PEH with that in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from a survey distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to all US state, district, and territorial health departments that requested aggregated COVID-19 data among PEH from January 1, 2020, to September 30, 2021. Jurisdictions were encouraged to share the survey with local health departments. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary study outcome was the number of cases of COVID-19 identified among PEH. COVID-19 cases and incidence rates among PEH were compared with those in the general population in the same geographic areas. Results: Participants included a population-based sample of all 64 US jurisdictional health departments. Overall, 25 states, districts, and territories completed the survey, among which 18 states (72.0%) and 27 localities reported COVID-19 data among PEH. A total of 26 349 cases of COVID-19 among PEH were reported at the state level and 20 487 at the local level. The annual incidence rate of COVID-19 among PEH at the state level was 567.9 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI, 560.5-575.4 per 10 000 person-years) compared with 715.0 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI, 714.5-715.5 per 10 000 person-years) in the general population. At the local level, the incidence rate of COVID-19 among PEH was 799.2 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI, 765.5-834.0 per 10 000 person-years) vs 812.5 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI, 810.7-814.3 per 10 000 person-years) in the general population. Conclusions and Relevance: These results provide an estimate of COVID-19 incidence rates among PEH in multiple US jurisdictions; however, a national estimate and the extent of under- or overestimation remain unknown. The findings suggest that opportunities exist for incorporating housing and homelessness status in infectious disease reporting to inform public health decision-making.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917367

ABSTRACT

After more than two years, the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing and evolving all over the world; human herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 increases either by infection or by unprecedented mass vaccination. A substantial change in population immunity is expected to contribute to the control of transmission. It is essential to monitor the extension and duration of the population's immunity to support the decisions of health authorities in each region and country, directed to chart the progressive return to normality. For this purpose, the availability of simple and cheap methods to monitor the levels of relevant antibodies in the population is a widespread necessity. Here, we describe the development of an RBD-based ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies in large numbers of samples. The recombinant expression of an RBD-poly-His fragment was carried out using either bacterial or eukaryotic cells in in vitro culture. After affinity chromatography purification, the performance of both recombinant products was compared by ELISA in similar trials. Our results showed that eukaryotic RBD increased the sensitivity of the assay. Interestingly, our results also support a correlation of the eukaryotic RBD-based ELISA with other assays aimed to test for neutralizing antibodies, which suggests that it provides an indication of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29748, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic strained medical systems worldwide. We report on the impact on pediatric oncology care in Latin American (LATAM) during its first year. METHOD: Four cross-sectional surveys were electronically distributed among pediatric onco-hematologists in April/June/October 2020, and April/2021 through the Latin American Society of Pediatric Oncology (SLAOP) email list and St Jude Global regional partners. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-three pediatric onco-hematologists from 20 countries responded to the first survey, with subsequent surveys response rates above 85%. More than 95% of participants reported that treatment continued without interruption for new and active ongoing patients, though with disruptions in treatment availability. During the first three surveys, respondents reported suspensions of outpatient procedures (54.2%), a decrease in oncologic surgeries (43.6%), radiotherapy (28.4%), stem cell transplants (SCT) (69.3%), and surveillance consultations (81.2%). Logistic regression analysis showed that at the beginning of the first wave, participants from countries with healthcare expenditure below 7% were more likely to report a decrease in outpatient procedures (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.19-2.8), surgeries (OR: 3, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6) and radiotherapy (OR: 6, 95% CI: 3.5-10.4). Suspension of surveillance consultations was higher in countries with COVID-19 case fatality rates above 2% (OR: 3, 95% CI: 1.4-6.2) and SCT suspensions in countries with COVID-19 incidence rate above 100 cases per 100,000 (OR: 3.48, 95% CI: 1.6-7.45). Paradoxically, at the beginning of the second wave with COVID-19 cases rising exponentially, most participants reported improvements in cancer services availability. CONCLUSION: Our data show the medium-term collateral effects of the pandemic on pediatric oncology care in LATAM, which might help delineate oncology care delivery amid current and future challenges posed by the pandemic.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 243-248, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689716

ABSTRACT

During November 19-21, 2021, an indoor convention (event) in New York City (NYC), was attended by approximately 53,000 persons from 52 U.S. jurisdictions and 30 foreign countries. In-person registration for the event began on November 18, 2021. The venue was equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, and attendees were required to wear a mask indoors and have documented receipt of at least 1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine.* On December 2, 2021, the Minnesota Department of Health reported the first case of community-acquired COVID-19 in the United States caused by the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant in a person who had attended the event (1). CDC collaborated with state and local health departments to assess event-associated COVID-19 cases and potential exposures among U.S.-based attendees using data from COVID-19 surveillance systems and an anonymous online attendee survey. Among 34,541 attendees with available contact information, surveillance data identified test results for 4,560, including 119 (2.6%) persons from 16 jurisdictions with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Most (4,041 [95.2%]), survey respondents reported always wearing a mask while indoors at the event. Compared with test-negative respondents, test-positive respondents were more likely to report attending bars, karaoke, or nightclubs, and eating or drinking indoors near others for at least 15 minutes. Among 4,560 attendees who received testing, evidence of widespread transmission during the event was not identified. Genomic sequencing of 20 specimens identified the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant (AY.25 and AY.103 sublineages) in 15 (75%) cases, and the Omicron variant (BA.1 sublineage) in five (25%) cases. These findings reinforce the importance of implementing multiple, simultaneous prevention measures, such as ensuring up-to-date vaccination, mask use, physical distancing, and improved ventilation in limiting SARS-CoV-2 transmission, during large, indoor events.†.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328902

