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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the occupation is a risk factor for probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID 19 in Peruvian healthcare workers infected with SARS CoV2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Healthcare workers who presented SARS CoV 2 infection between March 1, 2020, and August 9, 2021, were included. Occupational cohorts were reconstructed from the following sources of information: the National Epidemiological Surveillance System, molecular tests (NETLAB), results of serology and antigen tests (SICOVID 19), National Registry of Health Personnel (INFORHUS), and National Information System of Deaths (SINADEF). The incidence of probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID 19 was obtained in the cohorts of health auxiliaries and technicians, nursing staff, obstetricians, physicians, and other healthcare workers. Using a log-binomial generalized linear model, we evaluated whether the occupation was a risk factor for probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID 19, obtaining the adjusted relative risk (RR AJ). RESULTS: 90,672 healthcare workers were included. 8.1% required hospitalization, 1.7% died from COVID 19, and 2.0% had probable reinfection. A similar incidence of probable reinfection was found in the 5 cohorts (1.9% to 2.2%). Physicians had a higher incidence of hospitalization (13.2%) and death (2.6%);however, they were also those who presented greater susceptibility linked to non-occupational variables such as age and comorbidities. The multivariate analysis found that physicians (RR=1.691;CI 95: 1.556 to 1.837) had a higher risk of hospitalization and that the occupation of health technician and the assistant was the only one that constituted a risk factor for mortality from COVID-19 (RR =1.240;95% CI: 1.052 to 1.463). CONCLUSIONS: Peruvian health technicians and auxiliaries have a higher risk of death from COVID-19 linked to their occupation, while doctors have higher mortality due to non-occupational factors. Physicians had a higher risk of hospitalization independent of the presence of comorbidities and age;likewise, all occupations had a similar risk of probable reinfection.

2.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 618, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic represents an important negative impact on global training of neurosurgery residents. Even before the pandemic, discrimination is a challenge that neurosurgical residents have consistently faced. In the present study, we evaluated discriminatory conditions experienced by residents during their neurosurgical training in Mexico before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: An electronic survey of 18 questions was sent among residents registered in the Mexican Society of Neurological Surgery (MSNS), between October 2019 and July 2020. Statistical analysis was made in IBM SPSS Statistics 25. The survey focused on demographic characteristics, discrimination, personal satisfaction, and expectations of residents. RESULTS: A response rate of 50% (132 of 264 residents' members of MSNS) was obtained and considered for analysis. Median age was 30.06 ± 2.48 years, 5.3% (n = 7) were female and 16.7% (n = 22) were foreigners undergoing neurosurgical training in Mexico. Approximately 27% of respondents suffered any form of discrimination, mainly by place of origin (9.1%), by gender (8.3%) or by physical appearance (6.1%). About 42.9% (n = 3) of female residents were discriminated by gender versus 6.4% (n = 8) of male residents (P = 0.001); while foreign residents mentioned having suffered 10 times more an event of discrimination by place of origin compared to native Mexican residents (36.4% vs. 3.6%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This manuscript represents the first approximation to determine the impact of discrimination suffered by residents undergoing neurosurgical training in Mexico before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255411, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745358

ABSTRACT

Human modification of water and nutrient flows has resulted in widespread degradation of aquatic ecosystems. The resulting global water crisis causes millions of deaths and trillions of USD in economic damages annually. Semiarid regions have been disproportionately affected because of high relative water demand and pollution. Many proven water management strategies are not fully implemented, partially because of a lack of public engagement with freshwater ecosystems. In this context, we organized a large citizen science initiative to quantify nutrient status and cultivate connection in the semiarid watershed of Utah Lake (USA). Working with community members, we collected samples from ~200 locations throughout the 7,640 km2 watershed on a single day in the spring, summer, and fall of 2018. We calculated ecohydrological metrics for nutrients, major ions, and carbon. For most solutes, concentration and leverage (influence on flux) were highest in lowland reaches draining directly to the lake, coincident with urban and agricultural sources. Solute sources were relatively persistent through time for most parameters despite substantial hydrological variation. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus species showed critical source area behavior, with 10-17% of the sites accounting for most of the flux. Unlike temperate watersheds, where spatial variability often decreases with watershed size, longitudinal variability showed an hourglass shape: high variability among headwaters, low variability in mid-order reaches, and high variability in tailwaters. This unexpected pattern was attributable to the distribution of human activity and hydrological complexity associated with return flows, losing river reaches, and diversions in the tailwaters. We conclude that participatory science has great potential to reveal ecohydrological patterns and rehabilitate individual and community relationships with local ecosystems. In this way, such projects represent an opportunity to both understand and improve water quality in diverse socioecological contexts.


