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1.
Blood Adv ; 7(11): 2645-2655, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305130

ABSTRACT

Patients with previous CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy have a prolonged vulnerability to viral infections. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a great impact and has previously been shown to cause high mortality in this population. Until now, real-world data on the impact of vaccination and treatment on patients with COVID-19 after CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy are lacking. Therefore, this multicenter, retrospective study was conducted with data from the EPICOVIDEHA survey. Sixty-four patients were identified. The overall mortality caused by COVID-19 was 31%. Patients infected with the Omicron variant had a significantly lower risk of death due to COVID-19 compared with patients infected with previous variants (7% vs 58% [P = .012]). Twenty-six patients were vaccinated at the time of the COVID-19 diagnosis. Two vaccinations showed a marked but unsignificant reduction in the risk of COVID-19-caused mortality (33.3% vs 14.2% [P = .379]). In addition, the course of the disease appears milder with less frequent intensive care unit admissions (39% vs 14% [P = .054]) and a shorter duration of hospitalization (7 vs 27.5 days [P = .022]). Of the available treatment options, only monoclonal antibodies seemed to be effective at reducing mortality from 32% to 0% (P = .036). We conclude that survival rates of CAR T-cell recipients with COVID-19 improved over time and that the combination of prior vaccination and monoclonal antibody treatment significantly reduces their risk of death. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04733729.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antigens, CD19
2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 58: 101939, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303001

ABSTRACT

Background: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment decreases the hospitalisation rate in immunocompetent patients with COVID-19, but data on efficacy in patients with haematological malignancy are scarce. Here, we describe the outcome of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment in a large cohort of the latter patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study from the multicentre EPICOVIDEHA registry (NCT04733729) on patients with haematological malignancy, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between January and September 2022. Patients receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir were compared to those who did not. A logistic regression was run to determine factors associated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir administration in our sample. Mortality between treatment groups was assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival plots after matching all the patients with a propensity score. Additionally, a Cox regression was modelled to detect factors associated with mortality in patients receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Findings: A total of 1859 patients were analysed, 117 (6%) were treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, 1742 (94%) were treated otherwise. Of 117 patients receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, 80% had received ≥1 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose before COVID-19 onset, 13% of which received a 2nd vaccine booster. 5% were admitted to ICU. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment was associated with the presence of extrapulmonary symptoms at COVID-19 onset, for example anosmia, fever, rhinitis, or sinusitis (aOR 2.509, 95%CI 1.448-4.347) and 2nd vaccine booster (aOR 3.624, 95%CI 1.619-8.109). Chronic pulmonary disease (aOR 0.261, 95%CI 0.093-0.732) and obesity (aOR 0.105, 95%CI 0.014-0.776) were not associated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir use. After propensity score matching, day-30 mortality rate in patients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir was 2%, significantly lower than in patients with SARS-CoV-2 directed treatment other than nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (11%, p = 0.036). No factor was observed explaining the mortality difference in patients after nirmatrelvir/ritonavir administration. Interpretation: Haematological malignancy patients were more likely to receive nirmatrelvir/ritonavir when reporting extrapulmonary symptoms or 2nd vaccine booster at COVID-19 onset, as opposed to chronic pulmonary disease and obesity. The mortality rate in patients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir was lower than in patients with targeted drugs other than nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Funding: EPICOVIDEHA has received funds from Optics COMMIT (COVID-19 Unmet Medical Needs and Associated Research Extension) COVID-19 RFP program by GILEAD Science, United States (Project 2020-8223).

3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1125030, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253359

ABSTRACT

Background: The outcome of COVID-19 in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is almost uniformely considered poor. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyse the outcome and risk factors for mortality in a large series of patients who developed COVID-19 infection after an allogeneic HSCT. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study promoted by the European Hematology Association - Infections in Hematology Study Working Group, included 326 adult HSCT patients who had COVID-19 between January 2020 and March 2022. Results: The median time from HSCT to the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 268 days (IQR 86-713; range 0-185 days). COVID-19 severity was mild in 21% of the patients, severe in 39% and critical in 16% of the patients. In multivariable analysis factors associated with a higher risk of mortality were, age above 50 years, presence of 3 or more comorbidities, active hematologic disease at time of COVID-19 infection, development of COVID-19 within 12 months of HSCT, and severe/critical infections. Overall mortality rate was 21% (n=68): COVID-19 was the main or secondary cause of death in 16% of the patients (n=53). Conclusions: Mortality in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19 is high and largely dependent on age, comorbidities, active hematologic disease, timing from transplant and severity of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/etiology , Hematologic Diseases/etiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Stem Cell Transplantation
4.
Ther Adv Hematol ; 14: 20406207231154706, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270803

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) typically incur high rates of infections and both drugs and comorbidities may modulate infection risk. Objectives: The present study aims to assess the effect of immunosuppressive agents on clinical outcomes of MPN patients affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Design: This is an observational study. Methods: We specifically searched and analyzed MPN patients collected by EPICOVIDEHA online registry, which includes individuals with hematological malignancies diagnosed with COVID-19 since February 2020. Results: Overall, 398 patients with MPN were observed for a median of 76 days [interquartile range (IQR): 19-197] after detection of SARS-CoV2 infection. Median age was 69 years (IQR: 58-77) and 183 individuals (46%) had myelofibrosis (MF). Overall, 121 patients (30%) of the whole cohort received immunosuppressive therapies including steroids, immunomodulatory drugs, or JAK inhibitors. Hospitalization and consecutive admission to intensive care unit was required in 216 (54%) and 53 patients (13%), respectively. Risk factors for hospital admission were identified by multivariable logistic regression and include exposure to immunosuppressive therapies [odds ratio (OR): 2.186; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.357-3.519], age ⩾70 years, and comorbidities. The fatality rate was 22% overall and the risk of death was independently increased by age ⩾70 years [hazard ratio (HR): 2.191; 95% CI: 1.363-3.521], previous comorbidities, and exposure to immunosuppressive therapies before the infection (HR: 2.143; 95% CI: 1.363-3.521). Conclusion: COVID-19 infection led to a particularly dismal outcome in MPN patients receiving immunosuppressive agents or reporting multiple comorbidities. Therefore, specific preventive strategies need to be tailored for such individuals. Plain language summary: EPICOVIDEHA registry reports inferior outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) incur high rates of infections during the course of their disease.The present study was aimed at assessing which patient characteristics predicted a worse outcome of SARS-COV-2 infection in individuals with MPN.To pursue this objective, the researchers analyzed the data collected by EPICOVIDEHA, an international online registry, which includes individuals with hematological malignancies diagnosed with COVID-19 since February 2020.The database provided clinical data of 398 patients with MPN incurring COVID-19:Patients were mostly elderly (median age was 69 years);Forty-six percent of them were affected by myelofibrosis, which is the most severe MPN;Moreover, 32% were receiving immunosuppressive therapies (JAK inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib, steroids, or immunomodulatory IMID drugs, such as thalidomide) before COVID-19.Hospitalization was required in 54% of the patients, and the risk of being hospitalized for severe COVID-19 was independently predicted byOlder age;Comorbidities;Exposure to immunosuppressive therapies.Overall, 22% of MPN patients deceased soon after COVID-19 and the risk of death was independently increased over twofold byOlder age;Comorbidities;Exposure to immunosuppressive therapies before the infection.In conclusion, COVID-19 infection led to a particularly dismal outcome in MPN patients receiving immunosuppressive agents, including JAK inhibitors, or reporting multiple comorbidities. Therefore, specific preventive strategies need to be tailored for such individuals.

5.
J Hematol Oncol ; 16(1): 32, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270800

ABSTRACT

Only few studies have analyzed the efficacy of tixagevimab/cilgavimab to prevent severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related complications in hematologic malignancies (HM) patients. Here, we report cases of breakthrough COVID-19 after prophylactic tixagevimab/cilgavimab from the EPICOVIDEHA registry). We identified 47 patients that had received prophylaxis with tixagevimab/cilgavimab in the EPICOVIDEHA registry. Lymphoproliferative disorders (44/47, 93.6%) were the main underlying HM. SARS-CoV-2 strains were genotyped in 7 (14.9%) cases only, and all belonged to the omicron variant. Forty (85.1%) patients had received vaccinations prior to tixagevimab/cilgavimab, the majority of them with at least two doses. Eleven (23.4%) patients had a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, 21 (44.7%) a moderate infection, while 8 (17.0%) had severe infection and 2 (4.3%) critical. Thirty-six (76.6%) patients were treated, either with monoclonal antibodies, antivirals, corticosteroids, or with combination schemes. Overall, 10 (21.3%) were admitted to a hospital. Among these, two (4.3%) were transferred to intensive care unit and one (2.1%) of them died. Our data seem to show that the use of tixagevimab/cilgavimab may lead to a COVID-19 severity reduction in HM patients; however, further studies should incorporate further HM patients to confirm the best drug administration strategies in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Immunization, Passive , Registries
6.
Frontiers in immunology ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2253358

ABSTRACT

Background The outcome of COVID-19 in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is almost uniformely considered poor. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyse the outcome and risk factors for mortality in a large series of patients who developed COVID-19 infection after an allogeneic HSCT. Methods This multicenter retrospective study promoted by the European Hematology Association – Infections in Hematology Study Working Group, included 326 adult HSCT patients who had COVID-19 between January 2020 and March 2022. Results The median time from HSCT to the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 268 days (IQR 86-713;range 0-185 days). COVID-19 severity was mild in 21% of the patients, severe in 39% and critical in 16% of the patients. In multivariable analysis factors associated with a higher risk of mortality were, age above 50 years, presence of 3 or more comorbidities, active hematologic disease at time of COVID-19 infection, development of COVID-19 within 12 months of HSCT, and severe/critical infections. Overall mortality rate was 21% (n=68): COVID-19 was the main or secondary cause of death in 16% of the patients (n=53). Conclusions Mortality in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19 is high and largely dependent on age, comorbidities, active hematologic disease, timing from transplant and severity of the infection.

7.
Haematologica ; 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232971

ABSTRACT

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal management of AML patients with COVID-19 has not been established. Our multicenter study included 388 adult AML patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between February 2020 and October 2021. The vast majority were receiving or had received AML treatment in the prior 3 months. COVID-19 was severe in 41.2% and critical in 21.1% of cases. The chemotherapeutic schedule was modified in 174 patients (44.8%), delayed in 68 and permanently discontinued in 106. After a median follow-up of 325 days, 180 patients (46.4%) had died; death was attributed to COVID-19 (43.3%), AML (26.1%) or to a combination of both (26.7%), whereas in 3.9% of cases the reason was unknown. Active disease, older age, and treatment discontinuation were associated with death, whereas AML treatment delay was protective. Seventy-nine patients had a simultaneous AML and COVID-19 diagnosis, with an improved survival when AML treatment could be delayed (80%; p<0.001). Overall survival in patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between January 2020 and August 2020 was significantly lower than those who were diagnosed between September 2020 and February 2021 and between March 2021 and September 2021 (39.8% vs 60% vs 61.9%, respectively; p=0.006). COVID-19 in AML patients was associated with a high mortality rate and modifications of therapeutic algorithms. The best approach to improve survival was to delay AML treatment, whenever possible.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with simultaneous diagnosis of haematological malignancies (HM) and COVID-19 is unknown and there are no specific treatment guidelines. METHODS: We describe the clinical features and outcome of a cohort of 450 patients with simultaneous diagnosis of HM and COVID-19 registered in the EPICOVIDEHA registry between March 2020 to February 2022. RESULTS: Acute leukaemia and lymphoma were the most frequent HM (35.8% and 35.1%, respectively). Overall, 343 (76.2%) patients received treatment for HM, which was delayed for longer than one month since diagnosis in 57 (16.6%). An overall response rate was observed in 140 (40.8%) patients after the first line of treatment. After a median follow-up of 35 days, overall mortality was 177/450 (39.3%); 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients not receiving HM treatment (42.1%) than in those receiving treatment (27.4%, p = 0.004), either before and/or after COVID-19, or compared to patients receiving HM treatment at least after COVID-19 (15.2%, p < 0.001). Age, severe/critical COVID-19, ≥2 comorbidities, and lack of HM treatment were independent risk factors for mortality, whereas a lymphocyte count >500/mcl at COVID-19 onset was protective. CONCLUSIONS: HM treatment should be delivered as soon as possible for patients with simultaneous diagnosis of COVID-19 and HM requiring immediate therapy.

13.
Front Oncol ; 12: 992137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080206

ABSTRACT

Patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) are vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we describe and analyze the outcome of 366 adult patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) treated with targeted drugs and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosed between February 2020 and January 2022. Median follow-up was 70.5 days (IQR 0-609). Most used targeted drugs were Bruton-kinase inhibitors (BKIs) (N= 201, 55%), anti-CD20 other than rituximab (N=61, 16%), BCL2 inhibitors (N=33, 9%) and lenalidomide (N=28, 8%).Only 16.2% of the patients were vaccinated with 2 or more doses of vaccine at the onset of COVID-19. Mortality was 24% (89/366) on day 30 and 36%(134/366) on the last day of follow-up. Age >75 years (p<0.001, HR 1.036), active malignancy (p<0.001, HR 2.215), severe COVID-19 (p=0.017, HR 2.270) and admission to ICU (p<0.001, HR 5.751) were risk factors for mortality at last day of follow up. There was no difference in OS rates in NHL vs CLL patients (p=0.306), nor in patients treated with or without BKIs (p=0.151). Mortality in ICU was 66% (CLL 61%, NHL 76%). Overall mortality rate decreased according to vaccination status, being 39% in unvaccinated patients, 32% and 26% in those having received one or two doses, respectively, and 20% in patients with a booster dose (p=0.245). Overall mortality rate dropped from 41% during the first semester of 2020 to 25% at the last semester of 2021. These results show increased severity and mortality from COVID-19 in LPDs patients treated with targeted drugs.

14.
Blood ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038612

ABSTRACT

Limited data have been published on the epidemiology and outcomes of breakthrough COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancy (HM) after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Adult HM who received at least one dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and diagnosed with breakthrough COVID-19 between January 2021 and March 2022 and registered in EPICOVIDEHA were included in this analysis. A total of 1548 cases were included, mainly with lymphoid malignancies (1181 cases, 76%). After viral genome sequencing in 753 cases (49%), Omicron variant was prevalent (517, 68.7%). Most of the patients received at least two vaccine doses before COVID-19 (1419, 91%), mostly mRNA-based (1377, 89%). Overall, 906 patients (59%) received specific treatment for COVID-19. After 30-days follow-up from COVID-19 diagnosis, 143 patients (9%) died. The mortality rate in patients with Omicron variant was of 7.9%, comparable to that reported for the other variants. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly lower than in the pre-vaccine era (31%). In the univariable analysis, older age (p<0.001), active HM (p<0.001), severe and critical COVID-19 (p=0.007 and p<0.001, respectively) were associated with mortality. Conversely, patients receiving monoclonal antibodies, even for severe or critical COVID-19, had a lower mortality rate (p<0.001). In the multivariable model, older age, active disease, critical COVID-19 and at least 2-3 comorbidities were correlated with a higher mortality, whereas the administration of monoclonal antibodies, alone (p<0.001) or combined with antivirals (p=0.009), was observed protective. While mortality is significantly lower than in the pre-vaccination era, breakthrough COVID-19 in HM is still associated with considerable mortality. Death rate was lower in patients who received monoclonal antibodies, alone or in combination with antivirals. EPICOVIDEHA (www.clinicaltrials.gov; National Clinical Trials identifier NCT04733729) is an international open web-based registry for patients with HMs infected with SARS-CoV-2.

15.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(10): 1477-1483, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990392

ABSTRACT

Importance: It has become common practice to offer immunocompromised patients with hematologic cancers a third COVID-19 vaccination dose, but data substantiating this are scarce. Objective: To assess whether a third mRNA-1273 vaccination is associated with increased neutralizing antibody concentrations in immunocompromised patients with hematologic cancers comparable to levels obtained in healthy individuals after the standard 2-dose mRNA-1273 vaccination schedule. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at 4 university hospitals in the Netherlands and included 584 evaluable patients spanning the spectrum of hematologic cancers and 44 randomly selected age-matched adults without malignant or immunodeficient comorbidities. Exposures: One additional mRNA-1273 vaccination 5 months after completion of the standard 2-dose mRNA-1273 vaccination schedule. Main Outcomes and Measures: Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spike subunit 1 (S1) antigens prior to and 4 weeks after a third mRNA-1273 vaccination, and antibody neutralization capacity of wild-type, Delta, and Omicron variants in a subgroup of patients. Results: In this cohort of 584 immunocompromised patients with hematologic cancers (mean [SD] age, 60 [11.2] years; 216 [37.0%] women), a third mRNA-1273 vaccination was associated with median S1-IgG concentrations comparable to concentrations obtained by healthy individuals after the 2-dose mRNA-1273 schedule. The rise in S1-IgG concentration after the third vaccination was most pronounced in patients with a recovering immune system, but potent responses were also observed in patients with persistent immunodeficiencies. Specifically, patients with myeloid cancers or multiple myeloma and recipients of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) reached median S1-IgG concentrations similar to those obtained by healthy individuals after a 2-dose schedule. Patients receiving or shortly after completing anti-CD20 therapy, CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy recipients, and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia receiving ibrutinib were less responsive or unresponsive to the third vaccination. In the 27 patients who received cell therapy between the second and third vaccination, S1 antibodies were preserved, but a third mRNA-1273 vaccination was not associated with significantly enhanced S1-IgG concentrations except for patients with multiple myeloma receiving autologous HCT. A third vaccination was associated with significantly improved neutralization capacity per antibody. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cohort study support that the primary schedule for immunocompromised patients with hematologic cancers should be supplemented with a delayed third vaccination. Patients with B-cell lymphoma and allogeneic HCT recipients need to be revaccinated after treatment or transplantation. Trial Registration: EudraCT Identifier: 2021-001072-41.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Antibody Formation , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
18.
Blood Adv ; 6(5): 1537-1546, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666615

ABSTRACT

Vaccination guidelines for patients treated for hematological diseases are typically conservative. Given their high risk for severe COVID-19, it is important to identify those patients that benefit from vaccination. We prospectively quantified serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spike subunit 1 (S1) antigens during and after 2-dose mRNA-1273 (Spikevax/Moderna) vaccination in hematology patients. Obtaining S1 IgG ≥ 300 binding antibody units (BAUs)/mL was considered adequate as it represents the lower level of S1 IgG concentration obtained in healthy individuals, and it correlates with potent virus neutralization. Selected patients (n = 723) were severely immunocompromised owing to their disease or treatment thereof. Nevertheless, >50% of patients obtained S1 IgG ≥ 300 BAUs/mL after 2-dose mRNA-1273. All patients with sickle cell disease or chronic myeloid leukemia obtained adequate antibody concentrations. Around 70% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), multiple myeloma, or untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) obtained S1 IgG ≥ 300 BAUs/mL. Ruxolitinib or hypomethylating therapy but not high-dose chemotherapy blunted responses in myeloid malignancies. Responses in patients with lymphoma, patients with CLL on ibrutinib, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell recipients were low. The minimal time interval after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to reach adequate concentrations was <2 months for multiple myeloma, 8 months for lymphoma, and 4 to 6 months after allogeneic HCT. Serum IgG4, absolute B- and natural killer-cell number, and number of immunosuppressants predicted S1 IgG ≥ 300 BAUs/mL. Hematology patients on chemotherapy, shortly after HCT, or with cGVHD should not be precluded from vaccination. This trial was registered at Netherlands Trial Register as #NL9553.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 168, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality. METHODS: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020. RESULTS: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
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