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1.
Clin Infect Pract ; 15: 100144, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803778

ABSTRACT

Background: Sars-CoV2 can cause severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In COVID-19-associated respiratory failure, lung transplantation might be an option (Bharat A). Case report: A previously healthy 63-year-old man with a nasopharyngeal swab positive for SarsCoV2 and radiological evidence of interstitial lung consolidations developed acute respiratory distress that required intubation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (VV ECMO). Because of no recovery of his lung function, he underwent a bilateral lung transplant. ICU stay was complicated by several episodes of bacterial superinfections and an increase of liver function tests (LFTs). Afterward, he faced a progressive clinical worsening associated to severe anemia, further rise of indices of cholestasis, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow smear showed a picture compatible with haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) and first and second line therapy were started. In addition, a transjugular hepatic biopsy was performed with histopathological evidence of portal and periportal fibrosis, compatible with Covid 19-related cholangiopathy. During the hospital stay, he developed several MDR opportunistic infections. The patient died few months later from multiorgan failure secondary to septic shock. A post-mortem confirmed a diagnosis of cholangiopathy, and medullary erythro-haemophagocytosis. Conclusion: Post Covid19 syndrome is a clinical entity that includes novel and old sequelae following recovery from Sars-CoV2 infections. Early identification of these diseases is crucial for adequate management and might influence the long term prognosis of these patients.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323211

ABSTRACT

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and host immunity is unknown. We show here that patients with COVID-19 had an altered immune phenotype, with an expansion of adaptive FceRIg neg NK cells, and inflammatory CD14 + CD16 + monocytes. T cells were reduced and overexpressed the Tim-3 exhaustion molecule. Low frequencies of CD8 T cells and NKG2A + NK cells, and expansion of mature CD57 + NK cells were associated with poor prognosis. These findings unveil a unique immunological profile in COVID-19 patients.

3.
iScience ; 25(2): 103743, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611783

ABSTRACT

Information concerning the longevity of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection may have considerable implications for durability of immunity induced by vaccines. Here, we monitored the SARS-CoV-2 specific immune response in COVID-19 patients followed up to 15 months after symptoms onset. Following a peak at day 15-28 postinfection, the IgG antibody response and plasma neutralizing titers gradually decreased over time but stabilized after 6 months. Compared to G614, plasma neutralizing titers were more than 8-fold lower against variants Beta, Gamma, and Delta. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B and T cells persisted in the majority of patients up to 15 months although a significant decrease in specific T cells, but not B cells, was observed between 6 and 15 months. Antiviral specific immunity, especially memory B cells in COVID-19 convalescent patients, is long-lasting, but some variants of concern may at least partially escape the neutralizing activity of plasma antibodies.

5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1029-1034, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response characterization represents a crucial issue for defining the role of immune protection against COVID-19. The aim of the study was to assess the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response in a cohort of COVID-19 convalescent patients and in a group of unexposed subjects. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was quantified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 87 COVID-19 convalescent subjects (range 7-239 days after symptom onset) and 33 unexposed donors by ex vivo ELISpot assay. Follow-up of SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was performed in ten subjects up to 12 months after symptom onset. The role of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4 and CD8 T cells was characterized in a group of COVID-19 convalescent subjects. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies were determined in serum samples. RESULTS: In 14/33 (42.4%) unexposed donors and 85/87 (97.7%) COVID-19 convalescent subjects a positive result for at least one SARS-CoV-2 antigen was observed. A positive response was observed up to 12 months after COVID-19 infection (median 246 days after symptom onset; range 118-362 days). Of note, SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response seems to be mainly mediated by CD4 T cells. A weak positive correlation was observed between Spike-specific T-cell response and neutralizing antibody titre (p 0.0028; r2 = 0.2891) and positive SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was observed in 8/9 (88.9%) COVID-19 convalescent subjects with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. DISCUSSION: Cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response in uninfected patients may be due to previous infections with other common coronaviruses. Our data suggest that long-term SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response might accompany a waning humoral response.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Med (N Y) ; 2(3): 281-295.e4, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monitoring the adaptive immune responses during the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides useful information for the development of vaccination strategies against this virus and its emerging variants. We thus profiled the serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) levels and specific memory B and T cell responses in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A total of 119 samples from 88 convalescent donors who experienced mild to critical disease were tested for the presence of elevated anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain Ab levels over a period of 8 months. In addition, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing Abs and specific memory B and T cell responses were tested in a subset of samples. FINDINGS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs were present in 85% of the samples collected within 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Levels of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgA Abs declined after 1 month, while levels of specific IgG Abs and plasma neutralizing activities remained relatively stable up to 6 months after diagnosis. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Abs were still present, although at a significantly lower level, in 80% of the samples collected at 6-8 months after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B and T cell responses developed with time and were persistent in all of the patients followed up for 6-8 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that protective adaptive immunity following natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 may persist for at least 6-8 months, regardless of disease severity. Development of medium- or long-term protective immunity through vaccination may thus be possible. FUNDING: This project was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ATAC, no. 101003650), the Italian Ministry of Health (Ricerca Finalizzata grant no. GR-2013-02358399), the Center for Innovative Medicine, and the Swedish Research Council. J.A. was supported by the SciLifeLab/KAW national COVID-19 research program project grant 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(3): 604-612, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872685

ABSTRACT

The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host immunity is poorly understood. We performed an extensive analysis of immune responses in 32 patients with severe COVID-19, some of whom succumbed. A control population of healthy subjects was included. Patients with COVID-19 had an altered distribution of peripheral blood lymphocytes, with an increased proportion of mature natural killer (NK) cells and low T-cell numbers. NK cells and CD8+ T cells overexpressed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and CD69. NK cell exhaustion was attested by increased frequencies of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) positive cells and reduced frequencies of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D)-, DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1)- and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 7 (Siglec-7)-expressing NK cells, associated with a reduced ability to secrete interferon (IFN)γ. Patients with poor outcome showed a contraction of immature CD56bright and an expansion of mature CD57+ FcεRIγneg adaptive NK cells compared to survivors. Increased serum levels of IL-6 were also more frequently identified in deceased patients compared to survivors. Of note, monocytes secreted abundant quantities of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß which persisted at lower levels several weeks after recovery with concomitant normalization of CD69, PD-1 and TIM-3 expression and restoration of CD8+ T cell numbers. A hyperactivated/exhausted immune response dominate in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, probably driven by an uncontrolled secretion of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes. These findings unveil a unique immunological profile in COVID-19 patients that will help to design effective stage-specific treatments for this potentially deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
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