Subject(s)
Citizen Science , Ecosystem , Rivers , Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Water Quality
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our hospital became a referral center for COVID-19-positive obstetric patients from 1 May 2020. The aim of our study is to illustrate our management protocols for COVID-19-positive obstetric patients, to maintain safety standards for patients and healthcare workers. METHODS: Women who underwent vaginal or operative delivery and induced or spontaneous abortion with a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were included in the study. Severity and onset of new symptoms were carefully monitored in the postoperative period. All the healthcare workers received a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR serially every five days. RESULTS: We included 152 parturients with COVID-19 infection. None of the included women had general anesthesia, an increase of severe symptoms or onset of new symptoms. The RT-PCR test was "negative" for the healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, neuraxial anesthesia for parturients' management with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been proven to be safe for patients and healthcare workers. Neuraxial anesthesia decreases aerosolization during preoxygenation, face-mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, oral or tracheal suctioning and extubation. This anesthesia management protocol can be generalizable.

5.
Review of Managerial Science ; 16(2):459-482, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1706451

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, employment is a challenge for people but more for disabled ones. Prior literature shows that, at a European level, there are different ways for people with disabilities to find a job, such as a quota system, sheltered workshops, supported employment, etc. In Spain, sheltered employment centres are prototypes of sheltered workshops aimed at integrating more people with disabilities into the workplace. This research project aims to give visibility to these firms and to gain an understanding of their economic and financial situation. Using the whole sample of sheltered employment centres in Spain, and their financial data from 2004 to 2016, we show which variables explain their viability. Additionally, in light of the imminent worldwide crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic situation, we want to test the impact of the last economic crisis on the profitability of sheltered employment centres. The main contribution of this study is that the size of these companies, age, financial risk and sales growth, are determining factors for their profitability. And, the economic and financial crisis has conditioned the viability of sheltered employment centres as many firms on the market registered a decrease in their profitability in the years following the crisis but survived. This study helps to shed light on the economic and financial situation of this kind of firms as well as their social visibility.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690219

ABSTRACT

The development of prophylactic agents against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health priority in the search for new surrogate markers of active virus replication. Early detection markers are needed to follow disease progression and foresee patient negativization. Subgenomic RNA transcripts (with a focus on sgN) were evaluated in oro/nasopharyngeal swabs from COVID-19-affected patients with an analysis of 315 positive samples using qPCR technology. Cut-off Cq values for sgN (Cq < 33.15) and sgE (Cq < 34.06) showed correlations to high viral loads. The specific loss of sgN in home-isolated and hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients indicated negativization of patient condition, 3-7 days from the first swab, respectively. A new detection kit for sgN, gene E, gene ORF1ab, and gene RNAse P was developed recently. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that 2'-O-methyl antisense RNA (related to the sgN sequence) can impair SARS-CoV-2 N protein synthesis, viral replication, and syncytia formation in human cells (i.e., HEK-293T cells overexpressing ACE2) upon infection with VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7)-SARS-CoV-2 variant, defining the use that this procedure might have for future therapeutic actions against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Giant Cells/drug effects , Giant Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Antisense/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , Ribonuclease P/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Social Isolation , Viral Load , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318815

