Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 26
Filter
2.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; 30(8): 1985-1993, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826567

ABSTRACT

Background: Robust data on case fatality rate (CFR) among inpatients with COVID-19 are still lacking, and the role of patient characteristics in in-hospital deaths remains under-investigated. This study quantified the overall CFR and described its trend in a cohort of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. Admission to ICU, death, or discharge were the secondary outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study is based on administrative health data and electronic case records of inpatients consecutively admitted to Niguarda Hospital between 21 February and 8 November 2020. Results: An overall CFR of 18% was observed. CFR was significantly reduced during the second wave of contagion (1 June to 30 September, 16%) compared with the first wave (21 February to 31 May, 21% p = 0.015). Such reduction was mainly observed among male inpatients between 40 and 80 years with limited comorbidities. Admission to ICU was associated with a high risk of mortality in both waves. The incidence of severe disease and the need for ICU admission were lower in the second wave. Conclusion: CFR in SARS-CoV-2 inpatients was demonstrated to decrease over time. This reduction may partly reflect the changes in hospital strategy and clinical practice. The reasons for this improvement should be further investigated to plan an exit strategy in case of future outbreaks. Key messages: What is already known on this topic Before the advent of anti-COVID-19 vaccines, a multi-wave pattern of contagion was observed, and this trend conditioned the inpatient case fatality rate (CFR), which varied over time accordingly to the waves of contagion.Only preliminary results on the in-hospital mortality trend are available, along with a partial analysis of its determinants. Consequently, robust data on CFR among inpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are still lacking, and the role of patient characteristics in in-hospital deaths remains under-investigated. What this study adds This study shows that the in-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection decreases over time.Such reduction was mainly observed among male inpatients between 40 and 80 years with limited comorbidities. Admission to ICU was invariably associated with a high risk of mortality during the whole study period (21 February to 8 November 2020), but the incidence of severe disease and the need for ICU admission were lower in the second wave of contagions (1 October to 8 November 2020). This reduction may partly reflect the impact of changes in hospital strategy and clinical practice. The reasons for this improvement should be further investigated to inform the response to future outbreaks and to plan exit strategy by prioritizing high-risk populations. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10389-021-01675-y.

3.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333326

ABSTRACT

Background: Delirium is a common feature in COVID-19 patients. Although its association with in-hospital mortality has previously been reported, scarce results concern post-discharge mortality and delirium subtypes. We evaluated the association between delirium and its subtypes and both in-hospital and medium-term mortality. Methods : This is a multicenter longitudinal clinical-based study settled in Monza and Brescia, Italy. 1324 patients (median age: 68) with COVID-19 admitted to four acute clinical wards in Northern Italy during the first and second pandemic waves. Delirium was assessed through validated scores and/or clinical assessment. The association between the presence of delirium - and its subtypes- and in-hospital and medium-term mortality was evaluated through Cox proportional hazards models. Findings: 223 patients (16.8%) presented delirium within 24-48 hours of hospital admission. Those with delirium had around a two-fold increased risk of in-hospital (HR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.38, 2.73) and medium-term mortality (HR=2.01, 95%CI: 1.48, 2.73), than those without delirium. All delirium subtypes were associated with greater risk of death compared to the absence of delirium, but hypoactive delirium revealed the strongest associations, with both in-hospital (HR=2.03, 95%CI: 1.32, 3.13) and medium-term mortality (HR=2.22, 95%CI: 1.52, 3.26). Interpretation: In patients with COVID-19, delirium at hospital admission is not only associated with in-hospital mortality but also with shorter post-discharge survival. This suggests that delirium might be a marker of disease severity and/or patient vulnerability. Its detection and management are crucial to improving the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Funding: This work was supported by grants from the Cariplo Foundation, Lombardia Region, Italy. Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

4.
Aging Dis ; 13(2): 340-343, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776700

ABSTRACT

In patients with COVID-19, frailty has been shown to better predict outcomes than age alone. We investigated factors associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) during hospitalization for COVID-19 among older adults in a multicentre study during the first two waves in Italy. Using data from the FRACOVID project, we included consecutive patients admitted to the participating centres during the first and second waves. We recorded sociodemographics, comorbidities, time since symptom onset, ventilatory support at admission, and chest X-ray findings. Frailty was assessed using a frailty index (FI). Results are reported as hazard ratios (HR) with 95%CI. 1,344 patients were included; 487 females (36.2%), median age 68 (56; 79) years; 52.4% had hypertension, 10.6% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 15.2% were obese. Median FI was 0.088 (0.03, 0.20), and 67% had bilateral consolidations at admission. Median time since symptom onset was 7 days (4, 10). During hospitalization, 47 patients (3.6%, 95%CI 0.33-13.6%) received MV. Multivariable Cox regression analysis found that the likelihood of intubation decreased with increasing age (HR 0.945 (95%CI 0.921-0.969), p<0.0001), while heart rate >110bpm (HR 3.429 (95%CI 1.583-7.429), p=0.0018), and need for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at admission (HR 2.626 (95%CI 1.330-5.186), p=0.0054) were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of intubation. Older patients are less likely to receive intubation, while those with heart rate >110 bpm and need for CPAP at admission are more likely to receive MV during hospitalization for COVID-19.

5.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 65, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 12-month from discharge. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational study, patients hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only", "continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)" and "invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)") and followed up at 12 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6 min walking test, high resolution CT (HRCT) scan, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale were collected. RESULTS: Out of 287 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and followed up at 1 year, DLCO impairment, mainly of mild entity and improved with respect to the 6-month follow-up, was observed more frequently in the "oxygen only" and "IMV" group (53% and 49% of patients, respectively), compared to 29% in the "CPAP" group. Abnormalities at chest HRCT were found in 46%, 65% and 80% of cases in the "oxygen only", "CPAP" and "IMV" group, respectively. Non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities, in particular reticulations and ground-glass attenuation, were the main finding, while honeycombing was found only in 1% of cases. Older patients and those requiring IMV were at higher risk of developing radiological pulmonary sequelae. Dyspnea evaluated through mMRC scale was reported by 35% of patients with no differences between groups, compared to 29% at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: DLCO alteration and non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities are common after 1 year from hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, particularly in older patients requiring higher ventilatory support. Studies with longer follow-ups are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/virology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320394

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence from COVID-19 outbreak shows that individuals with specific chronic diseases are at higher risk of severe prognosis after infection. Public health authorities are developing vaccination programmes with priorities that minimize the risk of mortality and severe events in individuals and communities. We propose an evidence-based strategy that targets the frailest subjects whose timely vaccination is likely to minimize future deaths and preserve the resilience of the health service by preventing infections. Methods: The cohort includes 146,087 cases with COVID-19 diagnosed in 2020 in Milan (3.49 million inhabitants). Individual level data on 42 chronic diseases and vital status updated as of January 21, 2021, were available in administrative data collected during the pandemic. Analyses were performed in three sub-cohorts of age (16-64, 65-79 and 80+ years) and comorbidities affecting mortality were selected by means of LASSO cross-validated conditional logistic regression. Simplified models based on previous results identified high-risk categories worth targeting with highest priority. Results adjusted by age and gender, were reported in terms of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Findings: The final models include as predictors of mortality (7,667 deaths, 5.2%) 10, 12, and 5 chronic diseases, respectively. The older age categories shared, as risk factors, chronic renal failure, chronic heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson disease and psychiatric diseases. In the younger age category, predictors included neoplasm, organ transplantation and psychiatric conditions. Results were consistent with those obtained on mortality at 60 days from diagnosis (6,968 deaths). Interpretation: This approach defines a two-level stratification for priorities in the vaccination that can easily be applied by health authorities, eventually adapted to local results in terms of number and types of comorbidities, and rapidly updated with current data. After the early phase of vaccination, data on effectiveness and safety will give the opportunity to revise prioritization and discuss the future approach in the remaining population. Funding: Agency for Health Protection, Metropolitan Area of Milan, ItalyDeclaration of Interests: None declared. Ethics Approval Statement: Ethics approval and consent to participate were not required, as this is an observational study based on data routinely collected by the Agency for Health Protection (ATS) of Milan, a public body of the Regional Health Service of Lombardy. Among the institutional functions of the ATS, established by the Lombardy regional legislation (R.L. 23/2015), is the management of individual care in the regional social and healthcare system, the evaluation of services provided to patients residing in the area covered by the ATS, and their health outcomes. This study is also ethically compliant with Italian law (Legislative Decree 101/2018) and the “General Authorisation to Process Personal Data for Scientific Research Purposes” (clauses no. 8 and 9/2016, referred to in the Data Protection Authority action of 13/12/2018). Data were anonymized with a unique identifier in the different datasets before being used for the analyses.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834851, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686489

ABSTRACT

Understanding the cause of sex disparities in COVID-19 outcomes is a major challenge. We investigate sex hormone levels and their association with outcomes in COVID-19 patients, stratified by sex and age. This observational, retrospective, cohort study included 138 patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19, hospitalized in Italy between February 1 and May 30, 2020. The association between sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and outcomes (ARDS, severe COVID-19, in-hospital mortality) was explored in 120 patients aged 50 years and over. STROBE checklist was followed. The median age was 73.5 years [IQR 61, 82]; 55.8% were male. In older males, testosterone was lower if ARDS and severe COVID-19 were reported than if not (3.6 vs. 5.3 nmol/L, p =0.0378 and 3.7 vs. 8.5 nmol/L, p =0.0011, respectively). Deceased males had lower testosterone (2.4 vs. 4.8 nmol/L, p =0.0536) and higher estradiol than survivors (40 vs. 24 pg/mL, p = 0.0006). Testosterone was negatively associated with ARDS (OR 0.849 [95% CI 0.734, 0.982]), severe COVID-19 (OR 0.691 [95% CI 0.546, 0.874]), and in-hospital mortality (OR 0.742 [95% CI 0.566, 0.972]), regardless of potential confounders, though confirmed only in the regression model on males. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death (OR 1.051 [95% CI 1.018, 1.084]), confirmed in both sex models. In males, higher testosterone seems to be protective against any considered outcome. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death in both sexes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Sex Characteristics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(1)2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686002

ABSTRACT

Patients receiving N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) during hospitalisation for #SARSCoV2 pneumonia and discharged alive present a significantly shorter length of hospital stay compared to those who did not receive NAC https://bit.ly/3l1QsVo.

9.
ERJ open research ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564106

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may cause pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, whose pathogenesis has been partially related to an increased systemic inflammatory response with great production of pro-inflammatory cytokines causing a “cytokine storm” and an oxidative stress imbalance [1].

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542617

ABSTRACT

The most common arrhythmia associated with COronaVIrus-related Disease (COVID) infection is sinus tachycardia. It is not known if high Heart Rate (HR) in COVID is simply a marker of higher systemic response to sepsis or if its persistence could be related to a long-term autonomic dysfunction. The aim of our work is to assess the prevalence of elevated HR at discharge in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and to evaluate the variables associated with it. We enrolled 697 cases of SARS-CoV2 infection admitted in our hospital after February 21 and discharged within 23 July 2020. We collected data on clinical history, vital signs, laboratory tests and pharmacological treatment. Severe disease was defined as the need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation. Median age was 59 years (first-third quartile 49, 74), and male was the prevalent gender (60.1%). 84.6% of the subjects showed a SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia, and 13.2% resulted in a severe disease. Mean HR at admission was 90 ± 18 bpm with a mean decrease of 10 bpm to discharge. Only 5.5% of subjects presented HR > 100 bpm at discharge. Significant predictors of discharge HR at multiple linear model were admission HR (mean increase = ß = 0.17 per bpm, 95% CI 0.11; 0.22, p < 0.001), haemoglobin (ß = -0.64 per g/dL, 95% CI -1.19; -0.09, p = 0.023) and severe disease (ß = 8.42, 95% CI 5.39; 11.45, p < 0.001). High HR at discharge in COVID-19 patients is not such a frequent consequence, but when it occurs it seems strongly related to a severe course of the disease.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293040

ABSTRACT

It is uncertain whether higher doses of anticoagulants than recommended for thromboprophylaxis are necessary in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in general wards. This is a multicentre, open-label, randomized trial performed in 9 Italian centres, comparing 40 mg b.i.d. vs 40 mg o.d. enoxaparin in COVID-19 patients, between April 30, 2020 and April 25, 2021. Primary efficacy outcome was in-hospital incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE): asymptomatic or symptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosed by serial compression ultrasonography (CUS), and/or symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosed by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Secondary endpoints included each individual component of the primary efficacy outcome and a composite of death, VTE, mechanical ventilation, stroke, myocardial infarction, admission to ICU. Safety outcomes included major bleeding. The study was interrupted prematurely due to slow recruitment. We included 183 (96%) of the 189 enrolled patients in the primary analysis (91 in b.i.d., 92 in o.d.). Primary efficacy outcome occurred in 6 patients (6.5%, 0 DVT, 6 PE) in the o.d. group and 0 in the b.id. group (Sto arrivando! 6.5, 95% CI, 1.5-11.6). Absence of concomitant DVT and imaging characteristics suggest that most pulmonary artery occlusions were actually caused by local thrombi rather than PE. Statistically non-significant differences in secondary and safety endpoints were observed, with two major bleeding events in each arm. In conclusion, no DVT developed in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in general wards, independently of enoxaparin dosing used for thromboprophylaxis. Pulmonary artery occlusions developed only in the o.d. group. Our trial is underpowered and with few events.

12.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-291897

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the cause of sex disparities in COVID-19 outcomes is a major challenge. We investigate sex hormone levels and their association with outcomes in COVID-19 patients, stratified by sex and age. Methods: This observational, retrospective, cohort study included 138 patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19, hospitalized in Italy between February 1 and May 30, 2020. The association between sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and outcomes (ARDS, severe COVID-19, in-hospital mortality) was explored in 120 patients aged 50 years and over. STROBE checklist was followed. Findings: The median age was 73·5 years [IQR 61, 82];55·8% were male. In older males, testosterone was lower if ARDS and severe COVID-19 were reported than if not (3·6 vs. 5·3 nmol/L, p =0·0378 and 3·7 vs. 8·5 nmol/L, p =0·0011, respectively). Deceased males had lower testosterone (2·4 vs. 4·8 nmol/L, p =0·0536) and higher estradiol than survivors (40 vs. 24 pg/mL, p = 0·0006). Testosterone was negatively associated with ARDS (OR 0·849 [95% CI 0·734, 0·982]), severe COVID-19 (OR 0·691 [95% CI 0·546, 0·874]), and in-hospital mortality (OR 0·742 [95% CI 0·566, 0·972]), regardless of potential confounders, though confirmed only in the regression model on males. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death (OR 1·051 [95% CI 1·018, 1.084]), confirmed in both sex models. Interpretation: In males, higher testosterone seems to be protective against any considered outcome. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death in both sexes.

13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(8): 2327-2333, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the occurrence of the SARS-COV2 pandemic, there has been an increasing interest in investigating the epidemiology of delirium. Delirium is frequent in SARS-COV2 patients and it is associated with increased mortality; however, no information is available on the association between delirium duration in SARS-COV2 patients and related outcomes. AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the duration of delirium symptoms and in-hospital mortality in older patients with SARS-COV2 infection. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients 65 years of age and older with SARS-CoV 2 infection admitted to two acute geriatric wards and one rehabilitation ward. Delirium symptoms duration was assessed retrospectively with a chart-based validated method. In-hospital mortality was ascertained via medical records. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients were included. The prevalence of delirium on admission was 16%. The median number of days with delirium symptoms was 4 (IQR 2-6.5) vs. 0 (IQR 0-2) in patients with and without delirium on admission. In the multivariable Cox regression model, each day with a delirium symptom in a patient with the same length of stay was associated with a 10% increase in in-hospital mortality (Hazard ratio 1.1, 95% Confidence interval 1.01-1.2; p = 0.03). Other variables associated with increased risk of in-hospital death were age, comorbidity, CPAP, CRP levels and total number of drugs on admission. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports the necessity to establish protocols for the monitoring and management of delirium during emergency conditions to allow an appropriate care for older patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Aged , Delirium/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409869

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on in-hospital mortality and on incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was also investigated. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the association between renal function groups (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, eGFR, >60 mL/min, 30-59 mL/min, <30 mL/min) and in-hospital all-cause mortality and incident AF and AKI. A cohort of 2816 patients admitted in one year for COVID-19 disease in two large hospitals was analyzed. The independent predictors of mortality were severe CKD [HR 1.732 (95%CI 1.264-2.373)], older age [HR 1.054 (95%CI 1.044-1.065)], cerebrovascular disease [HR 1.335 (95%CI (1.016-1.754)], lower platelet count [HR 0.997 (95%CI 0.996-0.999)], higher C-reactive protein [HR 1.047 (95%CI 1.035-1.058)], and higher plasma potassium value 1.374 (95%CI 1.139-1.658). When incident AKI was added to the final survival model, it was associated with higher mortality [HR 2.202 (1.728-2.807)]. Incident AF was more frequent in patients with CKD, but in the multivariable model only older age was significantly related with a higher incidence of AF [OR 1.036 (95%CI 1.022-1.050)]. Incident AF was strongly associated with the onset of AKI [HR 2.619 (95%CI 1.711-4.009)]. In this large population of COVID-19 patients, the presence of severe CKD was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. In addition, patients who underwent AKI during hospitalization had a doubled risk of death. Incident AF became more frequent as eGFR decreased and it was significantly associated with the onset of AKI.

15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(2): 293-299, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to report the prevalence of delirium on admission to the unit in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection, to identify the factors associated with delirium, and to evaluate the association between delirium and in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTINGS: Acute medical units in four Italian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 516 patients (median age 78 years) admitted to the participating centers with SARS-CoV-2 infection from February 22 to May 17, 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive medical assessment with detailed history, physical examinations, functional status, laboratory and imaging procedures. On admission, delirium was determined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition) criteria, 4AT, m-Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, or clinical impression depending on the site. The primary outcomes were delirium rates and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 73 (14.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.0-17.3%) patients presented delirium on admission. Factors significantly associated with delirium were dementia (odds ratio, OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 2.03-10.69), the number of chronic diseases (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03; 1.40), and chest X-ray or CT opacity (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.12-9.64 and 3.35, 95% CI = 1.07-10.47, for multiple or bilateral opacities and single opacity vs no opacity, respectively). There were 148 (33.4%) in-hospital deaths in the no-delirium group and 43 (58.9%) in the delirium group (P-value assessed using the Gray test <.001). As assessed by a multivariable Cox model, patients with delirium on admission showed an almost twofold increased hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality with respect to patients without delirium (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.25-2.83). CONCLUSION: Delirium is prevalent and associated with in-hospital mortality among older patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/mortality , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
16.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1078-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia are not yet confirmed; however, preliminary observations suggest a possible relevant clinical, functional, and radiological impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only," "continuous positive airway pressure," and "invasive mechanical ventilation") and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walking test, chest X-ray, physical examination, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median interquartile range age 61.1 [53.4, 69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥1, or showed restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as a comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalization appeared as a protective factor. The need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalization was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11787, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258589

ABSTRACT

Governments continue to update social intervention strategies to contain COVID-19 infections. However, investigation of COVID-19 severity indicators across the population might help to design more precise strategies, balancing the need to keep people safe and to reduce the socio-economic burden of generalized restriction precedures. Here, we propose a method for age-sex population-adjusted analysis of disease severity in epidemics that has the advantage to use simple and repeatable variables, which are daily or weekly available. This allows to monitor the effect of public health policies in short term, and to repeat these calculations over time to surveille epidemic dynamics and impact. Our method can help to define a risk-categorization of likeliness to develop a severe COVID-19 disease which requires intensive care or is indicative of a higher risk of dying. Indeed, analysis of suitable open-access COVID-19 data in three European countries indicates that individuals in the 0-40 age interval and females under 60 are significantly less likely to develop a severe condition and die, whereas males equal or above 60 are more likely at risk of severe disease and death. Hence, a combination of age-adaptive and sex-balanced guidelines for social interventions could represent key public health management tools for policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Health Policy , Public Policy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
18.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 1389-1392, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195967

