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1.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 55, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiplexing of samples in single-cell RNA-seq studies allows a significant reduction of the experimental costs, straightforward identification of doublets, increased cell throughput, and reduction of sample-specific batch effects. Recently published multiplexing techniques using oligo-conjugated antibodies or -lipids allow barcoding sample-specific cells, a process called "hashing." RESULTS: Here, we compare the hashing performance of TotalSeq-A and -C antibodies, custom synthesized lipids and MULTI-seq lipid hashes in four cell lines, both for single-cell RNA-seq and single-nucleus RNA-seq. We also compare TotalSeq-B antibodies with CellPlex reagents (10x Genomics) on human PBMCs and TotalSeq-B with different lipids on primary mouse tissues. Hashing efficiency was evaluated using the intrinsic genetic variation of the cell lines and mouse strains. Antibody hashing was further evaluated on clinical samples using PBMCs from healthy and SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, where we demonstrate a more affordable approach for large single-cell sequencing clinical studies, while simultaneously reducing batch effects. CONCLUSIONS: Benchmarking of different hashing strategies and computational pipelines indicates that correct demultiplexing can be achieved with both lipid- and antibody-hashed human cells and nuclei, with MULTISeqDemux as the preferred demultiplexing function and antibody-based hashing as the most efficient protocol on cells. On nuclei datasets, lipid hashing delivers the best results. Lipid hashing also outperforms antibodies on cells isolated from mouse brain. However, antibodies demonstrate better results on tissues like spleen or lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Animals , Antibodies/chemistry , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology
2.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594167

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294306

ABSTRACT

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) instructs monocytes to differentiate into alveolar macrophages (AM) that preserve lung homeostasis. By comparing AM development in mouse and human, we discovered that COVID-19 patients showed marked defects in GM-CSF-dependent AM instruction. The multi-center, open-label, randomized, controlled SARPAC-trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of 5 days of inhalation of rhu-GM-CSF (sargramostim, Leukine®) in 81 non-ventilated patients with COVID-19 and hypoxemic respiratory failure identified by PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 350mmHg. At day 6, more patients in the sargramostim group experienced at least 25% improvement in oxygenation compared with the standard of care group. Higher numbers of circulating class-switched B cells and effector virus-specific CD8 lymphocytes were found in the sargramostim group. Treatment adverse events, including signs of cytokine storm, were not different between active and control group. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility and safety of inhaled GM-CSF in restoring alveolar gas exchange, while simultaneously boosting anti-COVID-19 immunity. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04326920).

4.
Immunity ; 52(6): 1039-1056.e9, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209829

ABSTRACT

The phenotypic and functional dichotomy between IRF8+ type 1 and IRF4+ type 2 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s and cDC2s, respectively) is well accepted; it is unknown how robust this dichotomy is under inflammatory conditions, when additionally monocyte-derived cells (MCs) become competent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using single-cell technologies in models of respiratory viral infection, we found that lung cDC2s acquired expression of the Fc receptor CD64 shared with MCs and of IRF8 shared with cDC1s. These inflammatory cDC2s (inf-cDC2s) were superior in inducing CD4+ T helper (Th) cell polarization while simultaneously presenting antigen to CD8+ T cells. When carefully separated from inf-cDC2s, MCs lacked APC function. Inf-cDC2s matured in response to cell-intrinsic Toll-like receptor and type 1 interferon receptor signaling, upregulated an IRF8-dependent maturation module, and acquired antigens via convalescent serum and Fc receptors. Because hybrid inf-cDC2s are easily confused with monocyte-derived cells, their existence could explain why APC functions have been attributed to MCs.


Subject(s)
Cell Plasticity/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Immunity , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Respirovirus Infections/etiology , Antigen Presentation , Biomarkers , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Immunophenotyping , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Organ Specificity/immunology , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , Respirovirus Infections/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Transcription Factors , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology
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