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3.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e38710, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza affects 5% to 15% of Americans annually, resulting in preventable deaths and substantial economic impact. Influenza infection is particularly dangerous for people with cardiovascular disease, who therefore represent a priority group for vaccination campaigns. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of digital intervention messaging on self-reported rates of seasonal influenza vaccination. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind, and decentralized trial conducted at individual locations throughout the United States over the 2020-2021 influenza season. Adults with self-reported cardiovascular disease who were members of the Achievement mobile platform were randomized to receive or not receive a series of 6 patient-centered digital intervention messages promoting influenza vaccination. The primary end point was the between-group difference in self-reported vaccination rates at 6 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes included the levels of engagement with the messages and the relationship between vaccination rates and engagement with the messages. Subgroup analyses examined variation in intervention effects by race. Controlling for randomization group, we examined the impact of other predictors of vaccination status, including cardiovascular condition type, vaccine drivers or barriers, and vaccine knowledge. RESULTS: Of the 49,138 randomized participants, responses on the primary end point were available for 11,237 (22.87%; 5575 in the intervention group and 5662 in the control group) participants. The vaccination rate was significantly higher in the intervention group (3418/5575, 61.31%) than the control group (3355/5662, 59.25%; relative risk 1.03, 95% CI 1.004-1.066; P=.03). Participants who were older, more educated, and White or Asian were more likely to report being vaccinated. The intervention was effective among White participants (P=.004) but not among people of color (P=.42). The vaccination rate was 13 percentage points higher among participants who completed all 6 intervention messages versus none, and at least 2 completed messages appeared to be needed for effectiveness. Participants who reported a diagnosis of COVID-19 were more likely to be vaccinated for influenza regardless of treatment assignment. CONCLUSIONS: This personalized, evidence-based digital intervention was effective in increasing vaccination rates in this population of high-risk people with cardiovascular disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04584645; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04584645.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Text Messaging , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Single-Blind Method , United States , Vaccination
4.
N Engl J Med ; 387(12): 1089-1098, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death among patients with chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in patients with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction remains less certain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 6263 patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or matching placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (which was defined as either an unplanned hospitalization for heart failure or an urgent visit for heart failure) or cardiovascular death, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: Over a median of 2.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 512 of 3131 patients (16.4%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 610 of 3132 patients (19.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.92; P<0.001). Worsening heart failure occurred in 368 patients (11.8%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 455 patients (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91); cardiovascular death occurred in 231 patients (7.4%) and 261 patients (8.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05). Total events and symptom burden were lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. Results were similar among patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% or more and those with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 60%, and results were similar in prespecified subgroups, including patients with or without diabetes. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the combined risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death among patients with heart failure and a mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DELIVER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03619213.).