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic strained medical systems worldwide. We report on the impact on pediatric oncology care in Latin American (LATAM) during its first year. Four cross-sectional surveys were electronically distributed among pediatric onco-hematologist in April/June/October 2020, and April/2021 through the Latin American Society of Pediatric Oncology (SLAOP) email list and St Jude Global regional partners. 453 pediatric onco-hematologists from 20 countries responded the first survey with subsequent surveys response rates above 85%. More than 95% of participants reported that treatment continued without interruption for new and active on-going patients, though with disruptions in treatment availability. During the first three surveys, respondents reported suspensions of outpatient procedures (54.2%), a decrease in oncologic surgeries (43.6%), radiotherapy (28.4%), stem cell transplants (SCT) (69.3%), and surveillance consultations (81.2%). Logistic regression analysis showed that at the beginning of the first wave, participants from countries with healthcare expenditure below 7% were more likely to report a decrease in outpatient procedures (OR:1.84, 95%C:1.19;2.8), surgeries (OR:3, 95%CI:1.9;4.6) and radiotherapy (OR:6, 95%CI:3.5;10.4). Suspension of surveillance consultations was higher in countries with COVID-19 case fatality rates above 2% (OR:3, 95%CI:1.4;6.2) and SCT suspensions in countries with COVID-19 incidence rate above 100 cases per 100,000 (OR:3.48, 95%CI:1.6;7.45). Paradoxically, at the beginning of the second wave with COVID-19 cases rising exponentially, most participants reported improvements in cancer services availability. Our data show the medium-term collateral effects of the pandemic on pediatric oncology care in LATAM, which might help delineate oncology care delivery amid current and future challenges posed by the pandemic.

6.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 36(4): 456-465, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have described increased risk of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. The risk in middle-income countries where the distributions of age groups and preexisting conditions may differ is less known. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 compared to nonpregnant women in Colombia. METHODS: We analysed national surveillance data from Colombia, of women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigen testing, from 6 March 2020 to 12 December 2020. An enhanced follow-up of pregnant women with COVID-19 was established to monitor pregnancy and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Of 371,363 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1.5% (n = 5614) were reported as pregnant; among those, 2610 (46.5%) were considered a complete pregnancy for reporting purposes at the time of analysis. Hospitalisation (23.9%) and death (1.3%) occurred more frequently among pregnant symptomatic women compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women (2.9% and 0.3%, respectively). Compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women, pregnant symptomatic women were at increased risk of hospitalisation (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.07, 2.32) and death (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.60, 2.07), after adjusting for age, type of health insurance and presence of certain underlying medical conditions. Among complete pregnancies, 55 (2.1%) were pregnancy losses, 72 (2.8%) resulted in term low birthweight infants and 375 (14.4%) were preterm deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: Although pregnant women were infrequently reported with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnant symptomatic women with COVID-19 were at increased risk for hospitalisation and death compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women. Almost all infections we reported on were third-trimester infections; ongoing follow-up is needed to determine pregnancy outcomes among women infected earlier in pregnancy. Healthcare providers should counsel pregnant women about preventive measures to protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection and when to seek care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Public Health Rep ; 136(3): 354-360, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Using the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) classification guidelines, we characterized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated confirmed and probable deaths in Puerto Rico during March-July 2020. We also estimated the total number of possible deaths due to COVID-19 in Puerto Rico during the same period. METHODS: We described data on COVID-19-associated mortality, in which the lower bound was the sum of confirmed and probable COVID-19 deaths and the upper bound was excess mortality, estimated as the difference between observed deaths and average expected deaths. We obtained data from the Puerto Rico Department of Health COVID-19 Mortality Surveillance System, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Electronic Disease Surveillance System Base System, and the National Center for Health Statistics. RESULTS: During March-July 2020, 225 COVID-19-associated deaths were identified in Puerto Rico (119 confirmed deaths and 106 probable deaths). The median age of decedents was 73 (interquartile range, 59-83); 60 (26.7%) deaths occurred in the Metropolitana region, and 140 (62.2%) deaths occurred among men. Of the 225 decedents, 180 (83.6%) had been hospitalized and 93 (41.3%) had required mechanical ventilation. Influenza and pneumonia (48.0%), sepsis (28.9%), and respiratory failure (27.1%) were the most common conditions contributing to COVID-19 deaths based on death certificates. Based on excess mortality calculations, as many as 638 COVID-19-associated deaths could have occurred during the study period, up to 413 more COVID-19-associated deaths than originally reported. CONCLUSIONS: Including probable deaths per the CSTE guidelines and monitoring all-cause excess mortality can lead to a better estimation of COVID-19-associated deaths and serve as a model to enhance mortality surveillance in other US jurisdictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-3, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outbreak has been associated with a wide variety of psychiatric manifestations such as panic, anxiety, and depression. We aim to assess the impact of the COVID - 19 pandemic on the levels of stress and depression of pregnant women in Mexico. METHODS: A cross-sectional web survey was carried out in pregnant women in 10 states of the Mexican Republic during the COVID-19 pandemic among public and private hospitals. The perception of stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, while depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RESULTS: A total of 549 surveys were applied, of which 96.1% (n = 503) were included in the data analysis. The mean participant's age was 28.1 years old. The mean perceived stress scale score was 24. 33.2% (n = 167) of participants had a score equal to 27 points or more and were considered highly stressed. The mean depression score was 9. A total of 17.5% (n = 88) participants had more than 14 points on the Edinburgh's depression scale, and were considered depressed. Stress levels were higher at later gestational ages (p = .008). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic has caused mental health issues in pregnant women reflected by high perceived stress levels and depression.

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