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J Asthma Allergy ; 15: 623-632, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869275


Introduction: The increase in drugs available for severe uncontrolled asthma and the lifestyle of these patients make it necessary to implement self-administration programs of these therapies at home. Benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting IL5R, was authorized in Spain for poorly controlled severe eosinophilic asthma. The possibility of administration at home was approved in March 2020 in Spain. The aim of the Auto-Benra study was to evaluate the usability and satisfaction of the benralizumab prefilled syringe and autoinjector and assessing the effectivity of these devices in uncontrolled severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA) in home-self administration. Methods: This is a retrospective, observational multicenter study uncontrolled SEA patients treated with benralizumab at least with 3 doses self-administered at home before April 30, 2021. Reliability and satisfaction with benralizumab at home were evaluated with subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire (SQAAQ) and visual analogic scales (VAS). Effectiveness was evaluated in all patients with asthma control test (ACT), Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ), annual exacerbation rate, oral corticosteroid treatment (OCS) and asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency visits. Results: Fifty-four patients across 9 hospitals in Spain were included. The mean SQAAQ score was 6.89 (±0.16) points. Patients and their caregivers and doctors report excellent satisfaction by VAS, with no differences between benralizumab devices used (prefilled syringe and autoinjector). Severe exacerbation rate decreased by 65% (p = 0.0007) after benralizumab treatment. ACT score improved on average 6.27 ± 5.35 points (p < 0.0001) and the mean MiniAQLQ increased up to 1.58 ± 1.47 points (p < 0.0001). Twenty-four patients were OCS-dependent and at the end of study 14 patients get complete OCS withdrawal. Conclusion: AUTO-BENRA study supports the use of benralizumab at home given the excellent results of satisfaction and usability by patients and their caregivers.

Front Immunol ; 12: 668074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278394


BACKGROUND: Studies on the role of eosinophils in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are scarce, though available findings suggest a possible association with disease severity. Our study analyzes the relationship between eosinophils and COVID-19, with a focus on disease severity and patients with underlying chronic respiratory diseases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 3018 subjects attended at two public hospitals in Madrid (Spain) with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from January 31 to April 17, 2020. Patients with eosinophil counts less than 0.02×109/L were considered to have eosinopenia. Individuals with chronic respiratory diseases (n=384) were classified according to their particular underlying condition, i.e., asthma, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, or obstructive sleep apnea. RESULTS: Of the 3018 patients enrolled, 479 were excluded because of lack of information at the time of admission. Of 2539 subjects assessed, 1396 patients presented an eosinophil count performed on admission, revealing eosinopenia in 376 cases (26.93%). Eosinopenia on admission was associated with a higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) or respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) admission (OR:2.21; 95%CI:1.42-3.45; p<0.001) but no increased risk of mortality (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Eosinopenia on admission conferred a higher risk of severe disease (requiring ICU/RICU care), but was not associated with increased mortality. In patients with chronic respiratory diseases who develop COVID-19, age seems to be the main risk factor for progression to severe disease or death.

COVID-19/blood , Eosinophils , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Chronic Disease , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
Mod Pathol ; 33(11): 2139-2146, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634770


The spectrum of COVID-19 infection includes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), although the histological basis for these disorders has not been thoroughly explored. Post-mortem pulmonary and bone marrow biopsies were performed in 33 patients. Samples were studied with a combination of morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. Bone marrow studies were also performed in three living patients. Bone marrow post-mortem studies showed striking lesions of histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis (HHH) in most (16/17) cases. This was also observed in three alive patients, where it mimicked the changes observed in hemophagocytic histiocytosis. Pulmonary changes included a combination of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrinous microthrombi predominantly involving small vessels, in particular the alveolar capillary. These findings were associated with the analytical and clinical symptoms, which helps us understand the respiratory insufficiency and reveal the histological substrate for the macrophage activation syndrome-like exhibited by these patients. Our results confirm that COVID-19 infection triggers a systemic immune-inflammatory disease and allow specific therapies to be proposed.

Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Histiocytes/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Hyperplasia/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2