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061245, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major organ complications have been reported in patients hospitalised for COVID-19; most studies lacked controls. OBJECTIVE: Examine major organ damage postdischarge among adults hospitalised for COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 controls. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library from 1 January 2020 to 19 May 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: English language studies of adults discharged from hospital for COVID-19; reporting major organ damage. Single review of abstracts; independent dual review of full text. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Appraisal Checklist for Cohort Studies. Outcome data were not pooled due to heterogeneity in populations, study designs and outcome assessment methods; findings are narratively synthesised. RESULTS: Of 124 studies in a full evidence report, 9 included non-COVID controls and are described here. Four of the nine (three USA, one UK) used large administrative databases. Four of the remaining five studies enrolled <600 COVID-19 patients. Mean or median age ranged from 49 to 70 years with 46%-94% male and 48%-78% White race; 10%-40% had been in intensive care units. Follow-up ranged from 4 weeks to 22 weeks postdischarge. Four used hospitalised controls, three non-hospitalised controls and two were unclear. Studies used various definitions of, and methods to assess, major organ damage outcomes. While the magnitude of effect differed across studies, incident cardiac, pulmonary, liver, acute and chronic kidney, stroke, diabetes, and coagulation disorders were consistently greater in adults hospitalised for COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19 controls. LIMITATIONS: Applicability to subgroups (age, gender, COVID-19 severity, treatment, vaccination status) and non-hospitalised patients is unknown. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: Postacute COVID-19 major organ damage is common and likely higher than controls. However, there is substantial uncertainty. More consistent reporting of clinical outcomes and pre-COVID health status along with careful selection of control groups are needed to address evidence gaps. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020204788.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Subacute Care
6.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are varied opinions in the United States regarding many aspects of care related to COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of health care personnel and the policies of heart transplant centers concerning practices for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in donors and recipients of heart transplants. METHODS: Two anonymous, electronic web-based surveys were developed: 1 was administered to health care personnel through a mailing list maintained by the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA); another was administered to U.S. medical adult and pediatric heart transplant (HT) program directors. Individual and group e-mails were sent with an embedded link to the respective surveys in February 2022. RESULTS: A total of 176 individuals (8.6%) responded to the survey administered through the HFSA. Of medical directors of transplant programs, 78 (54% response rate) completed a separate survey on their centers' policies. Although 95% (n = 167) of individuals indicated vaccination against COVID-19 should be required prior to HT, only 67% (n = 52) of centers mandated that practice. Similarly, 61% of individuals thought vaccination should be required prior to HT for caregivers, but only 13% of transplant centers mandated caregiver vaccination. Of the centers, 63% reported considering donors despite histories of recent COVID-19 infection (within 3 months), and 47% considered donors with current positive polymerase chain reaction tests. Regarding post-transplant care, only 22% of programs routinely measured antibodies to COVID-19, and 71% used tixagevimab/cilgavimab (Evusheld) for pre-exposure prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences between individual preferences and centers' practices with respect to COVID-19 management of candidates for and recipients of HT. Additionally, there was wide variation in policies among centers, reflecting the need for further study to inform consistent guidance and recommendations across centers to optimize equitable care for this high-risk patient population.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228873, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825757

ABSTRACT

Importance: Influenza infection is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. Our prior systematic review and meta-analysis hypothesized that influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. Objective: To evaluate, via an updated meta-analysis, if seasonal influenza vaccination is associated with a lower risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and assess whether the newest cardiovascular outcome trial results are consistent with prior findings. Data Sources: A previously published meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and a large 2021 cardiovascular outcome trial. Study Selection: Studies with RCTs published between 2000 and 2021 that randomized participants to either influenza vaccine or placebo/control. Eligible participants were inpatients and outpatients recruited for international multicenter RCTs and randomized to receive either influenza vaccine or placebo/control. Data Extraction and Synthesis: PRISMA guidelines were followed in the extraction of study details, and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Trial quality was evaluated using Cochrane criteria. Data were analyzed January 2020 and December 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were derived for a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality within 12 months of follow-up. Where available, analyses were stratified by patients with and without recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) within 1 year of randomization. Results: Six published RCTs comprising a total of 9001 patients were included (mean age, 65.5 years; 42.5% women; 52.3% with a cardiac history). Overall, influenza vaccine was associated with a lower risk of composite cardiovascular events (3.6% vs 5.4%; RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.83; P < .001). A treatment interaction was detected between patients with recent ACS (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) and without recent ACS (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.47) (P for interaction = .02). For cardiovascular mortality, a treatment interaction was also detected between patients with recent ACS (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85) and without recent ACS (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.84-2.50) (P for interaction = .006), while 1.7% of vaccine recipients died of cardiovascular causes compared with 2.5% of placebo or control recipients (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.42-1.30; P = .29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with a 34% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, and individuals with recent ACS had a 45% lower risk. Given influenza poses a threat to population health during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is integral to counsel high-risk patients on the cardiovascular benefits of influenza vaccination.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vaccination
10.
Eur Heart J ; 42(20): 2015-2018, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145168

