Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e138, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960187

ABSTRACT

We aimed to descriptively analyse the possible impact of the national COVID-19 interventions on the incidence of common infectious diseases in Denmark during spring and summer 2020. This observational study focused on national register data on infections caused by 16 different bacterial and viral pathogens. We included new cases registered between 1 January 2016 and 31 July 2020. The weekly number of new cases were analysed with respect to the COVID-19-related interventions introduced during 2020. We found a marked decrease in infections associated with droplet transmission coinciding with the COVID-19 interventions in spring and summer 2020. These included decreases in both viral and bacterial airway infections and also decreases in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. There was also a reduction in cases associated with foodborne transmission during the COVID-19 lockdown period. We found no effect of the lockdown on infections by invasive beta-haemolytic streptococci group B, C and G, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Clostridioides difficile. In conclusion, we found that the widespread interventions such as physical distancing, less travel, hygiene measures and lockdown of schools, restaurants and workplaces together coincided with a marked decline in respiratory infections and, to a smaller extent, some foodborne-transmitted infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Staphylococcal Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 8(1): 87, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-dose influenza vaccines provide better protection against influenza infection than standard-dose in persons aged 65 years and above; however, in most countries, high-dose vaccines are not widely implemented. Assessing the relative effectiveness of high-dose compared to standard-dose vaccines on hospitalizations and mortality would enable more robust public health and cost-effectiveness estimates. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic randomized clinical trial in Denmark comparing high-dose to standard-dose vaccines utilizing existing vaccination infrastructure and the Danish nationwide health registries for data collection. METHODS: The DANFLU-1 trial (NCT05048589) is a pragmatic, open-label, active-controlled randomized trial randomizing Danish citizens aged 65-79 years to either high-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine or standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine. The study utilizes the infrastructure of a private vaccination provider (Danske Lægers Vaccinations Service) for recruitment, inclusion, randomization, and vaccination. All collection of baseline and follow-up data including safety monitoring is performed centrally by the Department of Cardiology at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark using the Danish nationwide health registries. The study aims to include 40,000 participants during the 2021/2022 influenza season. The primary endpoints address feasibility and include the number of participants enrolled, randomization balance, and representativeness compared to the Danish general population. Relative vaccine effectiveness will also be assessed, however, this feasibility study is not powered for clinical outcomes and may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: The DANFLU-1 study is investigating the feasibility of conducting a large-scale pragmatic clinical trial in Denmark utilizing existing infrastructure and the Danish nationwide registries. This will provide valuable insight, especially for potential future fully powered vaccine trials, but also for trials wishing to investigate other interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT05048589 , registered September 17, 2021.

3.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 20: 100452, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914782

ABSTRACT

Background: The level of protection after a SARS-CoV-2 infection against reinfection and COVID-19 disease remains important with much of the world still unvaccinated. Methods: Analysing nationwide, individually referable, Danish register data including RT-PCR-test results, we conducted a cohort study using Cox regression to compare SARS-CoV-2 infection rates before and after a primary infection among still unvaccinated individuals, adjusting for sex, age, comorbidity and residency region. Estimates of protection against infection were calculated as 1 minus the hazard ratio. Estimates of protection against symptomatic infections and infections leading to hospitalisation were also calculated. The prevalence of infections classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic was compared for primary infections and reinfections. The study also assessed protection against each of the main viral variants after a primary infection with an earlier variant by restricting follow-up time to distinct, mutually exclusive periods during which each variant dominated. Findings: Until 1 July 2021 the estimated protection against reinfection was 83.4% (95%CI: 82.2-84.6%); but lower for the 65+ year-olds (72.2%; 95%CI: 53.2-81.0%). Moderately higher estimates were found for protection against symptomatic disease, 88.3% overall (95%CI: 85.9-90.3%). First-time cases who reported no symptoms were more likely to experience a reinfection (odds ratio: 1.48; 95%CI: 1.35-1.62). By autumn 2021, when infections were almost exclusively caused by the Delta variant, the estimated protection following a recent first infection was 91.3% (95%CI: 89.7-92.7%) compared to 71.4% (95%CI: 66.9-75.3%) after a first infection over a year earlier. With Omicron, a first infection with an earlier variant in the past 3-6 months gave an estimated 51.0% (95%CI: 50.1-52.0%) protection, whereas a first infection longer than 12 months earlier provided only 19.0% (95%CI: 17.2-20.5%) protection. Protection by an earlier variant-infection against hospitalisation due to a new infection was estimated at: 86.6% (95%CI: 46.3-96.7%) for Alpha, 97.2% (95%CI: 89.0-99.3%) for Delta, and 69.8% (95%CI: 51.5-81.2%) for the Omicron variant. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 infection offered a high level of sustained protection against reinfection, comparable with that offered by vaccines, but decreased with the introduction of new main virus variants; dramatically so when Omicron appeared. Protection was lower among the elderly but appeared more pronounced following symptomatic compared to asymptomatic infections. The level of estimated protection against serious disease was somewhat higher than that against infection and possibly longer lasting. Decreases in protection against reinfection, seemed primarily to be driven by viral evolution. Funding: None.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337754

