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1.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(4): 233-243, 2022 Apr.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a frequent and prognostically relevant complication of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, according to the PRISMA guidelines to determine the in-hospital incidence of acute PE, based on Italian studies published on this issue. We searched PubMed and Scopus to locate all articles published between February 2020 to October 15, 2021, reporting the incidence of acute PE in Italian COVID-19 patients. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE was calculated using a random-effect model and presented with relative 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: We analysed data from 3287 Italian COVID-19 patients (mean age 65.7 years) included in 20 studies. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE was 20% (95% CI 13.4-28.7%; I2 = 95.1%); the incidence was lower among patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) (32.3%; 95% CI 20.2-44.0%; I2 = 77.2%) compared to those admitted in general wards (47.6%; 95% CI 18.7-78.2%; I2 = 94.4%). Meta-regression showed a significant direct correlation of acute PE incidence using age, male gender and previous coronary artery disease as moderating variables. Conversely, an inverse correlation was observed in relation to the use of anticoagulation at therapeutic dose. Prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation was administered in 80.2% of patients (95% CI 72.5-86.2%; I2 = 91.0%); the former regimen was more frequently used compared to the latter (63.5% vs 14.3%; p<0.001). Computed tomography angiography (CTPA) was used only in 10.7% of infected patients across 7 studies. CONCLUSIONS: One in five COVID-19 patients experienced acute PE as complication of the infection during hospitalization. The in-hospital incidence of acute PE was lower in ICU compared to general wards. CTPA was scantly used. Early prophylactic anticoagulation was associated with a lower incidence of acute PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
2.
Eur Respir J ; 60(4)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has led to significant restrictions on routine medical care. We conducted a multicentre nationwide survey of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) to determine the consequences of governance measures on PAH management and risk of poor outcome in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study, which included 25 Italian centres, considered demographic data, the number of in-person visits, 6-min walk and echocardiographic test results, brain natriuretic peptide/N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide test results, World Health Organization functional class assessment, presence of elective and non-elective hospitalisation, need for treatment escalation/initiation, newly diagnosed PAH, incidence of COVID-19 and mortality rates. Data were collected, double-checked and tracked by institutional records between March 1 and May 1, 2020, to coincide with the first peak of COVID-19 and compared with the same time period in 2019. RESULTS: Among 1922 PAH patients, the incidences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19 were 1.0% and 0.46%, respectively, with the latter comparable to that in the overall Italian population (0.34%) but associated with 100% mortality. Less systematic activities were converted into more effective remote interfacing between clinicians and PAH patients, resulting in lower rates of hospitalisation (1.2% versus 1.9%) and related death (0.3% versus 0.5%) compared with 2019 (p<0.001). A high level of attention is needed to avoid the potential risk of disease progression related to less aggressive escalation of treatment and the reduction in new PAH diagnoses compared with 2019. CONCLUSION: A cohesive partnership between healthcare providers and regional public health officials is needed to prioritise PAH patients for remote monitoring by dedicated tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Disease Progression , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580630

ABSTRACT

To realize a machine learning (ML) model to estimate the dose of low molecular weight heparin to be administered, preventing thromboembolism events in COVID-19 patients with active cancer. Methods: We used a dataset comprising 131 patients with active cancer and COVID-19. We considered five ML models: logistic regression, decision tree, random forest, support vector machine and Gaussian naive Bayes. We decided to implement the logistic regression model for our study. A model with 19 variables was analyzed. Data were randomly split into training (70%) and testing (30%) sets. Model performance was assessed by confusion matrix metrics on the testing data for each model as positive predictive value, sensitivity and F1-score. Results: We showed that the five selected models outperformed classical statistical methods of predictive validity and logistic regression was the most effective, being able to classify with an accuracy of 81%. The most relevant result was finding a patient-proof where python function was able to obtain the exact dose of low weight molecular heparin to be administered and thereby to prevent the occurrence of VTE. Conclusions: The world of machine learning and artificial intelligence is constantly developing. The identification of a specific LMWH dose for preventing VTE in very high-risk populations, such as the COVID-19 and active cancer population, might improve with the use of new training ML-based algorithms. Larger studies are needed to confirm our exploratory results.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(8): 575-583, 2020 Aug.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680054

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, is complex and can present with a multi-organ localization. One of its worst complications is an interstitial pneumonia with acute respiratory failure also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which requires non-invasive or invasive ventilation. A severe coagulopathy with poor prognosis is found in 5-10% of cases. SARS-CoV-2 is manifesting as a multi-dimensional disease and, recently, unique co-existing pathophysiological and clinical aspects are being defined: (i) an increased immune and inflammatory response with the activation of a cytokine storm and consequent coagulopathy, which promote both venous thromboembolic events and in situ thrombosis localized in small arterioles and pulmonary alveolar capillaries; (ii) a high intrapulmonary shunt, which often accounts for the severity of respiratory failure, due to reduced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with pulmonary neo-angiogenetic phenomena. Furthermore, the high incidence of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit and the autoptic findings of in situ micro-thrombosis at the pulmonary vascular level, suggest that in this disease coagulopathy, unlike septic disseminated intravascular coagulation, is driven towards a hyper-thrombogenic state, giving rise to a debate (with ongoing studies) about the preventive use of anticoagulant doses of heparin to reduce mortality. The aim of this position paper from the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) is to highlight the main implications that COVID-19 infection has on the pulmonary circulation from a pathophysiological, clinical and management point of view.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19 , Cardiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Societies, Medical , Survival Analysis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology
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