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Transplantation ; 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037606


BACKGROUND: Postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon and manifested by long-lasting cognitive, mental, and physical symptoms beyond the acute infection period. We aimed to estimate the frequency of PASC symptoms in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and compared their frequency between those with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization and those who did not require hospitalization. METHODS: A survey consisting of 7 standardized questionnaires was administered to 111 SOT recipients with history of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed >4 wk before survey administration. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) time from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was 167 d (138-221). Hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 33 (30%) participants. Symptoms after the COVID episode were perceived as following: significant trauma (53%), cognitive decline (50%), fatigue (41%), depression (36%), breathing problems (35%), anxiety (23%), dysgeusia (22%), dysosmia (21%), and pain (19%). Hospitalized patients had poorer median scores in cognition (Quick Dementia Rating System survey score: 2.0 versus 0.5, P = 0.02), quality of life (Health-related Quality of Life survey: 2.0 versus 1.0, P = 0.015), physical health (Global physical health scale: 10.0 versus 11.0, P = 0.005), respiratory status (Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale: 1.0 versus 0.0, P = 0.035), and pain (Pain score: 3 versus 0 out of 10, P = 0.003). Among patients with infection >6 mo prior, some symptoms were still present as following: abnormal breathing (42%), cough (40%), dysosmia (29%), and dysgeusia (34%). CONCLUSIONS: SOT recipients reported a high frequency of PASC symptoms. Multidisciplinary approach is needed to care for these patients beyond the acute phase.

COVID ; 2(9):1253-1264, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2009967


Objective: Cognitive dysfunction is one of the most frequently reported symptoms in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) and has become a common reason for neuropsychological referral. While data are emerging, we aimed to address possible cross-cultural patterns of neuropsychological outcomes that remain underexplored. Methods: In this cross-sectional, retrospective study, we characterize the cognitive performance, demographic makeup, and clinical characteristics of 84 PASC patients (Mage = 57 years) referred for neuropsychological evaluation to three USA sites and one in Germany. Neuropsychological data (mean demographically adjusted z-scores and frequencies of impairment) were examined across six cognitive domains. Independent t-tests compared performances of previously hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. Results: Patients were assessed on average seven months post-COVID-19 infection. The majority were women and non-hospitalized. Mean cognitive performance was within the normative range, but high variability existed within and between sites. Deficits were generally mild and most frequent in processing speed (range across sites: 9–57% of patients), executive functioning (range across sites: 4–43% of patients) and attention/working memory (range across sites: 0–43% of patients). Hospitalized patients showed greater cognitive impairment than those not requiring hospitalization. Mood symptoms and fatigue/sleep disturbance were more frequent than objective cognitive impairments. At the time of assessment, most patients were unable to return to work. Conclusions: Cognitive performance in clinically referred PASC patients was, overall, within the normative range. Mild deficits were most frequent in time-based attentional/executive tasks. Other factors, such as affective symptoms and fatigue, were frequent and may significantly impact functioning, perhaps more than cognition. Further work with larger samples and longitudinal measures is needed to clarify the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive function and psychiatric distress.

J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry ; 63(2): 133-143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804387


BACKGROUND: There is a limited understanding of the cognitive and psychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 during the post-acute phase, particularly among racially and ethnically diverse patients. OBJECTIVE: We sought to prospectively characterize cognition, mental health symptoms, and functioning approximately four months after an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 in a racially and ethnically diverse group of patients. METHODS: Approximately four months after COVID-19 diagnosis, patients in the Johns Hopkins Post-Acute COVID-19 Team Pulmonary Clinic underwent a clinical telephone-based assessment of cognition, depression, anxiety, trauma, and function. RESULTS: Most Johns Hopkins Post-Acute COVID-19 Team patients assessed were women (59%) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups (65%). Of 82 patients, 67% demonstrated ≥1 abnormally low cognitive score. Patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) stays displayed greater breadth and severity of impairment than those requiring less intensive treatment. Processing speed (35%), verbal fluency (26%-32%), learning (27%), and memory (27%) were most commonly impaired. Among all patients, 35% had moderate symptoms of depression (23%), anxiety (15%), or functional decline (15%); 25% of ICU patients reported trauma-related distress. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional decline did not differ by post-ICU versus non-ICU status and were unrelated to global cognitive composite scores. CONCLUSIONS: At approximately 4 months after acute illness, cognitive dysfunction, emotional distress, and functional decline were common among a diverse clinical sample of COVID-19 survivors varying in acute illness severity. Patients requiring ICU stays demonstrated greater breadth and severity of cognitive impairment than those requiring less intensive treatment. Findings help extend our understanding of the nature, severity, and potential duration of neuropsychiatric morbidity after COVID-19 and point to the need for longitudinal assessment of cognitive and mental health outcomes among COVID-19 survivors of different demographic backgrounds and illness characteristics.

COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19 Testing , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2119335, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330278