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Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 1421-1431, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013254


PURPOSE: Although the decision of which ventilation strategy to adopt in COVID-19 patients is crucial, yet the most appropriate means of carrying out this undertaking is not supported by strong evidence. We therefore described the organization of a province-level healthcare system during the occurrence of the COVID-19 epidemic and the 60-day outcomes of the hospitalized COVID-19 patients according to the respiratory strategy adopted given the limited available resources. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All COVID-19 patients (26/02/2020-18/04/2020) in the Rimini Province of Italy were included in this population-based cohort study. The hospitalized patients were classified according to the maximum level of respiratory support: oxygen supplementation (Oxygen group), non-invasive ventilation (NIV-only group), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV-only group), and IMV after an NIV trial (IMV-after-NIV group). Sixty-day mortality risk was estimated with a Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted by age, sex, and administration of steroids, canakinumab, and tocilizumab. RESULTS: We identified a total of 1,424 symptomatic patients: 520 (36.5%) were hospitalized, while 904 (63.5%) were treated at home with no 60-day deaths. Based on the respiratory support, 408 (78.5%) were assigned to the Oxygen group, 46 (8.8%) to the NIV-only group, 25 (4.8%) to the IMV-after-NIV group, and 41 (7.9%) to the IMV-only group. There was no significant difference in the PaO2/FiO2 at IMV inception in the IMV-after-NIV and IMV-only groups (p=0.9). Overall 60-day mortality was 24.2% (Oxygen: 23.0%; NIV-only: 19.6%; IMV-after-NIV: 32.0%; IMV-only: 36.6%; p=0.165). Compared with the Oxygen group, the adjusted 60-day mortality risk significantly increased in the IMV-after-NIV (HR 2.776; p=0.024) and IMV-only groups (HR 2.966; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: This study provided a population-based estimate of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in a severely affected Italian province. A similar 60-day mortality risk was found for patients undergoing immediate IMV and those intubated after an NIV trial with favorable outcomes after prolonged IMV.

Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21775, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975029


There is the urgent need to study the effects of immunomodulating agents as therapy for Covid-19. An observational, cohort, prospective study with 30 days of observation was carried out to assess clinical outcomes in 88 patients hospitalized for Covid-19 pneumonia and treated with canakinumab (300 mg sc). Median time from diagnosis of Covid-19 by viral swab to administration of canakinumab was 7.5 days (range 0-30, IQR 4-11). Median PaO2/FiO2 increased from 160 (range 53-409, IQR 122-210) at baseline to 237 (range 72-533, IQR 158-331) at day 7 after treatment with canakinumab (p < 0.0001). Improvement of oxygen support category was observed in 61.4% of cases. Median duration of hospitalization following administration of canakinumab was 6 days (range 0-30, IQR 4-11). At 7 days, 58% of patients had been discharged and 12 (13.6%) had died. Significant differences between baseline and 7 days were observed for absolute lymphocyte counts (mean 0.60 vs 1.11 × 109/L, respectively, p < 0.0001) and C-reactive protein (mean 31.5 vs 5.8 mg/L, respectively, p < 0.0001).Overall survival at 1 month was 79.5% (95% CI 68.7-90.3). Oxygen-support requirements improved and overall mortality was 13.6%. Confirmation of the efficacy of canakinumab for Covid-19 warrants further study in randomized controlled trials.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 105-111, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-861317


OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of corticosteroids in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A multicentre observational study was performed from 22 February through 30 June 2020. We included consecutive adult patients with severe COVID-19, defined as respiratory rate ≥30 breath per minute, oxygen saturation ≤93% on ambient air or arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ≤300 mm Hg. We excluded patients being treated with other immunomodulant drugs, receiving low-dose corticosteroids and receiving corticosteroids 72 hours after admission. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality from hospital admission. The main exposure variable was corticosteroid therapy at a dose of ≥0.5 mg/kg of prednisone equivalents. It was introduced as binomial covariate in a logistic regression model for the primary endpoint and inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score. RESULTS: Of 1717 patients with COVID-19 evaluated, 513 were included in the study, and of these, 170 (33%) were treated with corticosteroids. During hospitalization, 166 patients (34%) met the criteria of the primary outcome (60/170, 35% in the corticosteroid group and 106/343, 31% in the noncorticosteroid group). At multivariable analysis corticosteroid treatment was not associated with lower 30-day mortality rate (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-1.74; p 0.33). After inverse probability of treatment weighting, corticosteroids were not associated with lower 30-day mortality (average treatment effect, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.09; p 0.12). However, subgroup analysis revealed that in patients with PO2/FiO2 < 200 mm Hg at admission (135 patients, 52 (38%) treated with corticosteroids), corticosteroid treatment was associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality (23/52, 44% vs. 45/83, 54%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.90; p 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of corticosteroid treatment on mortality might be limited to critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome