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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332881

ABSTRACT

Summary SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies play a critical role for protection and treatment of COVID-19. Viral antibody evasion therefore threatens essential prophylactic and therapeutic measures. The high number of mutations in the Omicron BA.1 sublineage results in markedly reduced neutralization susceptibility. Consistently, Omicron is associated with lower vaccine effectiveness and a high re-infection rate. Notably, newly emerging Omicron sublineages (BA.1.1, BA.2) have rapidly become dominant. Here, we determine polyclonal serum activity against BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2 in 50 convalescent or vaccinated individuals as well as delineate antibody sensitivities on a monoclonal level using 163 antibodies. Our study reveals a significant but comparable reduction of serum activity against Omicron sublineages which markedly increases after booster immunization. However, notable differences in sensitivity to individual antibodies demonstrate distinct escape patterns of BA.1 and BA.2 that also affect antibodies in clinical use. The results have strong implications for vaccination strategies and antibody use in prophylaxis and therapy.

2.
iScience ; 25(3): 103951, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747872

ABSTRACT

Preexisting immunity against SARS-CoV-2 may have critical implications for our understanding of COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. The presence and clinical relevance of a preexisting B cell immunity remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the B cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in unexposed individuals. To this end, we extensively investigated SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity in 150 adults sampled pre-pandemically. Comprehensive screening of donor plasma and purified IgG samples for binding and neutralization in various functional assays revealed no substantial activity against SARS-CoV-2 but broad reactivity to endemic betacoronaviruses. Moreover, we analyzed antibody sequences of 8,174 putatively SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells at a single cell level and generated and tested 158 monoclonal antibodies. None of these antibodies displayed relevant binding or neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, our results show no evidence of competent preexisting antibody and B cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in unexposed adults.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731731

ABSTRACT

To determine neutralizing activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ancestral strain and 4 variants of concern, we tested serum from 30 persons with breakthrough infection after 2-dose vaccination. Cross-variant neutralizing activity was comparable to that after 3-dose vaccination. Shorter intervals between vaccination and breakthrough infection correlated with lower neutralizing titers.

5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327477

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination of healthy individuals is highly immunogenic and protective against severe COVID-19. However, there are limited data on how disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) alter SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine immunogenicity in patients with autoimmune diseases. Here we investigated the induction and stability of vaccine-specific antibodies, B cells, and T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients on different DMTs in a prospective cohort study up to 6 months after homologous prime-boost mRNA vaccination. We analysed 103 MS patients of which 86 received anti-CD20-based B cell depletion (aCD20-BCD), fingolimod, interferon-β, dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide or natalizumab, and compared them to 17 untreated MS patients. In contrast to all other DMTs and untreated patients, treatment with aCD20-BCD or fingolimod significantly reduced anti-S1 IgG, serum neutralizing activity, and RBD- and S2-specific B cells. MS patients receiving fingolimod additionally lacked S1- and S2-reactive CD4 + T cell responses. The duration of fingolimod treatment, rather than peripheral blood B and T cell counts prior to vaccination, determined whether patients successfully developed humoral immune responses. Fingolimod blocks the ability of immune cells to recirculate and migrate within secondary lymphoid organs demonstrating that functional immune responses require not only immune cells themselves but also access of these cells to the site of inoculation and their unimpeded movement. The absence of humoral and T cell responses in fingolimod-treated MS patients suggests that these patients are at risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infections despite vaccination, which is highly relevant for clinical decision-making and adapted protective measures, particularly in light of additional recently approved S1P receptor antagonists for MS treatment.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327374

ABSTRACT

Elderly individuals are at high risk for severe COVID-19. Due to modest vaccine responses compared to younger individuals and the time elapsed since prioritized vaccinations, the emerging immune-evasive Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is a particular concern for the elderly. Here we longitudinally determined SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing serum activity against different variants in a cohort of 37 individuals with a median age of 82 years. Participants were followed for 10 months after an initial two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination and up to 4.5 months after a BNT162b2 booster. Detectable Omicron-neutralizing activity was nearly absent after two vaccinations but elicited in 89% of individuals by the booster immunization. Neutralizing titers against the Wu01, Delta, and Omicron variants showed similar post-boost declines and 81% of individuals maintained detectable activity against Omicron. Our study demonstrates the mRNA booster effectiveness in inducing anti-Omicron activity and provides critical information on vaccine response durability in the highly vulnerable elderly population.

8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 69-82.e10, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638702

ABSTRACT

A fraction of COVID-19 convalescent individuals mount a potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1. To uncover their humoral response in detail, we performed single B cell analysis from 10 SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. We isolated and analyzed 126 monoclonal antibodies, many of which were sarbecovirus cross-reactive, with some displaying merbecovirus- and embecovirus-reactivity. Several isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies were effective against B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.429, B.1.617, and B.1.617.2 variants and 19 prominent potential escape sites. Furthermore, assembly of 716,806 SARS-CoV-2 sequences predicted emerging escape variants, which were also effectively neutralized. One of these broadly neutralizing potent antibodies, R40-1G8, is a IGHV3-53 RBD-class-1 antibody. Remarkably, cryo-EM analysis revealed that R40-1G8 has a flexible binding mode, targeting both "up" and "down" conformations of the RBD. Given the threat of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, we demonstrate that elite neutralizers are a valuable source for isolating ultrapotent antibody candidates to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 477-480, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632860

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is causing a rapid increase in infections across the globe. This new variant of concern carries an unusually high number of mutations in key epitopes of neutralizing antibodies on the viral spike glycoprotein, suggesting potential immune evasion. Here we assessed serum neutralizing capacity in longitudinal cohorts of vaccinated and convalescent individuals, as well as monoclonal antibody activity against Omicron using pseudovirus neutralization assays. We report a near-complete lack of neutralizing activity against Omicron in polyclonal sera from individuals vaccinated with two doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine and from convalescent individuals, as well as resistance to different monoclonal antibodies in clinical use. However, mRNA booster immunizations in vaccinated and convalescent individuals resulted in a significant increase of serum neutralizing activity against Omicron. This study demonstrates that booster immunizations can critically improve the humoral immune response against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606542

ABSTRACT

Effects of initiation of programmed-death-protein 1 (PD1) blockade during active SARS-CoV-2 infection on antiviral immunity, COVID-19 course, and underlying malignancy are unclear. We report on the management of a male in his early 40s presenting with highly symptomatic metastatic lung cancer and active COVID-19 pneumonia. After treatment initiation with pembrolizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed, the respiratory situation initially worsened and high-dose corticosteroids were initiated due to suspected pneumonitis. After improvement and SARS-CoV-2 clearance, anti-cancer treatment was resumed without pembrolizumab. Immunological analyses with comparison to otherwise healthy SARS-CoV-2-infected ambulatory patients revealed a strong humoral immune response with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IgG and neutralizing serum activity. Additionally, sustained increase of Tfh as well as activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was observed. Sequential CT scans showed regression of tumor lesions and marked improvement of the pulmonary situation, with no signs of pneumonitis after pembrolizumab re-challenge as maintenance. At the latest follow-up, the patient is ambulatory and in ongoing partial remission on pembrolizumab. In conclusion, anti-PD1 initiation during active COVID-19 pneumonia was feasible and cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 appeared enhanced in our hospitalized patient. However, distinguishing COVID-19-associated changes from anti-PD1-associated immune-related pneumonitis posed a considerable clinical, radiographic, and immunologic challenge.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1255-1265, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccine regimens have been widely discussed as a way to mitigate intermittent supply shortages and to improve immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, Mainz, Germany) compared with homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 immunisation. METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a prospective observational cohort study enrolling health-care workers in Berlin (Germany) who received either homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination with a 10-12-week vaccine interval or homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week vaccine interval. We assessed reactogenicity after the first and second vaccination by use of electronic questionnaires on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Immunogenicity was measured by the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, and RBD-IgG), by an RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition assay (surrogate SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation test), a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against two variants of concerns (alpha [B.1.1.7] and beta [B.1.351]), and anti-S1-IgG avidity. T-cell reactivity was measured by IFN-γ release assay. FINDINGS: Between Dec 27, 2020, and June 14, 2021, 380 participants were enrolled in the study, with 174 receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, 38 receiving homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination, and 104 receiving ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination. Systemic symptoms were reported by 103 (65%, 95% CI 57·1-71·8) of 159 recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 14 (39%, 24·8-55·1) of 36 recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 51 (49%, 39·6-58·5) of 104 recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 after the booster immunisation. Median anti-RBD IgG levels 3 weeks after boost immunisation were 5·4 signal to cutoff ratio (S/co; IQR 4·8-5·9) in recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 4·9 S/co (4·3-5·6) in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 5·6 S/co (5·1-6·1) in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19- BNT162b2. Geometric mean of 50% inhibitory dose against alpha and beta variants were highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (956·6, 95% CI 835·6-1095, against alpha and 417·1, 349·3-498·2, against beta) compared with those in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (212·5, 131·2-344·4, against alpha and 48·5, 28·4-82·8, against beta; both p<0·0001) or homologous BNT162b2 (369·2, 310·7-438·6, against alpha and 72·4, 60·5-86·5, against beta; both p<0·0001). SARS-CoV-2 S1 T-cell reactivity 3 weeks after boost immunisation was highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (median IFN-γ concentration 4762 mIU/mL, IQR 2723-8403) compared with that in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (1061 mIU/mL, 599-2274, p<0·0001) and homologous BNT162b2 (2026 mIU/mL, 1459-4621, p=0·0008) vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 immunisation with 10-12-week interval, recommended in Germany, is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination with 10-12-week interval and BNT162b2 vaccination with 3-week interval. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies for COVID-19 might be generally applicable. FUNDING: Forschungsnetzwerk der Universitätsmedizin zu COVID-19, the German Ministry of Education and Research, Zalando SE.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Germany , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296695

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is causing a rapid increase in infections in various countries. This new variant of concern carries an unusually high number of mutations in key epitopes of neutralizing antibodies on the spike glycoprotein, suggesting potential immune evasion. Here we assessed serum neutralizing capacity in longitudinal cohorts of vaccinated and convalescent individuals, as well as monoclonal antibody activity against Omicron using pseudovirus neutralization assays. We report a near-complete lack of neutralizing activity against Omicron in polyclonal sera after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, in convalescent individuals, as well as resistance to different monoclonal antibodies in clinical use. However, mRNA booster immunizations in vaccinated and convalescent individuals resulted in a significant increase of serum neutralizing activity against Omicron. Our study demonstrates that booster immunizations will be critical to substantially improve the humoral immune response against the Omicron variant.

13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295190

ABSTRACT

The identification and isolation of highly infectious SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals is an important public health strategy. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are promising candidates for large-scale screenings due to timely results and feasibility for on-site testing. Nonetheless, the diagnostic performance of RADT in detecting infectious individuals is yet to be fully determined. Two combined oro- and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from individuals at a routine SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic center. Side-by-side evaluations of RT-qPCR and RADT as well as live virus cultures of positive samples were performed to determine the sensitivity of the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag Test (SD Biosensor/Roche) in detecting SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with cultivable virus. A total of 2,028 samples were tested and 118 virus cultures inoculated. SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in 210 samples by RT-qPCR, representing a positive rate of 10.36%. The Standard Q COVID-19 Ag Test yielded a positive result in 92 (4.54%) samples resulting in an overall sensitivity and specificity of 42.86% and 99.89%. For adjusted Ct values <20, <25, and <30 the RADT reached sensitivities of 100%, 98.15%, and 88.64%, respectively. All 29 culture positive samples were detected by RADT. While overall sensitivity was low, Standard Q COVID-19 RADT reliably detected patients with high RNA loads. Additionally, negative RADT results fully corresponded with the lack of viral cultivability in Vero E6 cells. These results indicate that RADT can be a valuable tool for the detection of individuals that are likely to transmit SARS-CoV-2. RADT testing could therefore guide public health testing strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 746644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497092

ABSTRACT

Prophylactic vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is one of the most important measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, break-through infections following vaccination against this virus have been reported. Here, we describe the humoral immune response of break-through infections in fully vaccinated individuals of old age from an outbreak in a nursing home. In cooperation with the local health authority, blood samples from fully vaccinated and infected as well as fully vaccinated and uninfected residents of the nursing home were collected 4 weeks after the onset of the outbreak. The humoral immune response was determined in a neutralisation assay with replication-competent virus isolates and by a quantitative ELISA. In this outbreak a total of 23 residents and four health care workers were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Four residents were unvaccinated, including one with a severe course of disease who later severe disease course who later succumbed to infection. Despite their old age, all vaccinated residents showed no or only mild disease. Comparison of the humoral immune response revealed significantly higher antibody levels in fully vaccinated infected individuals compared to fully vaccinated uninfected individuals (p < 0.001). Notably, although only a minority of the vaccinated uninfected group showed neutralisation capacity against SARS-CoV-2, all vaccinated and infected individuals showed high-titre neutralisation of SARS-CoV-2 including the alpha and beta variant. Large SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks can occur in fully vaccinated populations, but seem to associate with mild disease. SARS-CoV-2 infection in fully vaccinated individuals is a strong booster of the humoral immune response providing enhanced neutralisation capacity against immune evasion variants.

16.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0089621, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365131

ABSTRACT

The identification and isolation of highly infectious SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals is an important public health strategy. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are promising tools for large-scale screenings due to timely results and feasibility for on-site testing. Nonetheless, the diagnostic performance of RADT in detecting infectious individuals is not yet fully determined. In this study, RT-qPCR and virus culture of RT-qPCR-positive samples were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test in detecting SARS-CoV-2-infected and possibly infectious individuals. To this end, two combined oro- and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at a routine SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic center. A total of 2,028 samples were tested, and 118 virus cultures were inoculated. SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in 210 samples by RT-qPCR, representing a positive rate of 10.36%. The Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test yielded a positive result in 92 (4.54%) samples resulting in an overall sensitivity and specificity of 42.86 and 99.89%, respectively. For adjusted CT values of <20 (n = 14), <25 (n = 57), and <30 (n = 88), the RADT reached sensitivities of 100, 98.25, and 88.64%, respectively. All 29 culture-positive samples were detected by the RADT. Although the overall sensitivity was low, the Standard Q COVID-19 Ag test reliably detected patients with high RNA loads. In addition, negative RADT results fully corresponded with the lack of viral cultivability in Vero E6 cells. These results indicate that RADT can be a valuable tool for the detection of individuals with high RNA loads that are likely to transmit SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335231

ABSTRACT

Despite the recent availability of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is an urgent need for specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies are an important drug class in the global fight against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic due to their ability to convey immediate protection and their potential to be used as both prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. Clinically used neutralizing antibodies against respiratory viruses are currently injected intravenously, which can lead to suboptimal pulmonary bioavailability and thus to a lower effectiveness. Here we describe DZIF-10c, a fully human monoclonal neutralizing antibody that binds the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. DZIF-10c displays an exceptionally high neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2, retains full activity against the variant of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 and still neutralizes the VOC B.1.351, although with reduced potency. Importantly, not only systemic but also intranasal application of DZIF-10c abolished the presence of infectious particles in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2 infected mice and mitigated lung pathology when administered prophylactically. Along with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, these results highlight DZIF-10c as a novel human SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody with high in vitro and in vivo antiviral potency. The successful intranasal application of DZIF-10c paves the way for clinical trials investigating topical delivery of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14150, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271067

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity triggers responsible for viral control or hyperinflammation in COVID-19 are largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein) primes inflammasome formation and release of mature interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in macrophages derived from COVID-19 patients but not in macrophages from healthy SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses reveal robust S-protein-driven inflammasome activation in macrophages isolated from convalescent COVID-19 patients, which correlates with distinct epigenetic and gene expression signatures suggesting innate immune memory after recovery from COVID-19. Importantly, we show that S-protein-driven IL-1ß secretion from patient-derived macrophages requires non-specific monocyte pre-activation in vivo to trigger NLRP3-inflammasome signaling. Our findings reveal that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes profound and long-lived reprogramming of macrophages resulting in augmented immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, a major vaccine antigen and potent driver of adaptive and innate immune signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-1beta , Macrophages , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 6: 100122, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the leading symptoms during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are acute and the majority of patients fully recover, a significant fraction of patients now increasingly experience long-term health consequences. However, most data available focus on health-related events after severe infection and hospitalisation. We present a longitudinal, prospective analysis of health consequences in patients who initially presented with no or minor symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Hence, we focus on mild COVID-19 in non-hospitalised patients. METHODS: 958 Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were observed from April 6th to December 2nd 2020 for long-term symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We identified anosmia, ageusia, fatigue or shortness of breath as most common, persisting symptoms at month 4 and 7 and summarised presence of such long-term health consequences as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). Predictors of long-term symptoms were assessed using an uni- and multivariable logistic regression model. FINDINGS: We observed 442 and 353 patients over four and seven months after symptom onset, respectively. Four months post SARS-CoV-2 infection, 8•6% (38/442) of patients presented with shortness of breath, 12•4% (55/442) with anosmia, 11•1% (49/442) with ageusia and 9•7% (43/442) with fatigue. At least one of these characteristic symptoms was present in 27•8% (123/442) and 34•8% (123/353) at month 4 and 7 post-infection, respectively. A lower baseline level of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, anosmia and diarrhoea during acute COVID-19 were associated with higher risk to develop long-term symptoms. INTERPRETATION: The on-going presence of either shortness of breath, anosmia, ageusia or fatigue as long-lasting symptoms even in non-hospitalised patients was observed at four and seven months post-infection and summarised as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). The continued assessment of patients with PCS will become a major task to define and mitigate the socioeconomic and medical long-term effects of COVID-19. FUNDING: COVIM:"NaFoUniMedCovid19"(FKZ: 01KX2021).

20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(6): 917-929.e4, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213083

ABSTRACT

Understanding antibody-based SARS-CoV-2 immunity is critical for overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic and informing vaccination strategies. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 antibody dynamics over 10 months in 963 individuals who predominantly experienced mild COVID-19. Investigating 2,146 samples, we initially detected SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 94.4% of individuals, with 82% and 79% exhibiting serum and IgG neutralization, respectively. Approximately 3% of individuals demonstrated exceptional SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, with these "elite neutralizers" also possessing SARS-CoV-1 cross-neutralizing IgG. Multivariate statistical modeling revealed age, symptomatic infection, disease severity, and gender as key factors predicting SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activity. A loss of reactivity to the virus spike protein was observed in 13% of individuals 10 months after infection. Neutralizing activity had half-lives of 14.7 weeks in serum versus 31.4 weeks in purified IgG, indicating a rather long-term IgG antibody response. Our results demonstrate a broad spectrum in the initial SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody response, with sustained antibodies in most individuals for 10 months after mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
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