ABSTRACT

The link between viral respiratory infection and non-pulmonary organ-specific injury, including cardiac injury, has become increasingly appreciated during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Even prior to the pandemic, however, the association between acute infection with influenza and elevated cardiovascular risk was evident. The recently published results of the NHLBI-funded INfluenza Vaccine to Effectively Stop CardioThoracic Events and Decompensated (INVESTED) trial, a 5200 patient comparative effectiveness study of high-dose vs. standard-dose influenza vaccine to reduce cardiopulmonary events and mortality in a high-risk cardiovascular population, found no difference between strategies. However, the broader implications of influenza vaccine as a strategy to reduce morbidity in high-risk patients remain extremely important, with randomized controlled trial and observational data supporting vaccination in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. Given a favourable risk-benefit profile and widespread availability at generally low cost, we contend that influenza vaccination should remain a centrepiece of cardiovascular risk mitigation and describe the broader context of underutilization of this strategy. Few therapeutics in medicine offer seasonal efficacy from a single administration with generally mild, transient side effects, and exceedingly low rates of serious adverse effects. Infection control measures such as physical distancing, hand washing, and the use of masks during the COVID-19 pandemic have already been associated with substantially curtailed incidence of influenza outbreaks across the globe. Appending annual influenza vaccination to these measures represents an important public health and moral imperative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 65-73, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate in-hospital outcomes among patients with a history of heart failure (HF) hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic comorbidities are common in patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with HF may be particularly susceptible to COVID-19 complications. METHODS: The Premier Healthcare Database was used to identify patients with at least 1 HF hospitalization or 2 HF outpatient visits between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020, who were subsequently hospitalized between April and September 2020. Baseline characteristics, health care resource utilization, and mortality rates were compared between those hospitalized with COVID-19 and those hospitalized with other causes. Predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified in HF patients hospitalized with COVID-19 by using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1,212,153 patients with history of HF, 132,312 patients were hospitalized from April 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. A total of 23,843 patients (18.0%) were hospitalized with acute HF, 8,383 patients (6.4%) were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 100,068 patients (75.6%) were hospitalized with alternative reasons. Hospitalization with COVID-19 was associated with greater odds of in-hospital mortality as compared with hospitalization with acute HF; 24.2% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 died in-hospital compared to 2.6% of those hospitalized with acute HF. This association was strongest in April (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 14.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]:12.25 to 17.12) than in subsequent months (adjusted OR: 10.11; 95% CI: 8.95 to 11.42; pinteraction <0.001). Among patients with HF hospitalized with COVID-19, male sex (adjusted OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.40) and morbid obesity (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.46) were associated with greater odds of in-hospital mortality, along with age (adjusted OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.42 per 10 years) and admission earlier in the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF hospitalized with COVID-19 are at high risk for complications, with nearly 1 in 4 dying during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
13.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 403, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the overlapping clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza, parallels are often drawn between the two diseases. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at a higher risk for severe manifestations of both illnesses. Considering the high transmission rate of COVID-19 and with the seasonal influenza approaching in late 2020, the dual epidemics of COVID-19 and influenza pose serious cardiovascular implications. This review highlights the similarities and differences between influenza and COVID-19 and the potential risks associated with coincident pandemics. MAIN BODY: COVID-19 has a higher mortality compared to influenza with case fatality rate almost 15 times more than that of influenza. Additionally, a significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes has been noted in patients with CVD, with ~ 15 to 70% of COVID-19 related deaths having an underlying CVD. The critical care need have ranged from 5 to 79% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, a proportion substantially higher than with influenza. Similarly, the frequency of vascular thrombosis including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is markedly higher in COVID-19 patients compared with influenza in which vascular complications are rarely seen. Unexpectedly, while peak influenza season is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations, a decrease of ~ 50% in cardiovascular hospitalizations has been observed since the first diagnosed case of COVID-19, owing in part to deferred care. CONCLUSION: In the coming months, increasing efforts towards evaluating new interventions will be vital to curb COVID-19, especially as peak influenza season approaches. Currently, not enough data exist regarding co-infection of COVID-19 with influenza or how it would progress clinically, though it may cause a significant burden on an already struggling health care system. Until an effective COVID-19 vaccination is available, high coverage of influenza vaccination should be of utmost priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(3): 360, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932391

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2368-2378, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912306

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly changed clinical care and research, including the conduct of clinical trials, and the clinical research ecosystem will need to adapt to this transformed environment. The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory and the Academic Research Consortium, composed of academic investigators from the United States and Europe, patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and industry members. A series of meetings were convened to address the challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, review options for maintaining or altering best practices, and establish key recommendations for the conduct and analysis of clinical trials for cardiovascular disease and heart failure. This paper summarizes the discussions and expert consensus recommendations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Endpoint Determination , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Statistics as Topic
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(15): 1777-1794, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812096

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory infections are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Underlying CVD is also associated with an increased risk of complications following viral respiratory infections, including increased morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization. Globally, these phenomena are observed with seasonal influenza and with the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Persons with CVD represent an important target population for respiratory virus vaccines, with capacity developed within 3 large ongoing influenza vaccine cardiovascular outcomes trials to determine the potential cardioprotective effects of influenza vaccines. In the context of COVID-19, these international trial networks may be uniquely positioned to redeploy infrastructure to study therapies for primary and secondary prevention of COVID-19. Here, we describe mechanistic links between influenza and COVID-19 infection and the risk of acute cardiovascular events, summarize the data to date on the potential cardioprotective effects of influenza vaccines, and describe the ongoing influenza vaccine cardiovascular outcomes trials, highlighting important lessons learned that are applicable to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods
17.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(11): 1930-1935, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been promoted as a potential treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there are safety concerns. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of HCQ treatment on QT interval. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the electrocardiograms of 819 patients treated with HCQ for rheumatologic diseases from 2000 to 2020. The primary outcome was corrected QT (QTc) interval, by Bazett formula, during HCQ therapy. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 64.0 ± 10.9 years, and 734 patients (90%) were men. Median dosage of HCQ was 400 mg daily, and median (25th-75th percentile) duration of HCQ therapy was 1006 (471-2075) days. Mean on-treatment QTc was 430.9 ± 31.8 ms. In total, 55 patients (7%) had QTc 470-500 ms, and 12 (1.5%) had QTc >500 ms. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), history of atrial fibrillation (AF), and heart failure were independent risk factors for prolonged QTc. In a subset of 591 patients who also had a pretreatment electrocardiogram, mean QTc increased from 424.4 ± 29.7 ms to 432.0 ± 32.3 ms (P <.0001) during HCQ treatment. Of these patients, 23 (3.9%) had either prolongation of QTc >15% or on-treatment QTc >500 ms. Over median 5.97 (3.33-10.11) years of follow-up, 269 patients (33%) died. QTc >470 ms during HCQ treatment was associated with a greater mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.78; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.71; P = .008) in univariable but not in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: HCQ is associated with QT prolongation in a significant fraction of patients. The risk of QT prolongation is higher among patients with CKD, AF, and heart failure, who may benefit from greater scrutiny.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/mortality , Risk Adjustment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(7): 831-840, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19552

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached a pandemic level. Coronaviruses are known to affect the cardiovascular system. We review the basics of coronaviruses, with a focus on COVID-19, along with their effects on the cardiovascular system. Observations: Coronavirus disease 2019 can cause a viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and complications. A large proportion of patients have underlying cardiovascular disease and/or cardiac risk factors. Factors associated with mortality include male sex, advanced age, and presence of comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. Acute cardiac injury determined by elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels is commonly observed in severe cases and is strongly associated with mortality. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is also strongly associated with mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with a high inflammatory burden that can induce vascular inflammation, myocarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Extensive efforts are underway to find specific vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, cardiovascular risk factors and conditions should be judiciously controlled per evidence-based guidelines.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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