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1.
Endocrine ; 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075622

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is called COVID-19 and has led to a pandemic worldwide. It is reasonable to investigate and control factors affecting disease severity and mortality. The relation between vitamin D and viral pneumonia has been previously reported. Vitamin D deficiency is common and may increase hospital admission and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19. This mini-review examines the pathways that show the association between vitamin D and COVID-19. On the other hand, it deals with the available evidence related to the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prevalence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. Also, we described the pathophysiology of the organs' involvement in COVID-19 and the effect of vitamin D on these outcomes. Vitamin D strengthens the innate and adaptive immune system, modulates immune responses, prevents lung and cardiovascular system damage, and reduces thrombotic events. Vitamin D exerts these effects in several pathways. Vitamin D prevents virus entry and replication by maintaining the integrity of the body's physical barrier. Vitamin D reduces the damage to vital organs and thrombotic events by increasing the level of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), nitric oxide, and antioxidants or by reducing inflammatory cytokines and free radicals. Sufficient vitamin D may be reduced morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. However, this issue should be investigated and confirmed by further research in the future.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14732, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016845

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be fatal in severe cases. Accordingly, predicting the severity and prognosis of the disease is valuable. This study examined the role of electrolyte imbalances in predicting the severity of COVID-19. In this cross-sectional study, 169 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included and categorized into three groups based on the severity of the disease (moderate, severe, and critical). Serum levels of electrolytes (calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], sodium [Na], potassium [k], and magnesium [Mg]), inflammatory markers (D-dimer, C-reactive protein [CRP], ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), and 25OHVitamin D were measured. The mean age of patients was 53 years, and 54% were male. They had moderate, severe, and critical illnesses in 22%, 47%, and 31%, respectively. CRP, D-dimer, and ferritin increased with the severity of the disease. The lower median values of Mg, Na, 25OHVitamin D, Ca, LDH, and higher median lymphocyte counts were observed in the moderate vs. the severe group (P < 0.05). These parameters have acceptable sensitivity and specificity at the suggested cut-off level to discriminate the moderate and critical cases. Serum parameters introduced in this study are appropriate for differentiating between critical and moderate cases. The electrolyte imbalance can predict critical patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrolytes/metabolism , Female , Ferritins , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 21(1): e123947, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847596

ABSTRACT

More than a year after the onset of the coronavirus disease pandemic in 2019, the disease remains a major global health issue. During this time, health organizations worldwide have tried to provide integrated treatment guidelines to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at different levels. However, due to the novel nature of the disease and the emergence of new variants, medical teams' updating medical information and drug prescribing guidelines should be given special attention. This version is an updated instruction of the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD) in collaboration with a group of specialists from Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran, which is provided to update the information of caring clinicians for the treatment and care of COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

4.
Obes Surg ; 32(5): 1689-1700, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777795

ABSTRACT

Currently, pneumonia caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic. To date, there is no specific antiviral treatment for the disease, and universal access to the vaccine is a serious challenge. Some observational studies have shown that COVID-19 is more common in countries with a high prevalence of obesity and that people with COVID-19 have a higher body mass index. In these studies, obesity increased the risk of disease, as well as its severity and mortality. This study aimed to review the mechanisms that link obesity to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17594, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392891

ABSTRACT

Supplemental vitamin D can reduce the risk and mortality of viral pneumonia. The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and the severity and mortality of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, the admitted patients with COVID-19 were categorized as mild, moderate, severe, and critical based on clinical and radiologic characteristics. Calcium, phosphorus, albumin, creatinine, and serum 25(OH)D were measured and their correlation with the severity of disease and mortality were analyzed. During 2 months, 508 patients (442 patients in general wards and 66 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU)) were included. The participants were 56 ± 17 years old (52% male, 37% with comorbidity). Concerning severity, 13%, 42%, 36%, and 9% had mild, moderate, severe, and critical diseases, respectively. The mortality rate was 10.8%. Admission to ICU, severity of disease and mortality decreased significantly across quartiles of 25(OH)D. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, disease mortality had a positive correlation with age and had a negative correlation with the serum level of 25(OH)D, calcium, and albumin. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, low 25(OH)D was associated with severe disease and increased ICU admission and mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vitamin D/blood
6.
Tanaffos ; 19(2): 122-128, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the recent epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, a novel betacoronavirus was isolated from two patients in Iran on February 19, 2020. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (n=127). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on all COVID-19-suspected cases, admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (a designated hospital for COVID-19), Tehran, Iran, since February 19, 2020. All patients were tested for COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Data of confirmed cases, including demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes, were collected and compared between three groups of patients, requiring different types of admission (requiring ICU admission, admission to the general ward, and transfer to ICU). RESULTS: Of 412 suspected cases, with the mean age of 54.1 years (SD=13.4), 127 (31%) were positive for COVID-19. Following the patients' first visit to the clinic, 115 cases were admitted to the general ward, while ten patients required ICU admission. Due to clinical deterioration in the condition of 25 patients (out of 115 patients), ICU admission was essential. Based on the results, the baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Patients requiring ICU admission were more likely to have multiorgan involvement (liver involvement, P<0.001; renal involvement, P<0.001; and cardiac involvement, P=0.02), low O2 saturation (P<0.001), and lymphopenia (P=0.05). During hospital admission, 21 (16.5%) patients died, while the rest (83.5%) were discharged and followed-up until March 26, 2020. Also, the survival rate of patients, who received immunoglobulin, was higher than other patients (60.87% vs. 39.13%). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was considerable in our study. Based on the present results, this infection can cause multiorgan damage. Therefore, intensive monitoring of these patients needs to be considered.

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