ABSTRACT

Background: To date, very few studies on clinical-histopathological correlations of cutaneous disorders associated with COVID-19 have been conducted. Case presentation: The Case 1 was a 90-year-old man, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal swab. Two days later, he was hospitalized and after eleven days transferred to Intensive Care Unit. A chest CT showed bilateral ground-glass opacities. Just that day, an erythematous maculo-papular rash appeared on trunk, shoulders and neck, becoming purpuric after few days. Histological evaluations revealed a chronic superficial dermatitis with purpuric aspects. The superficial and papillary dermis appeared edematous, with a perivascular lympho-granulocytic infiltrate and erythrocytic extravasation. At intraepithelial level, spongiosis and a granulocyte infiltrate were detected. Arterioles, capillaries and post-capillary venules showed endothelial swelling and appeared ectatic. The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir and tocilizumab. Regrettably, due to severe lung impairment, he died.The Case 2 was a 85-year-old man, admitted to Intensive Care Unit, where he was intubated. He had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal swab two days before. A chest RX showed bilateral atypical pneumonia. After seven days, a cutaneous reddening involving trunk, upper limbs, neck and face developed, configuring a sub-erythroderma. Histological evaluations displayed edema in the papillary and superficial reticular dermis, and a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the superficial dermis. The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir and tocilizumab. Sub-erythroderma as well as respiratory symptoms gradually improved until healing. Conclusions: : The endothelial swelling detected in the Case 1 could be a morphological expression of SARS-CoV-2-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesize that cutaneous damage could be initiated by endothelial dysfunction, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection of endothelial cells or induced by immune system activation. The disruption of endothelial integrity could enhance microvascular permeability, extravasation of inflammatory cells and cytokines, with cutaneous injury. The Case 2 developed a sub-erythroderma associated with COVID-19, and a non-specific chronic dermatitis was detected at histological level. We speculate that a purpuric rash could represent the cutaneous sign of a more severe coagulopathy, as highlighted histologically by vascular abnormalities, while a sub-erythroderma could be expression of viral hematogenous spreading, inducing a non-specific chronic dermatitis.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316906

ABSTRACT

Background: Stroke in the course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was associated with higher severity of respiratory symptoms and mortality, but little knowledge exists on older populations. We aimed to investigate the incidence, characteristics, and prognosis of acute stroke in old patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: : Monocentric retrospective study of 265 older patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in geriatric wards, 11 of which having presented a stroke episode during hospitalization. Mortality rates and two-group comparisons (stroke vs non-stroke patients) were calculated and significant variables added in logistic regression models to investigate stroke risk factors. Results: : Combined ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence was 4.15%. 72.7% of events occurred during acute care. Strokes presented with altered state of consciousness and/or delirium in 81.8%, followed by a focal neurological deficit in 45.5%. Ischemic stroke was more frequently unilateral (88.8%) and localized in the middle cerebral artery territory (55.5%). Smoking and a history of previous stroke increased by more than seven (OR 7.44;95% CI 1.75-31.64;p=0.007) and five times (OR 5.19;95% CI 1.50-17.92;p=0.009), respectively, the risk of stroke. Each additional point in body mass index (BMI) reduced the risk of stroke by 14% (OR 0.86;95% CI 0.74-0.98;p=0.03). In-hospital mortality (32.1% vs. 27.3%;p>0.999) and institutionalization at discharge (36.4% vs. 21.1%;p=0.258) were similar between patients with and without stroke. Conclusion: Incident stroke complicating COVID-19 in old patients was associated with active smoking, previous history of stroke, and low BMI. Acute stroke did not influence early mortality or institutionalization rate at discharge.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308974

ABSTRACT

Aim: . To investigate the prevalence and prognostic impact of right heart failure and right ventricular-arterial uncoupling in Corona Virus Infectious Disease 2019 ( COVID-19) complicated by an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: . Ninety-four consecutive patients (mean age 64 yrs) admitted for acute respiratory failure on COVID-19 were enrolled. Coupling of right ventricular function to the pulmonary circulation was evaluated by a comprehensive trans-thoracic echocardiography with focus on the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) ratio Results: . The majority of patients needed ventilatory support, which was non-invasive in 22 and invasive in 37. There were 25 deaths, all in the invasively ventilated patients. Survivors were younger (62±13 vs 68±12 years, p =0.033), less often overweight or usual smokers, had lower NT-proBNP and interleukin-6, and higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 )/fraction of inspired O 2 (FIO 2 ) ratio (270±104 vs 117±57 mmHg, p <0.001). In the non-survivors, PASP was increased (42±12 vs 30±7 mmHg, p <0.001), while TAPSE was decreased (19±4 vs 25±4 mm, p<0.001). Accordingly the TAPSE/PASP ratio was lower than in the survivors (0.51±0.22 vs 0.89±0.29 mm/mmHg, p <0.001). At univariate/multivariable analysis, the TAPSE/PASP (HR:0.026;95%CI:0.01-0.579;p:0.019) and PaO 2 /FIO 2 (HR:0.988;95%CI:0.988-0.998;p:0.018) ratios were the only independent predictors of mortality, with ROC-determined cut-off values of 159 mmHg and 0.635 mm/mmHg respectively. Conclusions: . COVID-19 ARDS is associated with clinically relevant uncoupling of right ventricular function from the pulmonary circulation;bedside echocardiography of TAPSE/PASP adds to the prognostic relevance of PaO 2 /FIO 2 in ARDS on COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307629

ABSTRACT

The editors of several major journals have recently asserted the importance of combating racism and sexism in science. This is especially relevant now, as the COVID-19 pandemic may have led to a widening of the gender and racial/ethnicity gaps. Implicit bias is a crucial component in this fight. Negative stereotypes that are socially constructed in a given culture are frequently associated with implicit bias (which is unconscious or not perceived). In the present article, we point to scientific evidence that shows the presence of implicit bias in the academic community, which contributes to strongly damaging unconscious evaluations and judgments of individuals or groups. Additionally, we suggest several actions aimed at (1) editors and reviewers of scientific journals, (2) people in positions of power within funding agencies and research institutions and (3) members of selection committees to mitigate this effect. These recommendations are based on the experience of a group of Latin American scientists comprising Black and Latin women, teachers and undergraduate students who participate in a women in science working group at universities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. With this article, we hope to contribute to reflections, actions and the development of institutional policies that enable and consolidate diversity in science and reduce disparities based on gender and race/ethnicity.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323217

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with severe pneumonia due COVID-19 are reported to have substantially lower lymphocyte counts and higher plasma concentrations of a number of inflammatory cytokines. In the late stages of COVID-19, cytokine storms are the mainly cause of disease progression and death. We performed a prospective observational study to evaluate the impact of tocilizumab and hydrocortisone on cytokine storm in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: : We included all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection and severe respiratory failure admitted to our ICU from March 10 to April 30. As therapeutic options, patients received tocilizumab od hydrocortisone. The primary end point was the evaluation of cytokine storm in terms of variation of the IL-6 and IL-6R, sgp130 and TNF-α concentrations during time to different treatment. Results: : Eight patients received tocilizumab while 15 patients received hydrocortisone. IL-6 levels were lower in the hydrocortisone group with statistical significance was found at the days 2, 3, 8 and 9. The levels of IL-6R were lower during the days in the hydrocortisone group with statistical significance at days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10. Hydrocortisone group had higher levels of TNF-α at days 2, 3 and 4. The levels of sgo130 between tocilizumab and hydrocortisone groups were not statistically different during the days. Conclusions: : In critically ill patients with severe COVID-19, the use of hydrocortisone allowed a better control of the cytokine storms, was further associated to less days of curarization, pronation and length of stay in ICU, and speed up the time to get negative RT-PCR swab.

12.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Discrimination, abuse, and mistreatment are prevailing problems reported in neurosurgical training programs globally. Moreover, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may also show a negative impact on burnout levels in neurosurgery residents. This study aims to evaluate burnout, discrimination, and mistreatment in neurosurgical residents training in Latin America during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 era. METHODS: A 33-item electronic survey was sent to neurosurgery residents from Latin America from May 10 to 25, 2021. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: A total of 111 neurosurgery residents responded to the survey. Mean age was 29.39 ± 2.37 years; 22.5% were female and 36% were training in Mexico. Residents who reported experiencing discrimination for testing positive to COVID-19 had the highest levels of depersonalization (66.7%; P = 0.043) and emotional exhaustion (75%; P = 0.023). Female respondents reported higher rates of gender discrimination (80% vs. 1.2%; P = 0.001), abuse (84% vs. 58.1%; P < 0.005), and sexual harassment (24% vs. 0%; P < 0.001) than did male respondents. Residents training in Mexico reported lower rates of emotional or verbal abuse (59.2% vs. 32.5%; P = 0.007) and bullying (P < 0.005) than did those in other countries in Latin America. Older age was a protective factor for high depersonalization scores (odds ratio [OR], 0.133; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.035-0.500). Experiencing discrimination represented a risk factor for presenting high emotional exhaustion scores (OR, 3.019; 95% CI, 1.057-8.629). High levels of depersonalization were associated with a 7-fold increased risk of suicidal ideation (OR, 7.869; 95% CI, 1.266-48.88). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a significant burden on several aspects of health care workers' lives. Our results provide a broad overview of its impact on burnout, discrimination, and mistreatment as experienced by neurosurgery residents training in Latin America, laying the groundwork for future studies and potential interventions.

14.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of corticosteroids in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19 still remains uncertain. Since ARDS is due to a hyperinflammatory response to a direct injury, we decided to perform a meta-analysis and an evaluation of robustness of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the impact of corticosteroids on mortality in ARDS in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic search of the literature from inception up to 30 October 2020, using the MEDLINE database and the PubMed interface. We evaluated the fragility index (FI) of the included RCTs using a two-by-two contingency table and the p-value produced by the Fisher exact test; the fragility quotient (FQ) was calculated by dividing the FI score by the total sample size of the trial. RESULTS: Thirteen RCTs were included in the analysis; five of them were conducted in COVID-19 ARDS, including 7692 patients, while 8 RCTS were performed in non-COVID ARDS with 1091 patients evaluated. Three out of eight RCTs in ARDS had a FI > 0 while 2 RCTs out of five in COVID-19 had FI > 0. The median of FI for ARDS was 0.625 (0.47) while the median of FQ was 0.03 (0.014). The median of FI for COVID-19 was 6 (2) while the median of FQ was 0.059 (0.055). In this systematic review, we found that FI and FQ of RCTs evaluating the use of corticosteroids in ARDS and COVID-19 were low.

15.
World neurosurgery ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1505336

ABSTRACT

Background Discrimination, abuse and mistreatment are prevailing problems reported in neurosurgical-training programs globally. Moreover, the current COVID-19-pandemic may also display a negative impact on burnout levels in neurosurgery-residents. This study aims to evaluate burnout, discrimination and mistreatment in neurosurgical-residents training in Latin-America during the SARS-CoV-2 era. Methods A 33-item electronic survey was sent to neurosurgery-residents from Latin-America from May-10 to May-25, 2021. Statistical analysis was made using IBM-SPSS-25. Results 111 neurosurgery residents responded the survey. Mean age was 29.39±2.37 years;22.5% were female and 36% were training in Mexico. Residents who reported suffering from discrimination for testing positive to COVID-19 had the highest levels of depersonalization (66.7%, p=0.043) and emotional-exhaustion (75%, p= 0.023). Female respondents presented higher rates of gender discrimination (80%vs.1.2%, p=0.001), abuse (84%vs.58.1%, p<0.005) and sexual-harassment (24%vs.0%, p<0.001) than male respondents. Residents training in Mexico presented lower rates of emotional or verbal abuse (59.2%vs.32.5%, p=0.007) and bullying (p<0.005) than other countries in Latin-America. Older-age was a protective factor for high depersonalization scores (OR 0.133, 95%CI 0.035-0.500). Suffering from discrimination represented a risk factor for presenting high emotional-exhaustion scores (OR 3.019, 95%CI 1.057-8.629). High levels of depersonalization were associated with a 7-fold increased risk of presenting suicidal ideation (OR 7.869, 95%CI 1.266-48.88). Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic has been a significant burden on several aspects of healthcare workers’ lives. Our results provide a broad overview of its impact on burnout, discrimination and mistreatment as experienced by neurosurgery residents training in Latin-America, laying the groundwork for future studies and potential interventions.

16.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is reported in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, in particular in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In patients with respiratory tract infections, including influenza A (H1N1), many studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of thromboses, but evidence is lacking regarding the risk difference (RD) of the occurrence of VTE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this systematic review with meta-analysis, we evaluated the RD of the occurrence of VTE, pulmonary embolism (PE), and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) between COVID-19 and other pulmonary infection cohorts, in particular H1N1, and in an ICU setting. We searched for all studies comparing COVID-19 vs. non-COVID-19 regarding VTE, PE, and DVT. RESULTS: The systematic review included 12 studies and 1,013,495 patients. The RD for VTE in COVID-19 compared to non-COVID-19 patients was 0.06 (95% CI 0.11-0.25, p = 0.011, I2 = 97%), and 0.16 in ICU (95% CI 0.045-0.27, p = 0.006, I2 = 80%). The RD for PE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.006-0.045, p = 0.01, I2 = 89%). The RD for PE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients was 0.021 in retrospective studies (95% CI 0.00-0.04, p = 0.048, I2 = 92%) and 0.11 in ICU studies (95% CI 0.06-0.16, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: The growing awareness and understanding of a massive inflammatory response combined with a hypercoagulable state that predisposes patients to thrombosis in COVID-19, in particular in the ICU, may contribute to a more appropriate strategy of prevention and earlier detection of the thrombotic events.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480825

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has rapidly spread to become a global pandemic, putting a strain on health care systems. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be associated with mild symptoms or, in severe cases, lead patients to the intensive care unit (ICU) or death. The critically ill patients suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, thrombotic complications and multiple organ failure. For optimization of hospital resources, several molecular markers and algorithms have been evaluated in order to stratify COVID-19 patients, based on the risk of developing a mild, moderate, or severe disease. Here, we propose the soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) as a serum biomarker of clinical severity and outcome in patients who are hospitalized with COVID-19. In patients with mild disease course, suPAR levels were increased as compared to healthy controls, but they were dramatically higher in severely ill patients. Since early identification of disease progression may facilitate the individual management of COVID-19 symptomatic patients and the time of admission to the ICU, we suggest paying more clinical attention on patients with high suPAR levels.

19.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(8): e04192, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366215

ABSTRACT

The best anesthesiologic approach to severe AS patient has not been adequately studied in literature. Although the current guidelines have a cautious attitude in this regard, Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia (CSEA) has proved to be a safe technique. Therefore, we would like to provide our experience with a severe AS and COVID-19 patient.

20.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(1): 100-108, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356593

ABSTRACT

Coagulation abnormalities, thrombosis, and endothelial dysfunction have been described in COVID-19 patients. Spontaneous muscle hematoma (SMH) is a rare complication in COVID-19. The aims of this study are to: (1) perform a systematic review of the literature to better define the clinical SMH characteristics, (2) describe the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of SMH in COVID-19 patients referring to a Department of Internal Medicine (IM) (Federico II University of Naples), a Department of Sub-Intensive Care Medicine (SIM) (Ospedale Del Mare), and a Department of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (Federico II University). The systematic review was performed according to PRISMA criteria. The local prevalence of SMH in COVID-19 was evaluated retrospectively. The medical records of all COVID-19 patients referring to IM and ICU from March 11th, 2020, to February 28th, 2021 were examined for SMH occurrence. In our retrospective analysis, we describe 10 cases of COVID-19 patients with SMH not previously reported in literature, with a prevalence of 2.1%. The literature review, inclusive of our case series, describes a total of 50 SMHs in COVID-19 patients (57.4% males; mean age 68.8 ± 10.0 years). The SMH sites were ileo-psoas, vastus intermedius, gluteus, sternocleidomastoid, and pectoralis major muscles. Males developed SMH earlier than females (9.5 ± 7.8 vs. 17.1 ± 9.7 days). Ileo-psoas hematoma was more frequent in males (69.2 vs. 30.8%), while pectoralis major hematoma occurred only in females. The in-hospital mortality rate of SMH in COVID-19 patients was 32.4%. SMH is a rare but severe complication in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, associated with high mortality. A gender difference seems to be present in the clinical presentation of the disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Animals , Female , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/etiology , Horses , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscles , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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