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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329175

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 genome surveillance projects provide a good measure of transmission and monitor the circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants at regional and global scales. Iran is one of the most affected countries still involved with the virus circulating in at least five significant disease waves, as of September 2021. Complete genome sequencing of 50 viral isolates in an early phase of outbreak in Iran, shed light on the origins and circulating lineages at that time. As part of a genomic surveillance program, we provided an additional 319 complete genomes from October 2020 onwards. The current study is the report of complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences of Iran in the March 2020-May 2021 time interval. We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in Iran over one year. Overall, 35 different lineages and 8 clades were detected. Temporal dynamics of the prominent SARS-CoV-2 clades/lineages circulating in Iran is comparable to the global perspective and introduces the 19A clade (B.4) dominating the first disease wave, followed by 20A (B.1.36), 20B (B.1.1.413), 20I (B.1.1.7) clades, dominating second, third and fourth disease waves, respectively. We observed a mixture of circulating 20A (B.1.36), 20B (B.1.1.413), 20I (B.1.1.7) clades in winter 2021, paralleled in a diminishing manner for 20A/20B and a growing rise for 20I, eventually prompting the 4 th outbreak peak. Furthermore, our study provides evidence on the entry of the Delta variant in April 2021, leading to the 5 th disease wave in summer 2021. Three lineages are highlighted as hallmarks of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Iran;B4, dominating early periods of the epidemic, B.1.1.413 (specific B.1.1 lineage carrying a combination of [D138Y-S477N-D614G] spike mutations) in October 2020-February 2021, and the co-occurrence of [I100T-L699I] spike mutations in half of B.1.1.7 sequences mediating the fourth peak. Continuous monthly monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 genome mutations led to the detection of 1577 distinct nucleotide mutations, in which the top recurrent mutations were D614G, P323L, R203K/G204R, 3037C>T, and 241C>T;the renowned combination of mutations in G and GH clades. The most frequent spike mutation is D614G followed by 13 other frequent mutations based on the prominent circulating lineages;B.1.1.7 (H69_V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, P681H, T716I, S982A, D1118H, I100T, and L699I), B.1.1.413 (D138Y, S477N) and B.1.36 (I210del). In brief, mutation surveillance in this study provided a real-time comprehensive picture of the SARS-CoV-2 mutation profile in Iran, which is beneficial for evaluating the magnitude of the epidemic and assessment of vaccine and therapeutic efficiency in this population.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310601

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 several studies conducted to identify predictive factors which are associated with prognosis of COVID-19. In this study we aimed to determine whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) could help the clinicians to predict intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality of COVID-19 patients. This retrospective cohort study involved examining the medical records of 311 Iranian COVID-19 patients from 22 July 2020 to 22 August 2020. All characteristic data and laboratory results were recorded. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the predictive value of studied parameters for ICU admission and death. Comparison of data revealed that some factors were jointly higher in non-survivors and ICU admitted patients than survivors and non-ICU admitted patients, such as: age, hemoglobin (HB), NLR, derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), PLR, systemic inflammatory index (SII), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Respiratory diseases, ischemic heart disease (IHD). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only hypertension (OR 3.18, P=0.02) is an independent risk factor of death in COVID-19 patients, and also PLR (OR 1.02, P=0.05), hypertension (OR 4.00, P=0.002) and IHD (OR 5.15, P=0.008) were independent risk factor of ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. This study revealed that the NLR, PLR, platelet-to-white blood Cell ratio (PWR), dNLR and SII are valuable factors for predicting ICU admission and mortality of COVID-19 patients.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(11): 4527-4531, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the factors associated with COVID-19, clinical manifestations, and a 30-day-prognosis of COVID-19 in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with the index population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, RA patients were followed in rheumatology clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, and a group of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from index population were recruited. Outcomes of COVID-19 were assessed by the hospitalization rate and need to intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. During a period of 12 weeks, 128 RA patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 760 RA control group, and 92 COVID-19 patients from index population were enrolled. RESULTS: Being female, obese, and diabetic, having pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and treatment with prednisolone > 5 mg/d and TNFα inhibitors (TNFis) were independent predictors of COVID-19 in RA patients. Dyspnea, anosmia, and taste loss were more common in RA patients compared with the index population. Admission in hospital, need to ICU care, and mortality occurred in 38, 11.9, and 8.6 percent of RA patients, respectively. Although hospitalization rate in RA patients was more than the index population, there were no significant differences in need to ICU care and mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with prednisolone and TNFis and having comorbidities including obesity, diabetes, pulmonary disease, and CKD increase the risk of COVID-19 in RA patients. Although some differences exist in the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in RA patients and index population, prognosis of COVID-19 in RA patients is not any worse. Key Points • Being female, obese and diabetic, having pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), treatment with prednisolone > 5 mg/d and TNFα inhibitors (TNFis) were independent predictors of COVID-19 in RA patients. • Dyspnea, anosmia and taste loss were more common in RA patients compared with the index population. • Although COVID-19 related hospitalization was higher in RA patients than in the index population, there was no significant differences in the need to ICU care and mortality between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BioImpacts ; 10(4):209-215, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1168486

ABSTRACT

Bromhexine is a potential therapeutic option in COVID-19, but no data from a randomized clinical trial has been available. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of bromhexine in intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Methods: An open-label randomized clinical trial study was performed in Tabriz, NorthWest of Iran. They were randomized to either the treatment with the bromhexine group or the control group, in a 1:1 ratio with 39 patients in each arm. Standard therapy was used in both groups and those patients in the treatment group received oral bromhexine 8 mg three times a day additionally. The primary outcome was a decrease in the rate of ICU admissions, intubation/ mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Results: A total of 78 patients with similar demographic and disease characteristics were enrolled. There was a significant reduction in ICU admissions (2 out of 39 vs. 11 out of 39, P = 0.006), intubation (1 out of 39 vs. 9 out of 39, P = 0.007) and death (0 vs. 5, P = 0.027) in the bromhexine treated group compared to the standard group. No patients were withdrawn from the study because of adverse effects. Conclusion: The early administration of oral bromhexine reduces the ICU transfer, intubation, and the mortality rate in patients with COVID-19. This affordable medication can easily be administered everywhere with a huge positive impact(s) on public health and the world economy. Altogether, the verification of our results on a larger scale and different medical centers is strongly recommended.

6.
Pol J Radiol ; 86: e165-e171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161097

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has proven to be a diagnostic challenge. Early studies have shown that computed tomography (CT) imaging may be useful in diagnosis of these patients. We aim to report CT findings in a series of hospitalized patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 81 patients were included in this study. All of the patients were hospitalized and had SARS-CoV-2 infection proven by molecular assay. All patients had a CT scan on the first day of admission. Imaging results were reviewed by two separate radiologists, and imaging findings were documented. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients had abnormal CT imaging, while 3 had normal CT imaging. The sensitivity of CT in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was estimated to be 96%. The most common imaging finding was ground glass opacities, followed by septal thickening. Most lesions were located at the periphery and posterior of the lungs. Most lesions were multifocal, and involved the right lower lobe more frequently. Chest X-rays were normal in 38 patients, and the sensitivity of chest X-ray in diagnosing SARS-Cov-2 was 54%. CONCLUSIONS: CT scans could be used in diagnosis of patients with a high sensitivity (93%). No common imaging findings may also be seen alongside ground glass opacities, based on the degree of disease progression.

7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(6): e14124, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the drug selection in hypertension (HTN) management in patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to compare the effects of losartan and amlodipine in patients with primary HTN and COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomised clinical trial, hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and primary HTN were enrolled in the study. One arm received losartan, 25 mg, twice a day and the other arm received amlodipine, 5 mg per day for 2 weeks. The main outcomes were compare 30-day mortality rate and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The mean age of patients treated with losartan (N = 41) and amlodipine (N = 39) was 67.3 ± 14.8 and 60.1 ± 17.3 years, respectively (P value = .068). The length of hospital stay in losartan and amlodipine groups was 4.57 ± 2.59 and 7.30 ± 8.70 days, respectively (P value = .085). Also, the length of ICU admission in losartan and amlodipine group was 7.13 ± 5.99 and 7.15 ± 9.95 days, respectively (P value = .994). The 30-day mortality was two and five patients in losartan and amlodipine groups, respectively (P value = .241). CONCLUSIONS: There was no priority in losartan or amlodipine administration in COVID-19 patients with primary HTN in decreasing mortality rate, hospital and ICU length stay. Further studies need to clarify the first-line anti-HTN medications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amlodipine/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Losartan/pharmacology , Losartan/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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