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has dominated the global health scenario from the beginning of 2020 and still represents a major health emergency. Cytokine inhibitors as tocilizumab have been used to treat COVID-19 severe pneumonia with conflicting results. We performed a retrospective study whose results can contribute to the general overview regarding the role of these agents in severe COVID-19 pneumonia, suggesting an interesting, even not statistically significant evidence of the effectiveness of tocilizumab treatment in this disease and sow a seed of reflection about their use in future waves of pandemic. We compared two cohorts of patients treated with local standard of care and with tocilizumab in the experimental one. With a median follow-up of 92 days, deaths were 6 and 16 in the tocilizumab and the standard of care group, respectively. With a longer follow-up than previous studies, a trend in difference with regards to mortality of the groups was observed.

19.
Vaccine ; 39(18): 2517-2525, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence from COVID-19 outbreak shows that individuals with specific chronic diseases are at higher risk of severe prognosis after infection. Public health authorities are developing vaccination programmes with priorities that minimize the risk of mortality and severe events in individuals and communities. We propose an evidence-based strategy that targets the frailest subjects whose timely vaccination is likely to minimize future deaths and preserve the resilience of the health service by preventing infections. METHODS: The cohort includes 146,087 cases with COVID-19 diagnosed in 2020 in Milan (3.49 million inhabitants). Individual level data on 42 chronic diseases and vital status updated as of January 21, 2021, were available in administrative data. Analyses were performed in three sub-cohorts of age (16-64, 65-79 and 80+ years) and comorbidities affecting mortality were selected by means of LASSO cross-validated conditional logistic regression. Simplified models based on previous results identified high-risk categories worth targeting with highest priority. Results adjusted by age and gender, were reported in terms of odds ratios and 95%CI. RESULTS: The final models include as predictors of mortality (7,667 deaths, 5.2%) 10, 12, and 5 chronic diseases, respectively. The older age categories shared, as risk factors, chronic renal failure, chronic heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson disease and psychiatric diseases. In the younger age category, predictors included neoplasm, organ transplantation and psychiatric conditions. Results were consistent with those obtained on mortality at 60 days from diagnosis (6,968 deaths). CONCLUSION: This approach defines a two-level stratification for priorities in the vaccination that can easily be applied by health authorities, eventually adapted to local results in terms of number and types of comorbidities, and rapidly updated with current data. After the early phase of vaccination, data on effectiveness and safety will give the opportunity to revise prioritization and discuss the future approach in the remaining population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 80, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with high mortality and may overwhelm health care systems, due to the surge of patients requiring advanced respiratory support. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds required many patients to be treated outside the ICU despite severe gas exchange impairment. Helmet is an effective interface to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) noninvasively. We report data about the usefulness of helmet CPAP during pandemic, either as treatment, a bridge to intubation or a rescue therapy for patients with care limitations (DNI). METHODS: In this observational study we collected data regarding patients failing standard oxygen therapy (i.e., non-rebreathing mask) due to COVID-19 pneumonia treated with a free flow helmet CPAP system. Patients' data were recorded before, at initiation of CPAP treatment and once a day, thereafter. CPAP failure was defined as a composite outcome of intubation or death. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients were included; 42% were deemed as DNI. Helmet CPAP treatment was successful in 69% of the full treatment and 28% of the DNI patients (P < 0.001). With helmet CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio doubled from about 100 to 200 mmHg (P < 0.001); respiratory rate decreased from 28 [22-32] to 24 [20-29] breaths per minute, P < 0.001). C-reactive protein, time to oxygen mask failure, age, PaO2/FiO2 during CPAP, number of comorbidities were independently associated with CPAP failure. Helmet CPAP was maintained for 6 [3-9] days, almost continuously during the first two days. None of the full treatment patients died before intubation in the wards. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet CPAP treatment is feasible for several days outside the ICU, despite persistent impairment in gas exchange. It was used, without escalating to intubation, in the majority of full treatment patients after standard oxygen therapy failed. DNI patients could benefit from helmet CPAP as rescue therapy to improve survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04424992.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Hypoxia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL