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Bergeri, I.; Whelan, M.; Ware, H.; Subissi, L.; Nardone, A.; Lewis, H. C.; Li, Z.; Ma, X.; Valenciano, M.; Cheng, B.; Ariqi, L. A.; Rashidian, A.; Okeibunor, J.; Azim, T.; Wijesinghe, P.; Le, L. V.; Vaughan, A.; Pebody, R.; Vicari, A.; Yan, T.; Yanes-Lane, M.; Cao, C.; Cheng, M. P.; Papenburg, J.; Buckeridge, D.; Bobrovitz, N.; Arora, R. K.; van Kerkhove, M. D.; Al-Shoteri, S.; Aly, E. A.; Audu, R. A.; Barakat, A.; Bin-Ghouth, A. S.; Birru, E.; Bokonjic, D.; Bolotin, S.; Boucher, E. L.; Catovic-Baralija, E.; Ceban, A.; Chauma-Mwale, A.; Chimeddorj, B.; Chung, P. S.; Clifton, D.; Dabakuyo-Yonli, T. S.; Deveaux, G. R.; Diop, B.; Dokubo, E. K.; Donnici, C.; Duarte, N.; Duarte, N. A.; Evans, T. G.; Fairlie, L.; Freidl, G. S.; Harris, T. G.; Herring, B. L.; Iamsirithaworn, S.; Ila, R.; Ilincic, N.; Ilori, E. A.; Inbanathan, F. Y.; Indenbaum, V.; Kaldor, J.; Kim, D.; Kolawole, O. M.; Kondwani, J. C.; Kuchuk, T.; Lalwani, P. J.; Laman, M.; Lavu, E.; Leite, J.; Liu, M.; Loeschnik, E.; Macartney, K.; Machalek, D. A.; Makiala-Mandanda, S.; Mallet, H. P.; Mapira, P.; Mawien, P. N.; Misra, P.; Musa, S.; Mutevedzi, P. C.; Najjar, O. A.; Nakphook, S.; Noel, K. C.; Nurmatov, Z.; Ome-Kaius, M.; Paudel, K. P.; Perlman-Arrow, S.; Qaddomi, S. E.; Quan, H.; Rady, A.; Rahim, H. P.; Rayyan, I. Y.; Rodriguez, A.; Sachathep, K.; Segal, M.; Selemon, A.; Shirin, T.; Stafford, K. A.; Steinhardt, L.; Tran, V.; Traore, I. T.; Wahyono, T. Y. M.; Williamson, T.; Wood, N.; Yansouni, C. P.; Zhang, C.; Lin, C. Z..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326828

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 case data underestimates infection and immunity, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We meta-analyzed standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence studies to estimate global seroprevalence. Objectives/Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, preprints, and grey literature for SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence studies aligned with the WHO UNITY protocol published between 2020-01-01 and 2021-10-29. Eligible studies were extracted and critically appraised in duplicate. We meta-analyzed seroprevalence by country and month, pooling to estimate regional and global seroprevalence over time;compared seroprevalence from infection to confirmed cases to estimate under-ascertainment;meta-analyzed differences in seroprevalence between demographic subgroups;and identified national factors associated with seroprevalence using meta-regression. PROSPERO: CRD42020183634. Results We identified 396 full texts reporting 736 distinct seroprevalence studies (41% LMIC), including 355 low/moderate risk of bias studies with national/sub-national scope in further analysis. By April 2021, global SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 26.1%, 95% CI [24.6-27.6%]. Seroprevalence rose steeply in the first half of 2021 due to infection in some regions (e.g., 18.2% to 45.9% in Africa) and vaccination and infection in others (e.g., 11.3% to 57.4% in the Americas high-income countries), but remained low in others (e.g., 0.3% to 1.6% in the Western Pacific). In 2021 Q1, median seroprevalence to case ratios were 1.9:1 in HICs and 61.9:1 in LMICs. Children 0-9 years and adults 60+ were at lower risk of seropositivity than adults 20-29. In a multivariate model using data pre-vaccination, more stringent public health and social measures were associated with lower seroprevalence. Conclusions Global seroprevalence has risen considerably over time and with regional variation, however much of the global population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. True infections far exceed reported COVID-19 cases. Standardized seroprevalence studies are essential to inform COVID-19 control measures, particularly in resource-limited regions.

2.
BJS Open ; 5(SUPPL 1):i11, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1493706

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 led to global disruption of healthcare and many students volunteered to provide clinical support. Volunteering to work was a unique medical education opportunity;however, it is unknown whether this was a positive learning experience. Methods: The COVID Ready 2 study is a national cross-sectional study of all medical students at UK medical schools. We will compare opinions of those who did and did not volunteer to determine the educational benefit and issues they faced. We will use thematic analysis to identify themes in qualitative responses, in addition to quantitative analysis. Results: The primary objective is to explore the effect of volunteering during the pandemic on medical education in comparison to those who did not volunteer. Our secondary objectives are to identify: whether students would be willing to assume similar roles in a non-pandemic setting;if students found the experience more or less beneficial than traditional hospital placements and reasons for this;what the perceived benefits and disadvantages of volunteering were;the difference in perceived preparedness between students who did and did not volunteer for foundation training year one and the next academic year;training received by volunteers;and to explore issues associated with volunteering, including safety issues and issues with role and competence. Conclusions: We anticipate this study will help identify volunteer structures that have been beneficial for students, so that similar infrastructures can be used in the future;and help determine whether formal voluntary roles should be introduced into the non-pandemic medical curriculum.

3.
New Scientist ; 245(3350):10-11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1431655
4.
Facets ; 6:1409-1445, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1373978

ABSTRACT

The origins of this report, and of the Mental Health and Policing Working Group, can be traced to the unique situation Canadians have faced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The unique circumstances of this global outbreak, which have for many Canadians resulted in serious illness and death, intensified economic uncertainties, altered family and lifestyle dynamics, and generated or exacerbated feelings of loneliness and social dislocation, rightly led the Royal Society of Canada's COVID-19 Taskforce to consider the strains and other negative impacts on individual, group, and community mental health. With the central role that police too often play in the lives of individuals in mental and (or) emotional crisis, we were tasked with exploring what can be reasonably said about the state of our current knowledge of police responses to persons with mental illness.

5.
New Scientist ; 245(3340):14-14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1303156
6.
New Scientist ; 245(3317):7-7, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1283027
7.
New Scientist ; 245(3325):7-7, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1151183
8.
New Scientist ; 245(3318):7-7, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1124110
9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(1):17-19, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1077242

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has unfortunately halted lab work, conferences, and in-person networking, which is especially detrimental to researchers just starting their labs. Through social media and our reviewer networks, we met some early-career stem cell investigators impacted by the closures. Here, they introduce themselves and their research to our readers.

10.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology ; 58(1):e00963, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-17602

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a major global public health threat as a result of its highly pathogenic variants, large zoonotic reservoir, and pandemic potential. Metagenomic viral sequencing offers the potential for a diagnostic test for influenza virus which also provides insights on transmission, evolution, and drug resistance and simultaneously detects other viruses. We therefore set out to apply the Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing method to metagenomic sequencing of respiratory samples. We generated influenza virus reads down to a limit of detection of 102 to 103 genome copies/ml in pooled samples, observing a strong relationship between the viral titer and the proportion of influenza virus reads (P=4.7×10-5). Applying our methods to clinical throat swabs, we generated influenza virus reads for 27/27 samples with mid-to-high viral titers (cycle threshold [CT] values, <30) and 6/13 samples with low viral titers (CT values, 30 to 40). No false-positive reads were generated from 10 influenza virus-negative samples. Thus, Nanopore sequencing operated with 83% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 67 to 93%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 69 to 100%) compared to the current diagnostic standard. Coverage of full-length virus was dependent on sample composition, being negatively influenced by increased host and bacterial reads. However, at high influenza virus titers, we were able to reconstruct >99% complete sequences for all eight gene segments. We also detected a human coronavirus coinfection in one clinical sample. While further optimization is required to improve sensitivity, this approach shows promise for the Nanopore platform to be used in the diagnosis and genetic analysis of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses.

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