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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337887

ABSTRACT

Measles is the most contagious airborne viral infection and the leading cause of child death among vaccine-preventable diseases. We show here that aerosolized lipopeptide fusion inhibitors, derived from heptad-repeat regions of the measles virus (MeV) fusion protein, block respiratory MeV infection in a non-human primate model, the cynomolgus macaque. We used a custom-designed mesh nebulizer to ensure efficient aerosol delivery of peptides to the respiratory tract and demonstrated the absence of adverse effects and lung pathology in macaques. The nebulized peptide efficiently prevented MeV infection, resulting in the complete absence of MeV RNA, MeV-infected cells, and MeV-specific humoral responses in treated animals. This strategy provides an additional shield which complements vaccination to fight against respiratory infection, presenting a proof-of-concept for the aerosol delivery of fusion inhibitory peptides to protect against measles and other airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in case of high-risk exposure, that can be readily translated to human trials.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048591, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495462

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pre-emptive inhaled antibiotics may be effective to reduce the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia among critically ill patients. Meta-analysis of small sample size trials showed a favourable signal. Inhaled antibiotics are associated with a reduced emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the benefit of a 3-day course of inhaled antibiotics among patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days on the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Academic, investigator-initiated, parallel two group arms, double-blind, multicentre superiority randomised controlled trial. Patients invasively ventilated more than 3 days will be randomised to receive 20 mg/kg inhaled amikacin daily for 3 days or inhaled placebo (0.9% Sodium Chloride). Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia will be recorded based on a standardised diagnostic framework from randomisation to day 28 and adjudicated by a centralised blinded committee. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol and amendments have been approved by the regional ethics review board and French competent authorities (Comité de protection des personnes Ouest I, No.2016-R29). All patients will be included after informed consent according to French law. Results will be disseminated in international scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2016-001054-17 and NCT03149640.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Administration, Inhalation , Amikacin/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
4.
Mol Immunol ; 135: 147-164, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198989

ABSTRACT

Respiratory pathogens represent a great burden for humanity and a potential source of new pandemics, as illustrated by the recent emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In recent decades, biotechnological advances have led to the development of numerous innovative therapeutic molecules and vaccine immunogens. However, we still lack effective treatments and vaccines against many respiratory pathogens. More than ever, there is a need for a fast, predictive, preclinical pipeline, to keep pace with emerging diseases. Animal models are key for the preclinical development of disease management strategies. The predictive value of these models depends on their ability to reproduce the features of the human disease, the mode of transmission of the infectious agent and the availability of technologies for monitoring infection. This review focuses on the use of non-human primates as relevant preclinical models for the development of prevention and treatment for human respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Haplorhini , Humans
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 584036, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914431

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to an unprecedented shortage of healthcare resources, primarily personal protective equipment like surgical masks, and N95/filtering face piece type 2 (FFP2) respirators. Objective: Reuse of surgical masks and N95/FFP2 respirators may circumvent the supply chain constraints and thus overcome mass shortage. Methods, design, setting, and measurement: Herein, we tested the effects of dry- and moist-air controlled heating treatment on structure and chemical integrity, decontamination yield, and filtration performance of surgical masks and FFP2 respirators. Results: We found that treatment in a climate chamber at 70°C during 1 h with 75% humidity rate was adequate for enabling substantial decontamination of both respiratory viruses, oropharyngeal bacteria, and model animal coronaviuses, while maintaining a satisfying filtering capacity. Limitations: Further studies are now required to confirm the feasibility of the whole process during routine practice. Conclusion: Our findings provide compelling evidence for the recycling of pre-used surgical masks and N95/FFP2 respirators in case of imminent mass shortfall.

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