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Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19970, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462030


Particulate respirators such as N95s are an essential component of personal protective equipment (PPE) for front-line workers. This study describes a rapid and effective UVC irradiation system that would facilitate the safe re-use of N95 respirators and provides supporting information for deploying UVC for decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the inactivation potential of the proposed UVC germicidal device as a function of time by using 3 M 8211-N95 particulate respirators inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. A germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose was developed and test coupons (2.5 cm2) of the 3 M-N95 respirator were inoculated with 106 plaque-forming units (PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 and were UV irradiated. Different exposure times were tested (0-164 s) by fixing the distance between the lamp and the test coupon to 15.2 cm while providing an exposure of at least 5.43 mWcm-2. Primary measure of outcome was titration of infectious virus recovered from virus-inoculated respirator test coupons after UVC exposure. Other measures included the method validation of the irradiation protocol, using lentiviruses (biosafety level-2 agent) and establishment of the germicidal UVC exposure protocol. An average of 4.38 × 103 PFU ml-1 (SD 772.68) was recovered from untreated test coupons while 4.44 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 203.67), 4.00 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 115.47), 1.56 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 76.98) and 4.44 × 101 PFU ml-1 (SD 76.98) was recovered in exposures 2, 6, 18 and 54 s per side respectively. The germicidal device output and positioning was monitored and a minimum output of 5.43 mW cm-2 was maintained. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 was not detected by plaque assays (minimal level of detection is 67 PFU ml-1) on N95 respirator test coupons when irradiated for 120 s per side or longer suggesting 3.5 log reduction in 240 s of irradiation, 1.3 J cm-2. A scalable germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose for rapid decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 was developed. UVC germicidal irradiation of N95 test coupons inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 for 120 s per side resulted in 3.5 log reduction of virus. These data support the reuse of N95 particle-filtrate apparatus upon irradiation with UVC and supports use of UVC-based decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/instrumentation , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Decontamination/economics , Equipment Design , Equipment Reuse , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Vero Cells
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 9(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398617


INTRODUCTION: People with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased rate of hospitalization and mortality related to COVID-19. To identify ahead of time those who are at risk of developing severe diseases and potentially in need of intensive care, we investigated the independent associations between longitudinal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the impact of common medications (metformin, insulin, ACE inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and corticosteroids) and COVID-19 severity in people with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted using deidentified claims and electronic health record data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse across the USA between January 2017 and November 2020, including 16 504 individuals with T2D and COVID-19. A univariate model and a multivariate model were applied to evaluate the association between 2 and 3-year HbA1c average, medication use between COVID-19 diagnosis and intensive care unit admission (if applicable), and risk of intensive care related to COVID-19. RESULTS: With covariates adjusted, the HR of longitudinal HbA1c for risk of intensive care was 1.12 (per 1% increase, p<0.001) and 1.48 (comparing group with poor (HbA1c ≥9%) and adequate glycemic control (HbA1c 6%-9%), p<0.001). The use of corticosteroids and the combined use of insulin and metformin were associated with significant reduction of intensive care risk, while ACEIs and ARBs were not associated with reduced risk of intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Two to three-year longitudinal glycemic level is independently associated with COVID-19-related severity in people with T2D. Here, we present a potential method to use HbA1c history, which presented a stronger association with COVID-19 severity than single-point HbA1c, to identify in advance those more at risk of intensive care due to COVID-19 in the T2D population. The combined use of metformin and insulin and the use of corticosteroids might be significant to prevent patients with T2D from becoming critically ill from COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2