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Individuals with a prior severe acute respiratory corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have a moderate to high degree of protection against reinfection, though seemingly less so when the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 started to circulate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, that is, in individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, during periods with different dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants. Methods A nationwide cohort study design including all individuals with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were alive and residing in Denmark between 1 January 2020 and 31 January 2022 were used. Using Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on SARS-CoV-2 infections, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, age, sex, comorbidity, staying at hospital and region of affiliation. The study population included were individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Crude and adjusted estimates of VE against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson and Cox regression models, respectively. The VE estimates were calculated separately for three periods with different dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants (Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617.2), or Omicron (B.1.1.529)) and by time since vaccination using unvaccinated as the reference. Findings The study population comprised of 209,814 individuals infected before or during the Alpha period, 292,978 before or during the Delta period and 245,530 before or during the Omicron period. Of these, 40,281 individuals had completed their primary vaccination series during the Alpha period (19.2%), 190,026 during the Delta period (64.9%) and 158,563 during the Omicron period (64.6%). VE against reinfection following any COVID-19 vaccine type administered in Denmark, peaked at 85% (95% CI: 37% to 97%) at 104 days or more after vaccination during the Alpha period, 88% (95% CI: 81% to 92%) 14-43 days after vaccination during the Delta period and 60% (95% CI: 58% to 62%) 14-43 days after vaccination during the Omicron period. Waning immunity was observed, and was most pronounced during the Omicron period. Interpretation This study shows that, in previously infected individuals, completing a primary vaccination series was associated with a significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection compared with no vaccination for all three variant periods. Even though vaccination seems to protect to a lesser degree against reinfection with the Omicron variant, these findings are of public health relevance as they show that previously infected individuals still benefit from COVID-19 vaccination in all three variant periods.

5.
Pilot and Feasibility Studies ; 8:1-11, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857556

ABSTRACT

Background High-dose influenza vaccines provide better protection against influenza infection than standard-dose in persons aged 65 years and above;however, in most countries, high-dose vaccines are not widely implemented. Assessing the relative effectiveness of high-dose compared to standard-dose vaccines on hospitalizations and mortality would enable more robust public health and cost-effectiveness estimates. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic randomized clinical trial in Denmark comparing high-dose to standard-dose vaccines utilizing existing vaccination infrastructure and the Danish nationwide health registries for data collection. Methods The DANFLU-1 trial (NCT05048589) is a pragmatic, open-label, active-controlled randomized trial randomizing Danish citizens aged 65–79 years to either high-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine or standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine. The study utilizes the infrastructure of a private vaccination provider (Danske Lægers Vaccinations Service) for recruitment, inclusion, randomization, and vaccination. All collection of baseline and follow-up data including safety monitoring is performed centrally by the Department of Cardiology at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark using the Danish nationwide health registries. The study aims to include 40,000 participants during the 2021/2022 influenza season. The primary endpoints address feasibility and include the number of participants enrolled, randomization balance, and representativeness compared to the Danish general population. Relative vaccine effectiveness will also be assessed, however, this feasibility study is not powered for clinical outcomes and may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Discussion The DANFLU-1 study is investigating the feasibility of conducting a large-scale pragmatic clinical trial in Denmark utilizing existing infrastructure and the Danish nationwide registries. This will provide valuable insight, especially for potential future fully powered vaccine trials, but also for trials wishing to investigate other interventions. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT05048589, registered September 17, 2021.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335783

ABSTRACT

Background The continued occurrence of more contagious SARS-CoV-2 variants and waning immunity over time require ongoing re-evaluation of the vaccine effectiveness (VE). This study aimed to estimate the effectiveness in two age groups (12-59 and 60 years or above) of two and three vaccine doses (BNT162b2 mRNA or mRNA-1273 vaccine) by time since vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization in an Alpha, Delta and Omicron dominated period. Methods A Danish nationwide cohort study design was used to estimate VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization with the Alpha, Delta and Omicron variants. Information was obtained from nationwide registries and linked using a unique personal identification number. The study included all residents in Denmark aged 12 years or above (18 years or above for the analysis of three doses) in the Alpha (February 20 to June 15, 2021), Delta (July 4 to November 20, 2021) and Omicron (December 21, 2021 to January 31, 2022) dominated periods. VE estimates including 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models with adjustments for age, sex and geographical region. Vaccination status was included as a time-varying exposure. Findings In the oldest age group, VE against infection after two doses was 91.0% (95% CI: 88.5;92.9) for the Alpha variant, 82.2% (95% CI: 75.3;87.1) for the Delta variant and 39.9% (95% CI: 26.4;50.9) for the Omicron variant 14-30 days since vaccination. The VE waned over time and was 71.5% (95% CI: 54.7;82.8), 49.8% (95% CI: 46.5;52.8) and 4.7% (95% CI: 0.2;8.9) >120 days since vaccination against the three variants, respectively. Higher estimates were observed after the third dose with VE estimates against infection of 86.0% (Delta, 95% CI: 83.3;88.3) and 57.6% (Omicron, 95% CI: 55.8;59.4) 14-30 days since vaccination. Among both age groups, VE against COVID-19-related hospitalization 14-30 days since vaccination with two or three doses was 94.8% or above for the Alpha and Delta variants, whereas among the youngest age group, VE estimates against the Omicron variant after two and three doses were 62.4% (95% CI: 46.3;73.6) and 89.8% (95% CI: 87.9;91.3), respectively. Conclusions Two vaccine doses provided high protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization with the Alpha and Delta variants with protection waning over time. Two vaccine doses provided only limited protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization with the Omicron variant. The third vaccine dose substantially increased the protection against Delta and Omicron.

7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(7): 967-976, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates of the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant (B.1.1.529) are crucial to assess the public health impact associated with its rapid global dissemination. We estimated the risk of SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations after infection with omicron compared with the delta variant (B.1.617.2) in Denmark, a country with high mRNA vaccination coverage and extensive free-of-charge PCR testing capacity. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we included all RT-PCR-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Denmark, with samples taken between Nov 21 (date of first omicron-positive sample) and Dec 19, 2021. Individuals were identified in the national COVID-19 surveillance system database, which included results of a variant-specific RT-PCR that detected omicron cases, and data on SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations (primary outcome of the study). We calculated the risk ratio (RR) of hospitalisation after infection with omicron compared with delta, overall and stratified by vaccination status, in a Poisson regression model with robust SEs, adjusted a priori for reinfection status, sex, age, region, comorbidities, and time period. FINDINGS: Between Nov 21 and Dec 19, 2021, among the 188 980 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 38 669 (20·5%) had the omicron variant. SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations and omicron cases increased during the study period. Overall, 124 313 (65·8%) of 188 980 individuals were vaccinated, and vaccination was associated with a lower risk of hospitalisation (adjusted RR 0·24, 95% CI 0·22-0·26) compared with cases with no doses or only one dose of vaccine. Compared with delta infection, omicron infection was associated with an adjusted RR of hospitalisation of 0·64 (95% CI 0·56-0·75; 222 [0·6%] of 38 669 omicron cases admitted to hospital vs 2213 [1·5%] of 150 311 delta cases). For a similar comparison by vaccination status, the RR of hospitalisation was 0·57 (0·44-0·75) among cases with no or only one dose of vaccine, 0·71 (0·60-0·86) among those who received two doses, and 0·50 (0·32-0·76) among those who received three doses. INTERPRETATION: We found a significantly lower risk of hospitalisation with omicron infection compared with delta infection among both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, suggesting an inherent reduced severity of omicron. Our results could guide modelling of the effect of the ongoing global omicron wave and thus health-care system preparedness. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331448

ABSTRACT

Limited evidence exists on the level and longevity of protection afforded by current COVID-19 vaccines against infection and hospitalisation with the Omicron variant. SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing rates in Denmark are exceptionally high. In this nationwide cohort analysis, from December 28, 2021 to February 15, 2022 during which Omicron was the predominant variant, PCR testing data are combined with other national register data with near-complete information on all vaccinations, hospitalisations and comorbidities in the population. Trends over time in vaccine effectiveness after two and three doses with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) are estimated using Cox regression. Despite relatively poor protection against infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic), vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-associated hospitalisation was high after the third dose declining from 88.8% (95% CI: 87.3 to 90.1%) to 79.0% (76.5 to 81.3%) for BNT162b2 and 90.2% (87.3 to 92.5%) to 83.6% (77.7 to 88.0%) for mRNA-1273 over the first four months after vaccination.

9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e123, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758079

ABSTRACT

Denmark hosted four games during the 2020 UEFA European championships (EC2020). After declining positive SARS-CoV-2 test rates in Denmark, a rise occurred during and after the tournament, concomitant with the replacement of the dominant Alpha lineage (B.1.1.7) by the Delta lineage (B.1.617.2), increasing vaccination rates and cessation of several restrictions. A cohort study including 33 227 cases was conducted from 30 May to 25 July 2021, 14 days before and after the EC2020. Included was a nested cohort with event information from big-screen events and matches at the Danish national stadium, Parken (DNSP) in Copenhagen, held from 12 June to 28 June 2021. Information from whole-genome sequencing, contact tracing and Danish registries was collected. Case-case connections were used to establish transmission trees. Cases infected on match days were compared to cases not infected on match days as a reference. The crude incidence rate ratio (IRR) of transmissions was 1.55, corresponding to 584 (1.76%) cases attributable to EC2020 celebrations. The IRR adjusted for covariates was lower (IRR 1.41) but still significant, and also pointed to a reduced number of transmissions from fully vaccinated cases (IRR 0.59). These data support the hypothesis that the EC2020 celebrations contributed to the rise of cases in Denmark in the early summer of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans
10.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330604

ABSTRACT

Background: The level of protection after a SARS-CoV-2 infection against reinfection and COVID-19 disease remains important with much of the world still unvaccinated. Methods: Analysing nationwide, individually referable, Danish register data including RT-PCR-test results, we conducted a cohort study using Cox regression to compare SARS-CoV-2 infection rates before and after a primary infection among still unvaccinated individuals, adjusting for sex, age and residency region. The prevalence of infections classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic was compared for primary infections and reinfections. The study also assessed protection against each of the main viral variants after an earlier variant primary infection by restricting follow-up time to distinct, mutually exclusive periods during which each variant dominated. Findings: Until 1 July 2021 the estimated protection against reinfection was 83.5% (95%CI: 82.2%–84.6%);but lower for the 65+ year-olds (72.0%;95%CI: 56.1%–82.2%). First-time cases who reported no symptoms were more likely to experience a reinfection (OR: 1.48;95%CI: 1.36–1.62). By autumn 2021, when infections were almost exclusively by the Delta variant, the estimated protection of a recent infection was 91.3% (95%CI: 89.7%–92.7%) compared to 71.3% (95%CI: 66.8%–75.2%) after a first infection over a year earlier. With Omicron, a first infection in the past 3-6 months gave an estimated 43.1% (95%CI: 41.6%-44.4%) protection, whereas a first infection longer than 12 months earlier provided only 14.6% (12.7-16.4%) protection. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 infection offered a high level of sustained protection against reinfection, comparable with that offered by vaccines, but decreased with the introduction of new main virus variants;dramatically so when Omicron appeared. Protection was lower among the elderly but appeared more pronounced following symptomatic compared to asymptomatic infections. Decreases in protection against reinfection, seemed primarily to be driven by viral evolution.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines are implemented worldwide in efforts to curb the pandemic. This study investigates the risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test following BNT162b2 vaccination in a large real-life population in Denmark. METHODS: Vaccination status and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results from adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=1,549,488) were obtained from national registries. PCR testing was free and widely available. The number of positive PCR tests per individual at risk were calculated as weekly rates. Time to positive PCR test was modelled using Kaplan-Meier methods and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox regression. RESULTS: 1,119,574 individuals received first dose of BNT162b2 and 1,088,879 received a second dose of BNT162b2. Individuals were followed up to 8.7 months after first dose (median: 5.5 months, IQR:4.1-8.7). Rates of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection two to four months after the second dose were 0.21, 0.33 and 0.36 per 1000 individuals per week at risk for July, August and September, respectively. Four or more months after the second dose, the rates were 0.56, 0.76 and 0.53 per 1000 individuals per week at risk for July, August and September, respectively. HR of SARS-CoV-2 infection after the second dose was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.05-0.48, p=0.001) for individuals with eight months follow-up. CONCLUSION: Individuals who received two doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine had a low risk of breakthrough-infection after up to 8 months of follow-up. However, there was a tendency towards higher rates with longer follow-up.

12.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003874, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recommendations in several countries to stop using the ChAdOx1 vaccine has led to vaccine programs combining different Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine types, which necessitates knowledge on vaccine effectiveness (VE) of heterologous vaccine schedules. The aim of this Danish nationwide population-based cohort study was therefore to estimate the VE against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization and death following the first dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine and the combination of the ChAdOx1/mRNA vaccines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All individuals alive in or immigrating to Denmark from 9 February 2021 to 23 June 2021 were identified in the Danish Civil Registration System. Information on exposure, outcomes, and covariates was obtained from Danish national registries. Poisson and Cox regression models were used to calculate crude and adjusted VE, respectively, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization or death comparing vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals. The VE estimates were adjusted for calendar time as underlying time and for sex, age, comorbidity, country of origin, and hospital admission. The analyses included 5,542,079 individuals (97.6% of the total Danish population). A total of 144,360 individuals were vaccinated with the ChAdOx1 vaccine as the first dose, and of these, 136,551 individuals received an mRNA vaccine as the second dose. A total of 1,691,464 person-years and 83,034 SARS-CoV-2 infections were included. The individuals vaccinated with the first dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine dose had a median age of 45 years. The study population was characterized by an equal distribution of males and females; 6.7% and 9.2% originated from high-income and other countries, respectively. The VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection when combining the ChAdOx1 and an mRNA vaccine was 88% (95% CI: 83; 92) 14 days after the second dose and onwards. There were no COVID-19-related hospitalizations or deaths among the individuals vaccinated with the combined vaccine schedule during the study period. Study limitations including unmeasured confounders such as risk behavior and increasing overall vaccine coverage in the general population creating herd immunity are important to take into consideration when interpreting the results. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a large reduction in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection when combining the ChAdOx1 and an mRNA vaccine, compared with unvaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Comorbidity , Denmark , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295541

ABSTRACT

Background At the end of 2020, Denmark launched an immunization program against SARS-CoV-2. The Danish health authorities prioritized persons currently living in long-term care facilities (LTCF residents) and frontline healthcare workers (HCW) as the first receivers of vaccination. Here we present preliminary population based vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates in these two target groups. Methods The study was designed as a retrospective registry- and population-based observational cohort study including all LTCF residents and all HWC. The outcome was a polymerase chain reaction confirmed SARS-CoV-2, and VE was estimated for different periods following first and second dose. We used Poisson and Cox regressions to estimate respectively crude and calendar time-adjusted VE for the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vaccinated versus unvaccinated. Results A total of 39,040 LTCF residents (median age at first dose;84 years, Interquartile range (IQR): 77-90) and 331,039 HCW (median age at first dose;47 years, IQR: 36-57) were included. Among LTCF residents, 95.2% and 86.0% received first and second dose from 27 December 2020 until 18 February 2021, for HWC the proportion was 27.8% and 24.4%. During a median follow-up of 53 days, there were 488 and 5,663 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases in the unvaccinated groups, whereas there were 57 and 52 in LTCF residents and HCW within the first 7 days after the second dose and 27 and 10 cases beyond seven days of second dose. No protective effect was observed for LTCF residents after first dose. In HCW, VE was 17% (95% CI;4-28) in the > 14 days after first dose (before second dose). Furthermore, the VE in LTCF residents at day 0-7 of second dose was 52% (95% CI;27-69) and 46% (95% CI;28-59) in HCW. Beyond seven days of second dose, VE increased to 64% (95% CI;14-84) and 90% (95% CI;82-95) in the two groups, respectively. Conclusion The results were promising regarding the VE both within and beyond seven days of second vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine currently used in many countries to help mitigate the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Impact of the research So far, observational studies of the real-word effectiveness of the mRNA Vaccine BNT162b2 has been limited to the period after the administration of the first dose. This is the first report to date to present vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates after the second BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. We estimated a VE of 52% and 46% in LTCF residents and HCW within seven days, which increased to 64% and 90% in the two groups respectively beyond seven days of immunization. These findings supports maintaining a two-dose schedule of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL