Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742515

ABSTRACT

There is scarce information on the actual incidence of candidemia in COVID-19 patients. In addition, comparative studies of candidemia episodes in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients are heterogeneous. Here, we assessed the real incidence, epidemiology, and etiology of candidemia in COVID-19 patients, and compared them with those without COVID-19 (2020 vs. 2019 and 2020, respectively). We also genotyped all C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis isolates (n = 88), causing candidemia in both groups, providing for the first time a genotypic characterization of isolates gathered in patients with either COVID-19 or non-COVID-19. Incidence of candidemia was higher in patients with COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 (4.73 vs. 0.85 per 1000 admissions; 3.22 vs. 1.14 per 10,000 days of stay). No substantial intergroup differences were found, including mortality. Genotyping proved the presence of a low number of patients involved in clusters, allowing us to rule out rampant patient-to-patient Candida transmission. The four patients, involved in two clusters, had catheter-related candidemia diagnosed in the first COVID-19 wave, which demonstrates breaches in catheter management policies occurring in such an overwhelming situation. In conclusion, the incidence of candidemia in patients with COVID-19 is significantly higher than in those without COVID-19. However, genotyping shows that this increase is not due to uncontrolled intrahospital transmission.

2.
Mycoses ; 65(3): 362-373, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of Aspergillus Endocarditis (AE) in a nationwide multicentric cohort (GAMES). (2) To compare the AE cases of the GAMES cohort, with the AE cases reported in the literature since 2010. (3) To identify variables related to mortality. METHODS: We recruited 10 AE cases included in the GAMES cohort (January 2008-December 2018) and 51 cases from the literature published from January 2010 to July 2019. RESULTS: 4528 patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) were included in the GAMES cohort, of them 10 (0.2%) were AE. After comparing our 10 cases with the 51 of the literature, no differences were found. Analysing the 61 AE cases together, 55.7% were male, median age 45 years. Their main underlying conditions were as follows: prosthetic valve surgery (34.4%) and solid organ transplant (SOT) (19.7%). Mainly affecting mitral (36.1%) and aortic valve (29.5%). Main isolated species were as follows: Aspergillus fumigatus (47.5%) and Aspergillus flavus (24.6%). Embolisms occurred in 54%. Patients were treated with antifungals (90.2%), heart surgery (85.2%) or both (78.7%). Overall, 52.5% died. A greater mortality was observed in immunosuppressed patients (59.4% vs. 24.1%, OR = 4.09, 95%CI = 1.26-13.19, p = .02), and lower mortality was associated with undergoing cardiac surgery plus azole therapy (28.1% vs. 65.5%, OR = 0.22, 95%CI = 0.07-0.72, p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: AE accounts for 0.2% of all IE episodes of a national multicentric cohort, mainly affecting patients with previous valvular surgery or SOT recipients. Mortality remains high especially in immunosuppressed hosts and azole-based treatment combined with surgical resection are related to a better outcome.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Endocarditis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Endocarditis/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318972

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks in the first COVID-19 wave were likely associated to a shortage of personal protective equipment and scare indications on control measures. Having covered these limitations, updates on current SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks are required. We carried out an in-depth analysis of a 27-day nosocomial outbreak in a gastroenterology ward in our hospital, potentially involving 15 patients and three healthcare workers. Patients had stayed in one of three neighbouring rooms in the ward. The severity of the infections in six of the cases and a high fatality rate suggested the possible involvement of a single virulent strain persisting in those rooms. Whole genome sequencing of the strains from 12 patients and one healthcare worker revealed an unexpected complexity. Five different SARS-CoV-2 strains were identified, two infecting a single patient each, ruling out their relationship with the outbreak;the remaining three strains were involved in three independent overlapping limited transmission clusters with three, three, and five cases. Whole genome sequencing was key to understand the complexity of this outbreak.

4.
Liver Transpl ; 28(6): 1039-1050, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630731

ABSTRACT

Long-term humoral immunity and its protective role in liver transplantation (LT) patients have not been elucidated. We performed a prospective multicenter study to assess the persistence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in LT recipients 12 months after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 65 LT recipients were matched with 65 nontransplanted patients by a propensity score including variables with recognized impact on COVID-19. LT recipients showed a lower prevalence of anti-nucleocapsid (27.7% versus 49.2%; P = 0.02) and anti-spike IgG antibodies (88.2% versus 100.0%; P = 0.02) at 12 months. Lower index values of anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies were also observed in transplantation patients 1 year after COVID-19 (median, 0.49 [interquartile range, 0.15-1.40] versus 1.36 [interquartile range, 0.53-2.91]; P < 0.001). Vaccinated LT recipients showed higher antibody levels compared with unvaccinated patients (P < 0.001); antibody levels reached after vaccination were comparable to those observed in nontransplanted individuals (P = 0.70). In LT patients, a longer interval since transplantation (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.20) was independently associated with persistence of anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies 1 year after infection. In conclusion, compared with nontransplanted patients, LT recipients show a lower long-term persistence of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. However, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination after COVID-19 in LT patients achieves a significant increase in antibody levels, comparable to that of nontransplanted patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Liver Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0168921, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630019

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study evaluated the IMMY Aspergillus Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) with automated reader for diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between 03/2020 and 04/2021. A total of 196 respiratory samples and 148 serum samples (n = 344) from 238 patients were retrospectively included, with a maximum of one of each sample type per patient. Cases were retrospectively classified for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) status following the 2020 consensus criteria, with the exclusion of LFA results as a mycological criterion. At the 1.0 cutoff, sensitivity of LFA for CAPA (proven/probable/possible) was 52%, 80% and 81%, and specificity was 98%, 88% and 67%, for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), nondirected bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL), and tracheal aspiration (TA), respectively. At the 0.5 manufacturer's cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, 90% and 100%, and specificity was 79%, 83% and 44%, for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. When combining all respiratory samples, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.823, versus 0.754, 0.890 and 0.814 for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of serum LFA were 20% and 93%, respectively, at the 0.5 ODI cutoff. Overall, the Aspergillus Galactomannan LFA showed good performances for CAPA diagnosis, when used from respiratory samples at the 1.0 cutoff, while sensitivity from serum was limited, linked to weak invasiveness during CAPA. As some false-positive results can occur, isolated results slightly above the recommended cutoff should lead to further mycological investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 580-587, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has emerged as a complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The objectives of this multinational study were to determine the prevalence of CAPA in patients with COVID-19 in intensive care units (ICU) and to investigate risk factors for CAPA as well as outcome. METHODS: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) conducted a multinational study including 20 centres from nine countries to assess epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of CAPA. CAPA was defined according to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus definitions. RESULTS: A total of 592 patients were included in this study, including 11 (1.9%) patients with histologically proven CAPA, 80 (13.5%) with probable CAPA, 18 (3%) with possible CAPA and 483 (81.6%) without CAPA. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 8 days (range 0-31 days) after ICU admission predominantly in older patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) with any form of invasive respiratory support (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.84-6.25) and receiving tocilizumab (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.41-4.25). Median prevalence of CAPA per centre was 10.7% (range 1.7%-26.8%). CAPA was associated with significantly lower 90-day ICU survival rate (29% in patients with CAPA versus 57% in patients without CAPA; Mantel-Byar p < 0.001) and remained an independent negative prognostic variable after adjusting for other predictors of survival (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.87, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CAPA varied between centres. CAPA was significantly more prevalent among older patients, patients receiving invasive ventilation and patients receiving tocilizumab, and was an independent strong predictor of ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Mycology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0038921, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341306

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks in the first COVID-19 wave were likely associated with a shortage of personal protective equipment and scarce indications on control measures. Having covered these limitations, updates on current SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks are required. We carried out an in-depth analysis of a 27-day nosocomial outbreak in a gastroenterology ward in our hospital, potentially involving 15 patients and 3 health care workers. Patients had stayed in one of three neighboring rooms in the ward. The severity of the infections in six of the cases and a high fatality rate made the clinicians suspect the possible involvement of a single virulent strain persisting in those rooms. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the strains from 12 patients and 1 health care worker revealed an unexpected complexity. Five different SARS-CoV-2 strains were identified, two infecting a single patient each, ruling out their relationship with the outbreak; the remaining three strains were involved in three independent, overlapping, limited transmission clusters with three, three, and five cases. Whole-genome sequencing was key to understand the complexity of this outbreak. IMPORTANCE We report a complex epidemiological scenario of a nosocomial COVID-19 outbreak in the second wave, based on WGS analysis. Initially, standard epidemiological findings led to the assumption of a homogeneous outbreak caused by a single SARS-CoV-2 strain. The discriminatory power of WGS offered a strikingly different perspective consisting of five introductions of different strains, with only half of them causing secondary cases in three independent overlapping clusters. Our study exemplifies how complex the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the nosocomial setting during the second COVID-19 wave occurred and leads to extending the analysis of outbreaks beyond the initial epidemiological assumptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Young Adult
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 788-792, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262141

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old man (case R) with previous diagnosis of a mild COVID-19 episode was hospitalized 35 days later. On day 23 postadmission, he developed a second COVID-19 episode, now severe, and finally died. Initially, case R's COVID-19 recurrence was interpreted as a reinfection due to the exposure to a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive roommate. However, whole-genome sequencing indicated that case R's recurrence corresponded to a reactivation of the strain involved in his first episode. Case R's reactivation had major consequences, leading to a more severe episode, and causing subsequent transmission to another 2 hospitalized patients, 1 of them with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Reinfection/diagnosis , Reinfection/virology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Recurrence , Reinfection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207638

ABSTRACT

The aim was to analyze the characteristics and predictors of unfavorable outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) with COVID-19. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 210 consecutive SOTRs hospitalized with COVID-19 in 12 Spanish centers from 21 February to 6 May 2020. Data pertaining to demographics, chronic underlying diseases, transplantation features, clinical, therapeutics, and complications were collected. The primary endpoint was a composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and/or death. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with these unfavorable outcomes. Males accounted for 148 (70.5%) patients, the median age was 63 years, and 189 (90.0%) patients had pneumonia. Common symptoms were fever, cough, gastrointestinal disturbances, and dyspnea. The most used antiviral or host-targeted therapies included hydroxychloroquine 193/200 (96.5%), lopinavir/ritonavir 91/200 (45.5%), and tocilizumab 49/200 (24.5%). Thirty-seven (17.6%) patients required ICU admission, 12 (5.7%) suffered graft dysfunction, and 45 (21.4%) died. A shorter interval between transplantation and COVID-19 diagnosis had a negative impact on clinical prognosis. Four baseline features were identified as independent predictors of intensive care need or death: advanced age, high respiratory rate, lymphopenia, and elevated level of lactate dehydrogenase. In summary, this study presents comprehensive information on characteristics and complications of COVID-19 in hospitalized SOTRs and provides indicators available upon hospital admission for the identification of SOTRs at risk of critical disease or death, underlining the need for stringent preventative measures in the early post-transplant period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infections/etiology , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1077-1086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067634

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China at the end of 2019. Because of the severe immunomodulation and lymphocyte depletion caused by this virus and the subsequent administration of drugs directed at the immune system, we anticipated that patients might experience fungal superinfection. We collected data from 186 patients who had coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) worldwide during March-August 2020. Overall, 182 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), including 180 with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 175 who received mechanical ventilation. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 10 days after coronavirus disease diagnosis. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in 80.3% of patient cultures, 4 of which were azole-resistant. Most (52.7%) patients received voriconazole. In total, 52.2% of patients died; of the deaths, 33.0% were attributed to CAPA. We found that the cumulative incidence of CAPA in the ICU ranged from 1.0% to 39.1%.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Incidence , International Cooperation , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Registries , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(2): 249-260, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050071

ABSTRACT

Background: We report the long-term outcomes, changes in laboratory parameters, the incidence of secondary nosocomial infections and treatment cost of a Spanish cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 that received tocilizumab (TCZ).Methods: Retrospective cohort of PCR confirmed adult patients who received TCZ from March 1 to 24, 2020 in a tertiary hospital was analyzed. Patients were followed up until 10 May 2020.Results: We included 162 patients (median age 64 years; 70.4% male). At time of TCZ administration, 48.1% of patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Over a median follow-up of 53 days, 46.9% of patients were discharge in good conditions and 19.8% were still hospitalized. The overall mortality was 33.3%, being higher in patients on IMV than those who did not (46.2% vs 26.7%, P < 0.001). A significant improvement in the lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer was observed. Overall, 43.2% patients presented nosocomial infections, causing death in 8%. Infections were more prevalent in ICU units (63.0% vs 17.1%, P < 0.001). The total cost of TCZ was €371,784.Conclusions: Among the patients who used TCZ, one third died, regardless the improvement in some inflammatory biomarkers. The incidence of secondary nosocomial infections was high.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(2): 106249, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996948

ABSTRACT

Few large series describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes and costs of COVID-19 in Western countries. This cohort reports the first 1255 adult cases receiving anti-COVID-19 treatment at a Spanish hospital (1-24 March 2020). Treatment costs were calculated. A logistic regression model was used to explore risk factors on admission associated with ARDS. A bivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model was employed to determine the HR between individual factors and death. We included 1255 patients (median age 65 years; 57.8% male), of which 92.3% required hospitalisation. The prevalence of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (DM) was 45.1%, 31.4% and 19.9%, respectively. Lymphocytopenia (54.8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (33.0%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (58.5%) were frequent. Overall, 36.7% of patients developed ARDS, 10.0% were admitted to an ICU and 21.3% died. The most frequent antiviral combinations were lopinavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine (44.2%), followed by triple therapy with interferon beta-1b (32.7%). Corticosteroids and tocilizumab were used in 25.3% and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Total cost of anti-COVID-19 agents was €511 825 (€408/patient). By multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with ARDS included older age, obesity, DM, severe hypoxaemia, lymphocytopenia, increased creatine kinase and increased C-reactive protein. In multivariate Cox model, older age (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.09), cardiovascular disease (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.79), DM (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.92), severe hypoxaemia (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.49-2.72), lymphocytopenia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.20-2.20) and increased C-reactive protein (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) were risk factors for mortality.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/economics , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Mycoses ; 64(2): 132-143, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934033

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Information on the recently COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) entity is scarce. We describe eight CAPA patients, compare them to colonised ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and review the published literature from Western countries. METHODS: Prospective study (March to May, 2020) that included all COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital. Modified AspICU and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria were used. RESULTS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in eight patients (3.3% of 239 ICU patients), mostly affected non-immunocompromised patients (75%) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving corticosteroids. Diagnosis was established after a median of 15 days under mechanical ventilation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in two patients with positive Aspergillus fumigatus cultures and galactomannan (GM) index. Serum GM was positive in 4/8 (50%). Thoracic CT scan findings fulfilled EORTC/MSG criteria in one case. Isavuconazole was used in 4/8 cases. CAPA-related mortality was 100% (8/8). Compared with colonised patients, CAPA subjects were administered tocilizumab more often (100% vs. 40%, p = .04), underwent longer courses of antibacterial therapy (13 vs. 5 days, p = .008), and had a higher all-cause mortality (100% vs. 40%, p = .04). We reviewed 96 similar cases from recent publications: 59 probable CAPA (also putative according modified AspICU), 56 putative cases and 13 colonisations according AspICU algorithm; according EORTC/MSG six proven and two probable. Overall, mortality in the reviewed series was 56.3%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis must be considered a serious and potentially life-threatening complication in patients with severe COVID-19 receiving immunosuppressive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL