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1.
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749731

ABSTRACT

Background Cases of myocarditis and myopericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported, especially after the second dose and in young males. Their course is generally benign, with symptoms onset after 24–72 h from the dose. Case Summary We report two cases of myopericarditis after the second dose of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine in two young males. Both the patients were administered the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine from the same batch on the same day and experienced fever on the same day of the vaccine, and symptoms consisted of myopericarditis 3 days after the dose. Discussion Myopericarditis is usually considered an uncommon adverse reaction after various vaccinations, reported also after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Several explanations have been proposed, including an abnormal activation of the immune system leading to a pro-inflammatory cascade responsible for myocarditis development. Both patients experienced the same temporal onset as well as the same symptoms, it is also useful to underscore that both vaccines belonged to the same batch of vaccines. However, despite these cases, vaccination against COVID-19 far outweighs the risk linked to COVID-19 infection and remains the best option to overcome this disease.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686843

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deadly pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide, is associated with cardiovascular complications, including venous and arterial thromboembolic events. Viral spike proteins, in fact, may promote the release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators. Vaccines, coding for the spike protein, are the primary means for preventing COVID-19. However, some unexpected thrombotic events at unusual sites, most frequently located in the cerebral venous sinus but also splanchnic, with associated thrombocytopenia, have emerged in subjects who received adenovirus-based vaccines, especially in fertile women. This clinical entity was soon recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, probably caused by cross-reacting anti-platelet factor-4 antibodies activating platelets. For this reason, the regulatory agencies of various countries restricted the use of adenovirus-based vaccines to some age groups. The prevailing opinion of most experts, however, is that the risk of developing COVID-19, including thrombotic complications, clearly outweighs this potential risk. This point-of-view aims at providing a narrative review of epidemiological issues, clinical data, and pathogenetic hypotheses of thrombosis linked to both COVID-19 and its vaccines, helping medical practitioners to offer up-to-date and evidence-based counseling to their often-alarmed patients with acute or chronic cardiovascular thrombotic events.

3.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602487

ABSTRACT

Aims Cases of myocarditis and myopericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported, especially after the second dose and in young males. Their course is generally benign, with symptoms onset after 24–72 h from the dose. Methods and results We report two cases of myopericarditis after the second dose of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine in two young males, 20-years old and 21-years old. Both the patients were administered the vaccine on the same day. They both experienced fever on the same day of the vaccine and symptoms consistent with myopericarditis three days after the dose, which was confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Figure 1 summarizes the main non-invasive findings that suggested and confirmed the diagnosis of acute myopericarditis. The disease course was benign in both patients, and only one patient presented rare ventricular arrhythmias on the admission day. They were both discharged on the 9th day of the in-hospital stay. Conclusions Myopericarditis is usually considered an uncommon adverse reaction after various vaccinations, reported also after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Several explanations have been proposed, including an abnormal activation of the immune system leading to a pro-inflammatory cascade responsible for myocarditis development. The temporal aspect of these case reports is rather peculiar and it is useful to underscore that both vaccines belonged to the same batch of vaccines. However, despite these cases, vaccination against COVID-19 far outweighs the risk linked to COVID-19 infection and remains the best option to overcome this disease. 403 Figure

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12): 969-980, 2021 Dec.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542227

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a deadly pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide, is also associated with cardiovascular complications, such as venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The viral spike protein, in fact, may promote the release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators. Vaccines, coding for the spike protein, are the primary measure for preventing COVID-19. However, some unexpected thrombotic events at unusual sites, most frequently the cerebral venous and splanchnic districts, with associated thrombocytopenia, have emerged in subjects who received adenovirus-based vaccines, especially in fertile women. This clinical entity has been rapidly recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, probably caused by cross-reacting antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies activating platelets. This prompted the regulatory agencies of various countries to restrict the use of adenovirus-based vaccines to specific age groups. The prevailing opinion of most experts, however, is that the risk of developing COVID-19 disease, including thrombosis, clearly outweighs this potential extremely low risk.This paper aims at providing a comprehensive review of epidemiological issues, clinical data and pathogenetic hypotheses of thrombosis linked to both COVID-19 and its vaccines, helping cardiologists to offer an up-to-date and evidence-based counseling to their often-alarmed patients with acute or chronic coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
5.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(5): 264-270, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection might be associated with cardiac complications in low-risk populations, such as in competitive athletes. However, data obtained in adults cannot be directly transferred to preadolescents and adolescents who are less susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes and are often asymptomatic. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this prospective multicentre study to describe the incidence of cardiovascular complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large cohort of junior athletes and to examine the effectiveness of a screening protocol for a safe return to play. METHODS: Junior competitive athletes suffering from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent cardiac screening, including physical examination, 12-lead resting ECG, echocardiogram and exercise ECG testing. Further investigations were performed in cases of abnormal findings. RESULTS: A total of 571 competitive junior athletes (14.3±2.5 years) were evaluated. About half of the population (50.3%) was mildly symptomatic during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the average duration of symptoms was 4±1 days. Pericardial involvement was found in 3.2% of junior athletes: small pericardial effusion (2.6%), moderate pericardial effusion (0.2%) and pericarditis (0.4%). No relevant arrhythmias or myocardial inflammation was found in subjects with pericardial involvement. Athletes with pericarditis or moderate pericardial effusion were temporarily disqualified, and a gradual return to play was achieved after complete clinical resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cardiac involvement was low in junior athletes after asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. A screening strategy primarily driven by cardiac symptoms should detect cardiac involvement from SARS-CoV-2 infection in most junior athletes. Systematic echocardiographic screening is not recommended in junior athletes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Athletes , Humans , Prospective Studies , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 347: 89-96, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Discrepant data were reported about hospital admissions for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during COVID-19 pandemic. We reviewed studies reporting STEMI hospitalizations during COVID-19 pandemic, investigating whether differences in COVID-19 epidemiology or public health-related factors could explain discrepant findings in different countries. METHODS: Search through MedLine, Embase, Scopus, Web-of-Science, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, of studies comparing STEMI admissions during COVID-19 pandemic with a reference period, without language restrictions, as registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Data independently extracted by multiple investigators were pooled using a random-effects model. Health-related metrics were from publicly-available sources. RESULTS: We included 79 articles (111,557 STEMI cases, from 57 countries). During peak COVID-19 pandemic, overall incidence rate-ratio (IRR) of STEMI hospitalizations over reference period decreased (0.80; 95% CI 0.76-0.84; p < 0.05). Although wide variations and significant heterogeneity were detected among studies (I2 = 89%; p < 0.0001), no significant differences were observed by report methodology (survey vs registry), or observation/reference period. However, large differences emerged at country level not explained by COVID-related epidemiological data, nor by public health strategies. Instead, IRRs for STEMI admissions were inversely related to hospital bed availability in each country (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 pandemic hospitalization for STEMI significantly decreased, although to a smaller extent than initially reported. Large variability emerged across countries, unrelated to COVID-related epidemiology or social containment measures. Disparities in healthcare organization likely contributed, indicating that proper organization of emergency medicine should be preserved during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
8.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C154-C163, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377966

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic,new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.

9.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(8): 610-619, 2021 Aug.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic, new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Humans , Italy , National Health Programs/organization & administration
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 630, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) and hyperimmune plasma (HP) are passive immunotherapies consisting in the infusion of plasma from recovered people into infected patients. Following pre-existing evidence in many other viral diseases, such as SARS, MERS and Ebola, CP and HP have also been proposed for the treatment of COVID-19. Nevertheless, due to the lack of large, well-designed, clinical trials, no clear-cut guidelines exist about what subtype of patient CP and HP should be administered to. CASE PRESENTATION: We have reported the cases of 3 patients, all immunosuppressed and affected by non-severe, prolonged COVID-19. They were treated with HP, whose neutralizing titer was higher than 1/80. The first patient was a 55-year-old male, who had undergone lung transplant. He was under therapy with Tacrolimus and developed non-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV2. The second patient was a 77-year-old female, affected by follicular lymphoma. She had tested positive for SARS-CoV2 after 6 months. The third was a 60-year-old patient, affected by chronic leukemia. He did not develop antibodies after 2-month disease. All 3 patients received HP and had tested negative for SARS-CoV2 within 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: Despite encouraging initial data, no strong evidence exist in support of CP and HP to treat COVID-19. In our experience, although limited due to the reduced number of patients, we found a good safety and efficacy of HP in 3 immuno-deficient subjects. Further data are needed in order to assess whether this subtype of patients may particularly benefit from passive immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , RNA, Viral , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 336: 130-136, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has shocked the sports world because of the suspension of competitions and the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among athletes. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, cardio-pulmonary complications can occur and, before the resumption of sports competitions, a screening has been recommended. However, few data are available and discrepancies exist in the screening modalities. We conducted this prospective study to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular consequences following SARS-CoV-2 infection in young adult competitive athletes and the appropriate screening strategies for a safe return-to-play. METHODS: Ninety competitive athletes (24 ± 10 years) after asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were screened by physical examination, blood testing, spirometry, 12­lead resting ECG, 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring, echocardiogram, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). RESULTS: Sixty-four athletes (71.1%) were male, and most (76.7%) were mildly symptomatic. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, spirometry and resting ECG were normal in all athletes. Ambulatory ECG monitoring demonstrated <50/24 h supraventricular and ventricular premature beats in 53.3% and 52.2% of athletes, respectively, in the absence of malignant arrhythmias. CPET did not demonstrate cardiopulmonary limitations. Echocardiography showed pericardial effusion in 3 athletes (all females) with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (3.3%; 4.4% in the symptomatic group) with a definitive diagnosis of myopericarditis in 1 athlete (1.1%) and pericarditis in 2 athletes (2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection were found in 3.3% of competitive athletes. An appropriate screening primarily based on the detection of uncommon arrhythmias and cardiac symptoms should be recommended in competitive athletes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to detect a cardiac involvement and guarantee a safe return-to-play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Athletes , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Return to Sport , Young Adult
13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 625569, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156115

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Containment measures were established to flatten the curve of COVID-19 contagion in order to avoid a crash of the healthcare system. However, these measures influenced the rate of hospitalization of cardiac patients. In this study, we aimed to analyse the impact of COVID-19 and the effects of lockdown measures on hospital admissions and alerts of emergency medical system (EMS) for cardiac causes in the Tuscany region. Methods: An observational, retrospective analysis from Italian Tuscany region was conducted. We evaluated consecutive patients contacting EMS or admitted to the 39 Emergency Departments (EDs) in Tuscany for cardiac causes in the first trimester of 2020. Data were compared with the same period in 2018/19. Results: The alerts of EMS for cardiac causes significantly decrease in 2020 and the highest difference between 2018/19 and 2020 was found immediately after national lockdown (Δ = -47.4%, p < 0.001). The number of admissions for chest pain in the EDs also decreased, with a maximum difference of -67.6% (p < 0.001) vs. 2018/19. The number of hospital accesses for acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure in the EDs significantly decreased in 2020 as compared to 2018/19 (maximum Δ = -58.9%, p < 0.001; maximum Δ = -63.0%, p < 0.001; maximum Δ = -72.7%, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: A significant decrease in the contacts to EMS for cardiac causes and in cardiac diagnoses was observed during the first trimester of 2020. Fear of contagion has likely played a relevant role. The lesson learnt from first wave of COVID-19 pandemic suggests that appropriate public information strategies and re-education of people are essential.

14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 593496, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080928

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global healthcare burden, characterized by high mortality and morbidity rates all over the world. During the outbreak period, the topic of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has raised several clinical issues, due to the risks of COVID-19 induced myocardial injury and to the uncertainties about the management of these cardiologic emergency conditions, which should be organized optimizing the diagnostic and therapeutic resources and ensuring the maximum protection to healthcare personnel and hospital environment. COVID-19 status should be assessed as soon as possible. Moreover, considerably lower rates of hospitalization for ACS have been reported all over the world, due to patients' hesitations to refer to hospital and to missed diagnosis. As a result, short- and long-term complications of myocardial infarction are expected in the near future; therefore, great efforts of healthcare providers will be required to limit the effects of this issue. In the present review we discuss the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ACS diagnosis and management, with possible incoming consequences, providing an overview of the available evidence and suggesting future changes in social and clinical approach to ACS.

15.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(1): 19-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-882793

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound imaging of the lung (LUS) and associated tissues has demonstrated clinical utility in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibilities of a portable pocket-sized ultrasound scanner in the evaluation of lung involvement in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. We conducted 437 paired readings in 34 LUS evaluations of hospitalized individuals with COVID-19. The LUS scans were performed on the same day with a standard high-end ultrasound scanner (Venue GO, GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA) and a pocket-sized ultrasound scanner (Butterfly iQ, Butterfly Network Inc., Guilford, CT, USA). Fourteen scans were performed on individuals with severe cases, 11 on individuals with moderate cases and nine on individuals with mild cases. No difference was observed between groups in days since onset of symptoms (23.29 ± 10.07, 22.91 ± 8.91 and 28.56 ± 11.13 d, respectively; p = 0.38). No significant differences were found between LUS scores obtained with the high-end and the portable pocket-sized ultrasound scanner. LUS scores in individuals with mild respiratory impairment were significantly lower than in those with moderate and severe cases. Our study confirms the possibilities of portable pocket-sized ultrasound imaging of the lung in COVID-19 patients. Portable pocket-sized ultrasound scanners are cheap, easy to handle and equivalent to standard scanners for non-invasive assessment of severity and dynamic observation of lung lesions in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Ultrasonography/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Postgrad Med ; 133(5): 540-543, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872805

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly spread all over the globe from China. Pleural involvement is not common; around 5-10% of patients can develop pleural effusion and little is known about the involvement of pleural structures in this new infection.A 61-year-old male kidney transplant patient with a history of multiple biopsy-confirmed acute rejections and chronic allograft rejection was admitted to our COVID-19 Unit with dry cough, exertional dyspnea, oliguria, and abdominal distension. Lung ultrasound imaging, chest X-ray, and CT scan showed left pleural effusion and atelectasis of the neighboring lung parenchyma. RT-PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the pleural fluid and cytology showed mesothelial cells with large and multiple nuclei, consistent with a cytopathic effect of the virus.This is one of few reports describing detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the pleural fluid and to the best of our knowledge, is the first to document the simultaneous presence of a direct cytopathic effect of the virus on mesothelial cells in a kidney transplant patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. The pleura proved to be a site of viral replication where signs of a direct pathological effect of the virus on cells can be observed, as we report here. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 should be part of routine examination of pleural effusion even in patients with mild respiratory symptoms or with comorbidities that seem to explain the cause of effusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 466, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732891

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is causing millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Cumulative clinical and laboratory evidence suggest that a subset of patients with severe COVID-19 may develop a cytokine storm syndrome during the course of the disease, with severe respiratory impairment requiring ventilatory support. One field of research nowadays is to identify and treat viral-induced hyperinflammation with drugs used in other clinical conditions characterized by an hyperinflammation status. These drugs might help to reduce COVID19 mortality. Methods: Ruxolitinib, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, has been successfully used to treat severe immune-mediated diseases, such as graft vs. host disease and Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We used ruxolitinib in 18 patients with clinically progressive COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a primary endpoint to rapidly reduce the degree of respiratory impairment and as a secondary endpoint to rapidly restore the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, as an evaluation of clinical status, and monitoring of drug related Adverse Events. Parameters of inflammation responses and organ functions were assessed and monitored. The treatment plan was ruxolitinib 20 mg bid for the first 48 h and subsequent two-step de-escalation at 10 mg bid and 5 mg bid for a maximum of 14 days of treatment. Results: Our data collection shows a rapid clinical response with no evolution from non-invasive ventilation to mechanical ventilation in 16/18 patients and no response in two patients (overall response rate-ORR 89%). Already after 48 h of ruxolitinib treatment 16/18 patients showed evident clinical improvement, and after 7 days of treatment 11/18 patients showed fully recovered respiratory function (pO2 > 98% in spontaneous breathing), 4/18 patients had minimal oxygen requirement (2-4 L/m), 1/18 patient showed stable disease, and 2/18 patient showed progressive disease. After 14 days, 16/18 patients showed complete recovery of respiratory function (ORR 89%). Compliance to ruxolitinib planned treatment was 100% and no serious adverse event was recorded. In our case series of 18 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of ruxolitinib resulted in a clinical improvement that concurred to modify the standard course of disease. Ruxolitinib can be a therapeutic option for patients with respiratory insufficiency in COVID-19 related ARDS. RESPIRE Study (Ruxolitinib for the treatment of acute rESPIratory distREss syndrome, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04361903).

18.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G233-G238, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732037

ABSTRACT

Infections by SARS CoV2 - COVID-19 became in a short time a worldwide health emergency. The present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic induced in a short time, an unprecedented impact on public health and on the pre-existing care pathways. In order to appropriately address this epidemiological emergency, urgent solutions were needed, such as remodelling or stopping hospitalization and deferrable clinical activities to avoid spreading the SARS-CoV-2 infection. After the first emergency lockdown phase, care pathways must guarantee healthcare to patients and preserve the safety of the healthcare personnel and of all the other subjects that refer to the cardiological surgeries. Rigorous prescriptive appropriateness of the requested exams with consequent reduction of unnecessary examinations is an essential requirement to preserve prioritized diagnostic and care pathways to patients in need, minimizing the risks connected to the SARS-CoV-2 contagion in hospitals. Telemedicine services represent a valid answer to cardiovascular disease patients’ need for care and assistance, including those in quarantine and voluntary isolation. These services successfully contribute to fight the spread of the virus guaranteeing at the same time therapy and support through remote services that must therefore be considered a resource to be implemented and enhanced. This document has to be used by the healthcare personnel working in hospitals and in district offices, if applicable, and aims at managing patients, in complete safety and considered not suspect/not probable (‘not at risk’) of SARS-CoV-2 infection, eligible for diagnostic activity and subsequent therapy in outpatient surgeries. In particular, this document provides indications for patient evaluation to prevent COVID-19 exposure, gives general indications on managing appointments and waiting rooms, on how to strictly adhere to environmental safety measures, on the proper use of Individual Protective Equipment (IPE). It also provides specific indications for outpatient service procedures, like electrocardiogram, cardiologic examination, cardiologic checkup, Dynamic Holter Electrocardiogram, Transthoracic Echocardiography, Echo Stress, Transoesophageal Echocardiography, Bike Ergometer stress test, Ergospirometry, Outpatient Checkup of implantable electronic cardiac devices.

19.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G211-G216, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732033

ABSTRACT

The aim of this document is the management and organization of patients in need of urgent access to electrophysiology (EP) and pacing procedures during the COVID-19 emergency. Specifically, non-deferrable procedures or irreplaceable with a drug therapy prior to the resolution of the COVID-19 virus emergency [pacemaker (PM) implant/replacement/urgent defibrillator (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, ICD) or arrhythmic storm or other indication of non-deferrable ablation]. The pacing and electrophysiological procedures urgent as they may be, less and less frequently represent situations of emergency, therefore for almost all cases, it is possible to perform a swab test to determine the positivity to COVID-19 of the patient. In cases where this is not possible, due to situations of emergency, the recommendations and procedures we have indicated are advisable, if not mandatory, in order to avoid the spreading of the virus to healthcare personnel and other patients.

20.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1145): 180-184, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725512

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), has been rapidly escalating, becoming a relevant threat to global health. Being a recent virus outbreak, there are still no available therapeutic regimens that have been approved in large randomised trials and so patients are currently being treated with multiple drugs. This raises concerns regarding drug interaction and their implication in arrhythmic burden. In fact, two of the actually used drugs against SARS-CoV2, such as chloroquine and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir, might determine a QT (the time from the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave) interval prolongation and they show several interactions with antiarrhythmic drugs and antipsychotic medications, making them prone to an increased risk of developing arrhythmias. This brief review focuses the attention on the most relevant drug interactions involving the currently used COVID-19 medications and their possible association with cardiac rhythm disorders, taking into account also pre-existing condition and precipitating factors that might additionally increase this risk. Furthermore, based on the available evidence and based on the knowledge of drug interaction, we propose a quick and simple algorithm that might help both cardiologists and non-cardiologists in the management of the arrhythmic risk before and during the treatment with the specific drugs used against SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hypoxia , Inflammation , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Myocarditis , Myocardium , Precipitating Factors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance
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