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1.
Sustainability ; 15(3):2382, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2216853

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and the restrictions necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic have generated problems in nutrition and physical condition around the world. We aimed to determine factors associated with changes in perceived weight and lifestyle factors during the COVID-19 quarantine in Latin America, conducting a cross-sectional study based on a survey administered in more than a dozen countries during June-August 2020. Perceptions of weight changes and alterations in other habits were investigated and were associated with social factors and self-reported diseases. Of 8800 respondents, the majority perceived that they had gained weight and had been less physically active. Being female, living in Bolivia, obesity, and stress were factors associated with a higher perception of weight gain. A higher perception of physical activity was also associated with living in Chile, being of older age, being female, having diabetes, obesity, and stress. When living in Paraguay and Mexico, being female, obesity, anxiety, and stress were associated with a higher perception of unhealthy food consumption. When living in Bolivia, women, obesity, and stress were associated with a higher perception of consuming larger food portions. In conclusion, the perceived changes in weight and lifestyle during the pandemic were more evident in women, people with comorbidities, and those with emotional distress. Differences in the perception of weight changes were minimal among Latin American countries. This information suggests the possible metabolic implications in at-risk individuals that should be further addressed by researchers for timely intervention.

2.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 20(1):519, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166481

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has led us to take preventive measures, such as social isolation, to reduce the high transmissibility of the disease. This could have affected the mental health of various population groups and the development of resilience as a mitigator. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted with 700 participants from eight cities. The dependent variables were depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The independent variable was resilience. Generalized logistic regressions were used to identify the associations between the variables. The population consisted mostly of university students (65.0%);the rest of the population was distributed among workers of public or private institutions, housewives, and others (35.0%). High prevalences of anxiety (72.7%), depression (64.1%), and PTSD (15.1%) were found, as well as a median (interquartile range) resilience score of 24 points was determined. Factors associated with a high prevalence of PTSD were having lost employment and having a family member who died from COVID-19. For depression, associated factors were severe food insecurity and hypersomnia. For anxiety, associated factors were were having a deceased family member with COVID-19 and mild food insecurity. Our results show that, during the pandemic, the general population had a higher prevalence of mental disorders. In addition, anxiety was the most prevalent of the dependent variables. Special attention should be paid to the factors influencing the development of mental disorders and mental health prevention and promotion programs should be established.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 935405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142316

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with computer vision syndrome in medical students at a private university in Paraguay. Methods: A survey study was conducted in 2021 in a sample of 228 medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico, Paraguay. The dependent variable was CVS, measured with the Computer Visual Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q). Its association with covariates (hours of daily use of notebook, smartphone, tablet and PC, taking breaks when using equipment, use of preventive visual measures, use of glasses, etc.) was examined. Results: The mean age was 22.3 years and 71.5% were women. CVS was present in 82.5% of participants. Higher prevalence of CVS was associated with wearing a framed lens (PR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). In contrast, taking a break when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced 7% (PR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) and 6% (PR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99) the prevalence of CVS, respectively. Conclusion: Eight out of 10 students experienced CVS during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of framed lenses increased the presence of CVS, while taking breaks when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced CVS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Students, Medical , Adult , Computers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ergonomics , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Paraguay/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome , Universities , Young Adult
4.
Sustainability ; 14(22):14970, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2110247

ABSTRACT

The current study aims to identify the factors associated with anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at hospital discharge from a Peruvian health center. Patients at discharge from the cardiology hospitalization service between November 2019 and December 2020 were evaluated using a cross-sectional study. The median time elapsed from the ACS event to the interview date was 10 months. A total of 34.1% of the population presented mild depression and 78.8% had mild anxiety. All three of our analyses indicated that patients who had attended university had significantly lower levels of both depression and anxiety, and patients with diabetes had significantly higher levels of anxiety. The lower-low socioeconomic group had 1.5 times the frequency of depression (p-value = 0.002) and 3.12 times the frequency of anxiety (p-value = 0.050). Interestingly, while a good quality of life was associated with lower levels of depression, it was also associated with higher levels of moderate/severe anxiety (p-value = 0.035). A multiple regression analysis found that hypertension was also associated with higher levels of anxiety, and patients who have had COVID-19 had 21.05 times the level of moderate/severe anxiety (p-value = 0.000). Cases of ACS are more frequent in patients with an age greater than or equal to 60 years, as well as in males. Isolation was a common feature that may have a negative impact on their quality of life and mental health.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(22):14785, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2110237

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to provide additional data on mortality from COVID-19 with particular attention to the factors associated with the positivity of patients admitted to the Lambayeque Hospital in Peru. A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out to determine the clinical-epidemiological factors associated with positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in patients treated at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital during the health emergency period in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It was observed that, as the demographic age group increased, the percentage of seropositivity increased, with 66.8% of elderly adults testing positive, compared to 37.4% of children (p < 0.001). More seropositive men than women were evident (61.1% vs. 54.1%;p < 0.001). The most frequent symptom of patients with suspected COVID-19 was cough (65.0%). However, the symptoms with the greatest frequency of seropositive patients were ageusia (78.6%) and fever (77.6%);cough was one of the symptoms with the lowest (63.9%) (p-value < 0.001). The comorbidities with the most seropositive patients were obesity (80.7%) and diabetes mellitus (73.6%) (p-value < 0.001), different from the top comorbidity of heart disease (12.7%) in suspected COVID-19 patients. In terms of disease signs, abnormal findings on MRI (98.11%) and dyspnea (28.7%) were the most common in suspected COVID-19 patients, similar to those in seropositive patients, which were dyspnea (81.4%) and abnormal tomography findings (75.3%) (p-value < 0.001).

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099557

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, university students have adopted measures that completely transformed their educational environment, and this has generated an increase in psychological stress. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with anxiety, depression, and stress in students at a university in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study in students in Lima, Peru. The DASS-21 scale was used to measure levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and associate it with socio-educational and COVID-19-related variables using generalized linear models with Poisson distribution, log link, and robust variance. Of 400 students surveyed, 19.2%, 23.2% and 17.2% of students presented depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The frequency of depression (PR = 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84-0.99), anxiety (PR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.83-0.99) and stress (PR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86-0.99) was lower in women. The students of the engineering and business faculty presented a higher frequency of anxiety (PR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.00-1.22). There was a greater frequency of presenting anxiety, depression and stress in students who worked in a different area of health or did not work. Our results suggest the importance of promoting mental health awareness campaigns in university students due to the constant academic load they have.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Universities , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mental Health , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1962, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting an estimated 260 million people. However, little evidence is available on how pandemic-related characteristics influence food security in a high-altitude population. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with food insecurity in high-altitude Peruvian cities during the second epidemic wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight Peruvian cities over 1,500 m above sea level. An online survey measuring food security, presence of anxiety & depressive symptoms, sleep quality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience, and sociodemographic characteristics was disseminated through social networks between December 2020 and February 2021. Generalized linear models were used to identify an association between the study variables. RESULTS: Of 700 participants, the median age was 23 years, and more than half were female (56.7%). The prevalence of food insecurity was 37.1%. Anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and PTSD were present in 72.7%, 64.1%, and 15% of respondents, respectively. The prevalence of food insecurity was higher in people with fair (PR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.07) and very bad perception of their health (PR: 4.06, 95% CI: 2.63-6.26), individuals seeking mental health support (PR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25-1.62), and in those who lost their job due to the pandemic (PR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.62-2.04). Having moderate (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.26-1.83) and moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.27) also increased the prevalence of food insecurity. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the prevalence of food insecurity has increased in the Peruvian high-altitude population, revealing the need for preventive strategies. Identification of pandemic-related characteristics that influence food insecurity can guide interventions in at-risk individuals and reduce the long-term impact of this problem on overall health and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Peru/epidemiology , Cities , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Altitude , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082301

ABSTRACT

There is scant evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on burnout in front-line military personnel and how working time may influence on this condition. We aimed to determine the association between working time and Burnout syndrome in military personnel. A cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data among 576 military personnel from Lambayeque, Peru during the second wave of COVID-19 in 2021. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory instrument to measure Burnout Syndrome. We evaluated its association with work time, measured as the number of months that the military member worked during the pandemic. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 9%. Of the total sample, 39.1% and 10.3% presented depersonalization and emotional exhaustion, respectively. Military personnel working for more than 18 months had a 104% higher prevalence of Burnout syndrome (PR: 2.04, 95%CI: 1.02-4.10). Exposure to a prolonged work time during the pandemic increased the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in military personnel. This information helps to understand the potential effects of the pandemic on this population and provides insight into the time the military members would need rest to prevent Burnout syndrome.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Military Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082300

ABSTRACT

Military personnel represent a frontline group exposed to multiple stressors. These factors have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, predisposing to the development of suicidal risk (SR). Given the few studies conducted in this population, we evaluated the prevalence of SR and its associated factors during the health emergency. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in person among 514 participants in Lambayeque, Peru in 2021. The outcome was SR, and the exposures were depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), PTSD (PCL-C), and other sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of SR was 14.0% (95% CI: 11.12-17.31%) and was significantly higher in people with a family history of mental health (PR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.13-4.15) and in those with moderate clinical insomnia (PR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.19-4.12). Military personnel with high resilience had a lower prevalence of SR (PR: 0.54, CI: 0.31-0.95). Anxiety was associated with a higher prevalence of SR (PR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.76-6.10). Our findings show that at least 1 out of 10 military personnel are at risk of suicide. Special attention should be paid to the associated factors to develop interventions and reverse their consequences. These results may be useful in policy implementation and general statistics of SR in the local and regional context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Military Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 123: 212-220, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify differences in the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic at the EsSalud Lambayeque health care network, Peru. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study of 53,912 patients enrolled during the first and second waves of COVID-19 was conducted. Cluster analysis based on clustering large applications (CLARA) was applied to clinical-epidemiologic data presented at the time of care. The two pandemic waves were compared using clinical-epidemiologic data from epidemiologic surveillance. RESULTS: Cluster analysis identified four COVID-19 groups with a characteristic pattern. Cluster 1 included the largest number of participants in both waves, and the participants were predominantly female. Cluster 2 included patients with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and systemic symptoms. Cluster 3 was the "severe" cluster, characterized by older adults and patients with dyspnea or comorbidities (cardiovascular, diabetes, obesity). Cluster 4 included asymptomatic, pregnant, and less severe patients. We found differences in all clinical-epidemiologic characteristics according to the cluster to which they belonged. CONCLUSION: Using cluster analysis, we identified characteristic patterns in each group. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, dyspnea, anosmia, and ageusia symptoms were higher in the second COVID-19 wave than the first COVID-19 wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Pregnancy
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066085

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress in university students in Paraguay during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 students from four universities in Paraguay in 2021. The DASS-21 mental health scale was used to measure the outcomes (depression, anxiety, and stress) and evaluate their association with socio-educational variables. A total of 77.1% of the participants were women and 136 (46.4%) were between 21 and 25 years old. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 74.7%, 87.4%, and 57%, respectively. We found that being a woman and studying at a public university was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Receiving COVID-19 training increases the prevalence of mental health problems. In conclusion, high levels of anxiety, depression, and stress were found in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being a woman, studying at a public university, and receiving training on COVID-19 were factors associated with a higher prevalence of presenting all the mental health problems evaluated. Furthermore, students aged 31 and over had a higher prevalence of depression and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Paraguay/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273575, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021926

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medical students have made particular use of smartphones during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although higher smartphone overuse has been observed, its effect on mental disorders is unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between smartphone overuse and mental disorders in Peruvian medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 students aged between 16 and 41 years (median age: 20) in three universities from July to October 2020. A survey including Smartphone Dependence and Addiction Scale, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 was applied. Prevalence ratios were estimated using generalized linear models. RESULTS: Smartphone overuse was a common feature among students (n = 291, 79%). Depressive symptoms were present in 290 (78%) students and anxiety symptoms in 255 (69%). Adjusted for confounders, addictive/dependent smartphone use was significantly associated with presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.20-1.38 for dependent use; PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.12-1.50 for addictive use). Also, addictive/dependent smartphone use was significantly associated with presence of anxiety symptoms (PR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14-2.23 for dependent use; PR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.07-2.41 for addictive use). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that medical students exposed to smartphone overuse are vulnerable to mental disorders. Overuse may reflect an inappropriate way of finding emotional relief, which may significantly affect quality of life and academic performance. Findings would assist faculties to establish effective measures for prevention of smartphone overuse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Smartphone , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010048

ABSTRACT

Greater occupational exposure may have a positive effect on the development of resilience. We aimed to determine the association between working time and resilience in Peruvian military personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. A secondary data analysis was performed including 586 records of military personnel who supported the health emergency during the second epidemic wave in Lambayeque, Peru. Resilience was measured with the short form of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Working time and other relevant covariates were collected by self-report. Generalized linear models were used. The mean resilience score was 22.18 and 43.2% scored high for resilience. Participants reported that they are strong individuals when facing difficulties (42.3%), are able to handle unpleasant feelings (40.3%), and achieve their goals despite obstacles (40.4%). Working more than 18 months was associated with a 35% higher prevalence of high resilience (PR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.05-1.75). In conclusion, a notable number of military personnel experienced high levels of resilience during the pandemic. Working time may have played an important role in the development of this ability. Our findings could help guide the deployment and organization of the military in health emergency support missions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 934087, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993898

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sanitary control mechanisms differ greatly from country to country. Therefore, it is important to know citizens' perception of different realities. We aimed to determine the factors associated with the perception of inadequate sanitary control in 12 Latin American countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study. We asked about six perceptions in regard to different situations experienced by inhabitants of 12 Latin American countries during the pandemic. Frequencies according to country were described and associations vs. other important variables were obtained. Results: Out of 8,489 participants, 68% stated that there were moments of collective hysteria. Honduras was the country that most perceived inadequate control mechanisms established by the government. Multivariate analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences among many of the countries according to the six evaluated items. The higher the level of education, the greater the perception of poor control in five of the aspects. Additionally, men had a lower perception of inadequate control. The older the age, the lower the perception of inadequate control regarding whether there was collective hysteria and shortages of basic essentials. Those with COVID-19 had a lower perception of medicine shortages. Conclusion: The population of multiple realities in Latin America have perceived a bad management of the pandemic. Citizens' perception is an important indicator of the performance of each government during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study may provide valuable information on the relationship between the effectiveness of government sanitary control and people's mental health, which ultimately helps to create objective prevention programs against post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, fear of contagion, and collective hysteria. In addition, governments could use this information to design effective mitigation plans for future unavoidable pandemic events based on the six criteria discussed here.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception
15.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970364

ABSTRACT

Purpose To determine the prevalence and factors associated with computer vision syndrome in medical students at a private university in Paraguay. Methods A survey study was conducted in 2021 in a sample of 228 medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico, Paraguay. The dependent variable was CVS, measured with the Computer Visual Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q). Its association with covariates (hours of daily use of notebook, smartphone, tablet and PC, taking breaks when using equipment, use of preventive visual measures, use of glasses, etc.) was examined. Results The mean age was 22.3 years and 71.5% were women. CVS was present in 82.5% of participants. Higher prevalence of CVS was associated with wearing a framed lens (PR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03–1.20). In contrast, taking a break when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced 7% (PR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87–0.99) and 6% (PR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–0.99) the prevalence of CVS, respectively. Conclusion Eight out of 10 students experienced CVS during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of framed lenses increased the presence of CVS, while taking breaks when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced CVS.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969242

ABSTRACT

Although the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents' mental health has been studied, there is still scarce evidence of the influence of nuclear family on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to determine the association between family dysfunction and PTSD in Peruvian high-school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a virtual survey administered to 562 high-school students in three schools in Chiclayo, Peru. The dependent variable was PTSD, which was measured with the Child PTSD Symptom Scale. Family dysfunction was the main independent variable, measured with the Family APGAR Questionnaire. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated with generalized linear models. Most of the students were female (88.3%) and the average age was 14.4 years. We found that 21.4% showed severe family dysfunction and 60.3% had PTSD. Students with mild and moderate family dysfunction had 37% (PR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.14-1.65) and 26% (PR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04-1.54) higher PTSD prevalence, respectively. In conclusion, family dysfunction may influence the development of PTSD in adolescents. This study suggests the importance to develop a healthy family environment to help adolescents face critical situations experienced during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology
17.
Germs ; 12(1): 46-53, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939517

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aimed to identify factors associated with self-medication in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using medical records of patients with COVID-19 who self-medicated before admission to a hospital in Piura, Peru. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using generalized linear models with Poisson distribution family, log link function, and robust variance. Results: Out of 301 patients, 165 (54.8%) self-medicated before hospital admission, being more frequent self-medication with ivermectin (85.5%) and azithromycin (71.5%). The frequency of self-medication in those aged between 30-59 years was 2.53-fold higher than in those between 18-29 years. Male patients, dyslipidemia, smoking, and hepatic steatosis were associated with self-medication. Clinical characteristics associated with self-medication were fever, cough, headache, anosmia, dysgeusia, nausea/vomiting, and gastroesophageal reflux. Conclusions: A high frequency of self-medication before hospital admission was observed in Peruvian patients with COVID-19, mainly of drugs without proven efficacy.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928680

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have achieved a significant reduction in mortality, yet objective estimates are needed in specific settings. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination at a referral hospital in Lambayeque, Peru. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from February to September 2021. We included hospitalized patients with COVID-19, whose data were stored in NotiWeb, a patient data system of the Peruvian Ministry of Health. We applied a propensity score-weighting method according to baseline characteristics of patients, and estimated hazard ratios (HR) using Cox regression models. Of 1553 participants, the average age was 55 years (SD: 16.8), 907 (58%) were male, and 592 (38%) deceased at 28-day follow-up. Before hospital admission, 74 (4.8%) had been immunized with at least one vaccine dose. Effectiveness against death in vaccinated patients was 50% at 90-day follow-up (weighted HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89). Our results support the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination against death and provide information after early immunization in Peru.

19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911302

ABSTRACT

Studies in military personnel are scarce and have reported increased rates of medical consultations and insomnia. The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a number of factors that increase the prevalence of insomnia, which has established consequences in the military. However, reported data are from different settings. We aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with insomnia during the second COVID-19 epidemic wave in Lambayeque, Peru. A retrospective study in 566 participants was conducted face-to-face in November 2021. The dependent variable was insomnia, measured with the Insomnia Severity Index. The independent variables were socio-labor variables, physical activity, food insecurity, eating behavior disorder, fear of COVID-19, and resilience. The prevalence of insomnia was 23% (95% CI: 19.6-26.7%). In multivariate analysis, insomnia was associated with a personal history of mental health (PR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.01-2.93), food insecurity (PR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.05-1.95), fear of COVID-19 (PR: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.87-3.54), and high resilience (PR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.86). Overall, the Peruvian military population presents a high prevalence of insomnia during the pandemic period. Special attention should be paid to factors that influence insomnia. Prevention and promotion programs should be established to reverse this negative trend in the military.

20.
PeerJ ; 9: e11210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimating the cumulative prevalence of SARS-COV-2 will help to understand the epidemic, contagion, and immunity to COVID-19 in vulnerable populations. The objective is to determine the extent of infection in the general population and the cumulative incidence by age group. METHODS: It was carried out with a longitudinal analytical study, in the population of the Lambayeque region, located in the north of Peru. The selection was carried out in multistages (districts, area, household, and finally choosing the interviewee within the house). Seroprevalence was estimated as a positive result of the rapid test whether it was positive IgM or positive IgG. An adjustment was made for the sampling weights used. RESULTS: The seroprevalence found in the region was 29.5%. Young people between 21 and 50 years old presented the highest seroprevalence frequencies. A total of 25.4% were asymptomatic. The most frequent complaint was dysgeusia and dysosmia (85.3% and 83.6%). Dysosmia (PR = 1.69), chest pain (PR = 1.49), back pain (PR = 1.45), cough (PR = 1.44), fever (PR = 1.41), general malaise (PR = 1.27) were associated factors with the higher the frequency of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. Reporting of complete isolation at home decreased the frequency of positivity (PR = 0.80), however, reporting having ARI contact (PR = 1.60), having contact with a confirmed case (PR = 1.51), and going to market (PR = 1.26) increased the frequency of positivity for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Lambayeque is the region with the highest seroprevalence in the world, well above Spain, the United States and similar to a study in India.

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