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1.
Drug Discov Today ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966493

ABSTRACT

Among explored nanomaterials, nanosponge-based systems have exhibited inhibitory effects for the biological neutralization of, and antiviral delivery against, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More studies could pave the path for clarification of their biological neutralization mechanisms as well as the assessment of their long-term biocompatibility and biosafety issues before clinical translational studies. In this review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to antiviral delivery and inhibitory effects of nanosponges against SARS-CoV-2, focusing on important challenges and opportunities. Finally, as promising approaches for recapitulating the complex structure of different organs/tissues of the body, we discuss the use of 3D in vitro models to investigate the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to find therapeutic targets to better manage and eradicate coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11431, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921707

ABSTRACT

Emergent application of antimicrobial strategies as symptomatic treatment in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and linkage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 with microbial infections, has created colossal demand for antimicrobials. For the first time, this communication explore the physicochemical, antifungal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic properties of biogenic magnesium nanoparticles (MgNPs), synthesized using essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus's as an efficient multifunctional reducing and stabilizing/capping reagent. It is observed that MgNPs (ranging in size: 8-16 nm) of varying phytochemical compositions (MgS1, MgS2, MgS3) exhibited various useful physicochemical, antimicrobial, and photocatalytic properties. FTIR outcomes highlight the functional biomolecules-assisted reduction of Mg from Mg+ to Mg0. Among all, MgS3-Nps owing to the smallest particle size exhibited superior photocatalytic efficacy (91.2%) for the methylene blue degradation upon direct exposure to the sunlight for 3 h without using any reducing agents. Fabricated MgNPs also exhibited excellent antifungal (against Fusarium oxysporum) and antibacterial (versus Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) efficacies compared to state-of-the-art antimicrobial agents deployed for the treatment of infectious diseases. Based on this investigated greener approach, imperative from economic and environmental viewpoint, such essential oil based-MgNPs can be a potential nanosystem for various industrial applications where photocatalytic, and biomedical attributes are the key requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Oils, Volatile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Escherichia coli , Humans , Magnesium , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
3.
Chemosphere ; : 135578, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914233

ABSTRACT

Overexpression of proteins/antigens and other gene-related sequences in the bodies could lead to significant mutations and refractory diseases. Detection and identification of assorted trace concentrations of such proteins/antigens and/or gene-related sequences remain challenging, affecting different pathogens and making viruses stronger. Correspondingly, coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mutations/alterations and spread could lead to overexpression of ssDNA and the related antigens in the population and brisk activity in gene-editing technologies in the treatment/detection may lead to the presence of pCRISPR in the blood. Therefore, the detection and evaluation of their trace concentrations are of critical importance. CaZnO-based nanoghosts (NGs) were synthesized with the assistance of a high-gravity technique at a 1,800 MHz field, capitalizing on the use of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract as the templating agent. A complete chemical, physical and biological investigation revealed that the synthesized NGs presented similar morphological features to the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), resulting in excellent biocompatibility, interaction with ssDNA- and/or pCRISPR-surface, through various chemical and physical mechanisms. This is the first time synthesizing a fully inorganic nanostructure with similar behavior to MSCs. Furthermore, the endowed exceptional ability of inorganic NGs for detective sensing/folding of ssDNA and pCRISPR and recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen (RSCSA), along with in-situ hydrogen peroxide detection on the HEK-293 and HeLa cell lines, was discerned. On average, they displayed a high drug loading capacity of 55%, and the acceptable internalizations inside the HT-29 cell lines affirmed the anticipated MSCs-like behavior of these inorganic-NGs.

4.
J Chem Technol Biotechnol ; 97(7): 1640-1654, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650458

ABSTRACT

The application of quantum dots (QDs) for detecting and treating various types of coronaviruses is very promising, as their low toxicity and high surface performance make them superior among other nanomaterials; in conjugation with fluorescent probes they are promising semiconductor nanomaterials for the detection of various cellular processes and viral infections. In view of the successful results for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2, functional QDs could serve eminent role in the growth of safe nanotherapy for the cure of viral infections in the near future; their large surface areas help bind numerous molecules post-synthetically. Functionalized QDs with high functionality, targeted selectivity, stability and less cytotoxicity can be employed for highly sensitive co-delivery and imaging/diagnosis. Besides, due to the importance of safety and toxicity issues, QDs prepared from plant sources (e.g. curcumin) are much more attractive, as they provide good biocompatibility and low toxicity. In this review, the recent developments pertaining to the diagnostic and inhibitory potentials of QDs against SARS-CoV-2 are deliberated including important challenges and future outlooks. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry (SCI).

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 119: 105550, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561636

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by new or unknown bacteria and viruses, such as anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis and even COVID-19, are a major threat to humanity. Thus, the development of new synthetic compounds with efficient antimicrobial activity is a necessity. Herein, rationally designed novel multifunctional cationic alternating copolymers were directly synthesized through a step-growth polymerization reaction using a bivalent electrophilic cross-linker containing disulfide bonds and a diamine heterocyclic ring. To optimize the activity of these alternating copolymers, several different diamines and cross-linkers were explored to find the highest antibacterial effects. The synthesized nanopolymers not only displayed good to excellent antibacterial activity as judged by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, but also reduced the number of biofilm cells even at low concentrations, without killing mammalian cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using infected burn wounds in mice demonstrated good antibacterial activity and stimulated wound healing, without causing systemic inflammation. These findings suggest that the multifunctional cationic nanopolymers have potential as a novel antibacterial agent for eradication of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cations/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Burns/complications , COVID-19 , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cross-Linking Reagents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , HEK293 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymers/chemistry
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523862

ABSTRACT

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been widely used as porous nanomaterials for different applications ranging from industrial to biomedicals. An unpredictable one-pot method is introduced to synthesize NH2-MIL-53 assisted by high-gravity in a greener media for the first time. Then, porphyrins were deployed to adorn the surface of MOF to increase the sensitivity of the prepared nanocomposite to the genetic materials and in-situ cellular protein structures. The hydrogen bond formation between genetic domains and the porphyrin' nitrogen as well as the surface hydroxyl groups is equally probable and could be considered a milestone in chemical physics and physical chemistry for biomedical applications. In this context, the role of incorporating different forms of porphyrins, their relationship with the final surface morphology, and their drug/gene loading efficiency were investigated to provide a predictable pattern in regard to the previous works. The conceptual phenomenon was optimized to increase the interactions between the biomolecules and the substrate by reaching the limit of detection to 10 pM for the Anti-cas9 protein, 20 pM for the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), below 10 pM for the single guide RNA (sgRNA) and also around 10 nM for recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen. Also, the MTT assay showed acceptable relative cell viability of more than 85% in most cases, even by increasing the dose of the prepared nanostructures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Porphyrins/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19 Testing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA, Single-Stranded , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Limit of Detection , Nanocomposites , Nanostructures , Nitrogen/chemistry , PC12 Cells , Porosity , RNA, Guide , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surface Properties
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190406

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the COVID-19 pandemic that has been spreading around the world since December 2019. More than 10 million affected cases and more than half a million deaths have been reported so far, while no vaccine is yet available as a treatment. Considering the global healthcare urgency, several techniques, including whole genome sequencing and computed tomography imaging have been employed for diagnosing infected people. Considerable efforts are also directed at detecting and preventing different modes of community transmission. Among them is the rapid detection of virus presence on different surfaces with which people may come in contact. Detection based on non-contact optical techniques is very helpful in managing the spread of the virus, and to aid in the disinfection of surfaces. Nanomaterial-based methods are proven suitable for rapid detection. Given the immense need for science led innovative solutions, this manuscript critically reviews recent literature to specifically illustrate nano-engineered effective and rapid solutions. In addition, all the different techniques are critically analyzed, compared, and contrasted to identify the most promising methods. Moreover, promising research ideas for high accuracy of detection in trace concentrations, via color change and light-sensitive nanostructures, to assist fingerprint techniques (to identify the virus at the contact surface of the gas and solid phase) are also presented.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Nanotechnology/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , COVID-19 , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
Applied Sciences ; 11(8):3512, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1186886

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-initiated outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world, posing a huge threat to public health. Natural oligo- and polysaccharides with low toxicity, good sustainability, high biocompatibility, respectable safety, immune regulation, and antiviral activity can be employed as promising candidates for the prevention and inhibition of viral infections, especially COVID-19. Glycosaminoglycans, marine polysaccharides, terrestrial plant polysaccharides, and some others have exhibited potential antiviral activity against pathogenic viruses, in the format of polysaccharide-centered vaccine adjuvants, nano-based structures, drug conveyance platforms, etc. In this review, significant recent advancements pertaining to the antiviral applications of oligo- and polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2 are highlighted, including important challenges and future perspectives.

9.
Sustain Chem Pharm ; 21: 100415, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117694

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic has rapidly spread around the world since December 2019. Various techniques have been applied in identification of SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infection including computed tomography imaging, whole genome sequencing, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This review article discusses the diagnostic methods currently being deployed for the SARS-CoV-2 identification including optical biosensors and point-of-care diagnostics that are on the horizon. These innovative technologies may provide a more accurate, sensitive and rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to manage the present novel coronavirus outbreak, and could be beneficial in preventing any future epidemics. Furthermore, the use of green synthesized nanomaterials in the optical biosensor devices could leads to sustainable and environmentally-friendly approaches for addressing this crisis.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436497

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have recently emerged not only as a health threat to people but rapidly became the cause of universal fatality on a large scale. Nanomaterials comprising functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots and nanotechnology-associated innovative detection methods, vaccine design, and nanodrug production have shown immense promise for interfacing with pathogenic viruses and restricting their entrance into cells. These viruses have been scrutinized using rapid diagnostic detection and therapeutic interventional options against the caused infections including vaccine development for prevention and control. Coronaviruses, namely SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have endangered human life, and the COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has become a perilous challenge to public health globally with huge accompanying morbidity rates. Thus, it is imperative to expedite the drug and vaccine development efforts that would help mitigate this pandemic. In this regard, smart and innovative nano-based technologies and approaches encompassing applications of green nanomedicine, bio-inspired methods, multifunctional bioengineered nanomaterials, and biomimetic drug delivery systems/carriers can help resolve the critical issues regarding detection, prevention, and treatment of viral infections. This perspective review expounds recent nanoscience advancements for the detection and treatment of viral infections with focus on coronaviruses and encompasses nano-based formulations and delivery platforms, nanovaccines, and promising methods for clinical diagnosis, especially regarding SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Appl. Sci. ; 10(10)20200501.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-361185

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has today multiplied globally and various governments are attempting to stop the outbreak of the disease escalation into a worldwide health crisis. At this juncture, readiness, candor, clarity, and partaking of data are of paramount importance to speed up factual evaluation and starting pattern control activities, including serendipitous findings. Owing to the involvement of COVID-19, many facts regarding virulence, pathogenesis, and the real viral infection source and/or transmission mode still need to be addressed. The infected patients often present clinical symptoms with fever, dyspnea, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, and dry cough, as well as pulmonary, infiltrates on imaging. Extensive measures to decrease person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 are being implemented to prevent, recognize, and control the current outbreak as it is very similar to SARS-CoV in its clinical spectrum, epidemiology, and pathogenicity. In response to this fatal disease and disruptive outbreak, it is extremely vital to expedite the drug development process to treat the disease and vaccines for the prevention of COVID-19 that would help us defeat this pandemic expeditiously. This paper sums up and unifies the study of virological aspects, disease transmission, clinically administered techniques, therapeutics options, managements, future directions, designing of vaccines, and news dissemination pertaining to COVID-19.

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