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AIMS Microbiol ; 8(3): 278-291, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954193


For SARS-CoV-2 disinfection systems or applications that are based on UVC, UVB or UVA irradiation, it would be desirable to have a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate for tests and development, which does not require a laboratory with a high biosafety level. The bacteriophage Phi 6, an enveloped RNA virus like coronaviruses, is an obvious candidate for such a surrogate. In this study, UVC, UVB and UVA log-reduction doses for Phi6 are determined by plaque assay. Log-reduction doses for SARS-CoV-2 are retrieved from a literature research. Because of a high variability of the published results, median log-reduction doses are determined for defined spectral ranges and compared to Phi6 data in the same intervals. The measured Phi6 log-reduction doses for UVC (254 nm), UVB (311 nm) and UVA (365 nm) are 31.7, 980 and 14 684 mJ/cm2, respectively. The determined median log-reduction doses for SARS-CoV-2 are much lower, only about 1.7 mJ/cm2 within the spectral interval 251-270 nm. Therefore, Phi6 can be photoinactivated by all UV wavelengths but it is much less UV sensitive compared to SARS-CoV-2 in all UV spectral ranges. Thus, Phi6 is no convincing SARS-CoV-2 surrogate in UV applications.

Photonics ; 9(2):113, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1705774


The COVID-19 pandemic is driving the search for new antiviral techniques. Bacteria and fungi are known to be inactivated not only by ultraviolet radiation but also by visible light. Several studies have recently appeared on this subject, in which viruses were mainly irradiated in media. However, it is an open question to what extent the applied media, and especially their riboflavin concentration, can influence the results. A literature search identified appropriate virus photoinactivation publications and, where possible, viral light susceptibility was quantitatively determined in terms of average log-reduction doses. Sensitivities of enveloped viruses were plotted against assumed riboflavin concentrations. Viruses appear to be sensitive to visible (violet/blue) light. The median log-reduction doses of all virus experiments performed in liquids is 58 J/cm2. For the non-enveloped, enveloped and coronaviruses only, they were 222, 29 and 19 J/cm2, respectively. Data are scarce, but it appears that (among other things) the riboflavin concentration in the medium has an influence on the log-reduction doses. Experiments with DMEM, with its 0.4 mg/L riboflavin, have so far produced results with the greatest viral susceptibilities. It should be critically evaluated whether the currently published virus sensitivities are really only intrinsic properties of the virus, or whether the medium played a significant role. In future experiments, irradiation should be carried out in solutions with the lowest possible riboflavin concentration.

BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 187, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388822


OBJECTIVE: Ultraviolet radiation is known for its antimicrobial properties but unfortunately, it could also harm humans. Currently, disinfection techniques against SARS-CoV-2 are being sought that can be applied on air and surfaces and which do not pose a relevant thread to humans. In this study, the bacteriophage phi6, which like SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped RNA virus, is irradiated with visible blue light at a wavelength of 455 nm. RESULTS: For the first time worldwide, the antiviral properties of blue light around 455 nm can be demonstrated. With a dose of 7200 J/cm2, the concentration of this enveloped RNA virus can be successfully reduced by more than three orders of magnitude. The inactivation mechanism is still unknown, but the sensitivity ratio of phi6 towards blue and violet light hints towards an involvement of photosensitizers of the host cells. Own studies on coronaviruses cannot be executed, but the results support speculations about blue-susceptibility of coronaviruses, which might allow to employ blue light for infection prevention or even therapeutic applications.

COVID-19 , Ultraviolet Rays , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Light , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
GMS Hyg Infect Control ; 16: Doc07, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107383


Background: The ongoing coronavirus pandemic requires new disinfection approaches, especially for airborne viruses. The 254 nm emission of low-pressure vacuum lamps is known for its antimicrobial effect, but unfortunately, this radiation is also harmful to human cells. Some researchers published reports that short-wavelength ultraviolet light in the spectral region of 200-230 nm (far-UVC) should inactivate pathogens without harming human cells, which might be very helpful in many applications. Methods: A literature search on the impact of far-UVC radiation on pathogens, cells, skin and eyes was performed and median log-reduction doses for different pathogens and wavelengths were calculated. Observed damage to cells, skin and eyes was collected and presented in standardized form. Results: More than 100 papers on far-UVC disinfection, published within the last 100 years, were found. Far-UVC radiation, especially the 222 nm emission of KrCl excimer lamps, exhibits strong antimicrobial properties. The average necessary log-reduction doses are 1.3 times higher than with 254 nm irradiation. A dose of 100 mJ/cm2 reduces all pathogens by several orders of magnitude without harming human cells, if optical filters block emissions above 230 nm. Conclusion: The approach is very promising, especially for temporary applications, but the data is still sparse. Investigations with high far-UVC doses over a longer period of time have not yet been carried out, and there is no positive study on the impact of this radiation on human eyes. Additionally, far-UVC sources are unavailable in larger quantities. Therefore, this is not a short-term solution for the current pandemic, but may be suitable for future technological approaches for decontamination in rooms in the presence of people or for antisepsis.

Photochem Photobiol ; 97(1): 122-125, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894794


To stop the coronavirus spread, new inactivation approaches are being sought that can also be applied in the presence of humans or even on humans. Here, we investigate the effect of visible violet light with a wavelength of 405 nm on the coronavirus surrogate phi6 in two aqueous solutions that are free of photosensitizers. A dose of 1300 J cm-2 of 405 nm irradiation reduces the phi6 plaque-forming unit concentration by three log-levels. The next step should be similar visible light photoinactivation investigations on coronaviruses, which cannot be performed in our lab.

Light , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Humans , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Plaque Assay
GMS Hyg Infect Control ; 15: Doc08, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599539


Background: To slow the increasing global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, appropriate disinfection techniques are required. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has a well-known antiviral effect, but measurements on the radiation dose necessary to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 have not been published so far. Methods: Coronavirus inactivation experiments with ultraviolet light performed in the past were evaluated to determine the UV radiation dose required for a 90% virus reduction. This analysis is based on the fact that all coronaviruses have a similar structure and similar RNA strand length. Results: The available data reveals large variations, which are apparently not caused by the coronaviruses but by the experimental conditions selected. If these are excluded as far as possible, it appears that coronaviruses are very UV sensitive. The upper limit determined for the log-reduction dose (90% reduction) is approximately 10.6 mJ/cm2 (median), while the true value is probably only 3.7 mJ/cm2 (median). Conclusion: Since coronaviruses do not differ structurally to any great exent, the SARS-CoV-2 virus - as well as possible future mutations - will very likely be highly UV sensitive, so that common UV disinfection procedures will inactivate the new SARS-CoV-2 virus without any further modification.