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1.
Viruses ; 14(5):882, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1810323

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has now been continuing for more than two years. The infection causes COVID-19, a disease of the respiratory and cardiovascular system of variable severity. Here, the humoral immune response of 80 COVID-19 patients from the University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Germany, was characterized longitudinally. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity of serum waned over time. The neutralizing potential of serum directed towards the human alpha-coronavirus NL-63 (NL63) also waned, indicating that no cross-priming against alpha-coronaviruses occurred. A subset of the recovered patients (n = 13) was additionally vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine Comirnaty. Vaccination increased neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (WT), Delta, and Omicron, although Omicron-specific neutralization was not detectable prior to vaccination. In addition, the vaccination induced neutralizing antibodies against the more distantly related SARS-CoV-1 but not against NL63. The results indicate that although SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune responses induced by infection wane, vaccination induces a broad neutralizing activity against multiple SARS-CoVs, but not to the common cold alpha-coronavirus NL63.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307867

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting COVID-19 illness vary from asymptomatic disease, mild upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia 1 , to a life-threatening multi-organ failure with case fatality rates ranging from 0.27–13.4% 2,3 . Despite increasing knowledge of the clinical and immunological features underlying COVID-19 1,4−6 , biological variables explaining the course of infection and its severity remain elusive. At the entry site of SARS-CoV2, the oropharyngeal microbiome represents a hub integrating viral and immune signals at the start of the infection 7–10 . To evaluate the role of the oropharyngeal microbiome in COVID-19, we performed a multi-center, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing the oropharyngeal microbial metagenomes in healthy adults, patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, or with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 encompassing a total of 345 participants. Significantly reduced microbiome diversity and high dysbiosis were observed in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, which was further associated with a loss of microbial genes and metabolic pathways. In this cohort, diversity measures were also associated with need for intensive care treatments as major clinical parameters in COVID-19. We further applied random forest machine learning to unravel microbial features for segregating clinical outcomes in hospitalized cases, and observed oropharyngeal microbiome abundances of Haemophilus or Streptococcu s species as most important features. These findings provide insights into the role of the oropharyngeal microbiome in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and may suggest new biomarkers for COVID-19 severity.

4.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; (Forthcoming)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact with a pathogen is followed by variable courses of infectious disease, which are only partly explicable by classical risk factors. The susceptibility to infection is variable, as is the course of disease after infection. In this review, we discuss the extent to which this variation is due to genetic factors of the affected individual (the host). METHODS: Selective review of the literature on host genetics in infectious disease, with special attention to the pathogens SARS-CoV-2, influenza viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). RESULTS: Genetic variants of the host contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. For example, in HIV infection, a relatively common variant leading to a loss of function of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 affects the course of the disease, as do variants in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Rare monogenic variants of the interferon immune response system contribute to severe disease courses in COVID-19 and influenza (type I interferon in these two cases) and in tuberculosis (type II interferon). An estimated 1.8% of lifethreatening courses of COVID-19 in men under age 60 are caused by a deficiency of toll-like receptor 7. The scientific understanding of host genetic factors has already been beneficial to the development of effective drugs. In a small number of cases, genetic information has also been used for individual therapeutic decision-making and for the identification of persons at elevated risk. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive understanding of host genetics can improve the care of patients with infectious diseases. Until the present, the clinical utility of host genetics has been limited to rare cases; in the future, polygenic risk scores summarizing the relevant genetic variants in each patient will enable a wider benefit. To make this possible, multicenter studies are needed that will systematically integrate clinical and genetic data.

6.
Artif Intell Life Sci ; 1: 100020, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588542

ABSTRACT

Despite available vaccinations COVID-19 case numbers around the world are still growing, and effective medications against severe cases are lacking. In this work, we developed a machine learning model which predicts mortality for COVID-19 patients using data from the multi-center 'Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients' (LEOSS) observational study (>100 active sites in Europe, primarily in Germany), resulting into an AUC of almost 80%. We showed that molecular mechanisms related to dementia, one of the relevant predictors in our model, intersect with those associated to COVID-19. Most notably, among these molecules was tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), a protein that has been patented as drug target in Alzheimer's Disease but also genetically associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. We experimentally verified that anti-cancer drugs Sorafenib and Regorafenib showed a clear anti-cytopathic effect in Caco2 and VERO-E6 cells and can thus be regarded as potential treatments against COVID-19. Altogether, our work demonstrates that interpretation of machine learning based risk models can point towards drug targets and new treatment options, which are strongly needed for COVID-19.

7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296314

ABSTRACT

The capacity of convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants is currently of high relevance to assess the protection against infections. We performed a cell culture-based neutralization assay focusing on authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.427/B.1.429 (Epsilon), all harboring the spike substitution L452R. We found that authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring L452R had reduced susceptibility to convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera and mAbs. Compared to B.1, Kappa and Delta showed a reduced neutralization by convalescent sera by a factor of 8.00 and 5.33, respectively, which constitutes a 2-fold greater reduction when compared to Epsilon. BNT2b2 and mRNA1273 vaccine-elicited sera were less effective against Kappa, Delta, and Epsilon compared to B.1. No difference was observed between Kappa and Delta towards vaccine-elicited sera, whereas convalescent sera were 1.5-fold less effective against Delta, respectively. Both B.1.617 variants Kappa (+E484Q) and Delta (+T478K) were less susceptible to either casirivimab or imdevimab. In conclusion, in contrast to the parallel circulating Kappa variant, the neutralization efficiency of convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera against Delta was moderately reduced. Delta was resistant to imdevimab, which however, might be circumvented by a combination therapy with casirivimab together.

8.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(12): 3925-3937, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, neurological signs, symptoms and complications occur. We aimed to assess their clinical relevance by evaluating real-world data from a multinational registry. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19 patients from 127 centers, diagnosed between January 2020 and February 2021, and registered in the European multinational LEOSS (Lean European Open Survey on SARS-Infected Patients) registry. The effects of prior neurological diseases and the effect of neurological symptoms on outcome were studied using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 6537 COVID-19 patients (97.7% PCR-confirmed) were analyzed, of whom 92.1% were hospitalized and 14.7% died. Commonly, excessive tiredness (28.0%), headache (18.5%), nausea/emesis (16.6%), muscular weakness (17.0%), impaired sense of smell (9.0%) and taste (12.8%), and delirium (6.7%) were reported. In patients with a complicated or critical disease course (53%) the most frequent neurological complications were ischemic stroke (1.0%) and intracerebral bleeding (ICB; 2.2%). ICB peaked in the critical disease phase (5%) and was associated with the administration of anticoagulation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Excessive tiredness (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.68) and prior neurodegenerative diseases (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.07-1.63) were associated with an increased risk of an unfavorable outcome. Prior cerebrovascular and neuroimmunological diseases were not associated with an unfavorable short-term outcome of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our data on mostly hospitalized COVID-19 patients show that excessive tiredness or prior neurodegenerative disease at first presentation increase the risk of an unfavorable short-term outcome. ICB in critical COVID-19 was associated with therapeutic interventions, such as anticoagulation and ECMO, and thus may be an indirect complication of a life-threatening systemic viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Stroke , Headache , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the entry site of respiratory virus infections, the oropharyngeal microbiome has been proposed as a major hub integrating viral and host immune signals. Early studies suggested that infections with Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with changes of the upper and lower airway microbiome, and that specific microbial signatures may predict COVID-19 illness. However, the results are not conclusive, as critical illness can drastically alter a patient's microbiome through multiple confounders. METHODS: To study oropharyngeal microbiome profiles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical confounders, and prediction models in COVID-19, we performed a multi-center, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing oropharyngeal microbial metagenomes in healthy adults, patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, or with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 (n=322 participants). RESULTS: In contrast to mild infections, patients admitted to a hospital with moderate or severe COVID-19 showed dysbiotic microbial configurations, which were significantly pronounced in patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, or when sampling was performed during prolonged hospitalization. In contrast, specimens collected early after admission allowed us to segregate microbiome features predictive of hospital COVID-19 mortality utilizing machine learning models. Taxonomic signatures were found to perform better than models utilizing clinical variables with Neisseria and Haemophilus species abundances as most important features. CONCLUSION: In addition to the infection per se, several factors shape the oropharyngeal microbiome of severely affected COVID-19 patients and deserve consideration in the interpretation of the role of the microbiome in severe COVID-19. Nevertheless, we were able to extract microbial features that can help to predict clinical outcomes.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 224(7): 1109-1114, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470152

ABSTRACT

Whether monoclonal antibodies are able to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern has been investigated using pseudoviruses. In this study we show that bamlanivimab, casirivimab, and imdevimab efficiently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2, including variant B.1.1.7 (alpha), but variants B.1.351 (beta) and P.2 (zeta) were resistant against bamlanivimab and partially resistant to casirivimab. Whether antibodies are able to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variantshas been investigated using pseudoviruses. We show that authentic SARS-CoV-2 carrying E484K were resistant against bamlanivimab and less susceptible to casirivimab, convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Neutralization Tests
11.
Infection ; 50(2): 423-436, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Reported antibiotic use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is far higher than the actual rate of reported bacterial co- and superinfection. A better understanding of antibiotic therapy in COVID-19 is necessary. METHODS: 6457 SARS-CoV-2-infected cases, documented from March 18, 2020, until February 16, 2021, in the LEOSS cohort were analyzed. As primary endpoint, the correlation between any antibiotic treatment and all-cause mortality/progression to the next more advanced phase of disease was calculated for adult patients in the complicated phase of disease and procalcitonin (PCT) ≤ 0.5 ng/ml. The analysis took the confounders gender, age, and comorbidities into account. RESULTS: Three thousand, six hundred twenty-seven cases matched all inclusion criteria for analyses. For the primary endpoint, antibiotic treatment was not correlated with lower all-cause mortality or progression to the next more advanced (critical) phase (n = 996) (both p > 0.05). For the secondary endpoints, patients in the uncomplicated phase (n = 1195), regardless of PCT level, had no lower all-cause mortality and did not progress less to the next more advanced (complicated) phase when treated with antibiotics (p > 0.05). Patients in the complicated phase with PCT > 0.5 ng/ml and antibiotic treatment (n = 286) had a significantly increased all-cause mortality (p = 0.029) but no significantly different probability of progression to the critical phase (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, antibiotics in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were not associated with positive effects on all-cause mortality or disease progression. Additional studies are needed. Advice of local antibiotic stewardship- (ABS-) teams and local educational campaigns should be sought to improve rational antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438630

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of thromboembolic events associated with high mortality has been reported in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections with respiratory failure. The present study characterized post-transcriptional gene regulation by global microRNA (miRNA) expression in relation to activated coagulation and inflammation in 21 critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients. The cohort consisted of patients with moderate respiratory failure (n = 11) and severe respiratory failure (n = 10) at an acute stage (day 0-3) and in the later course of the disease (>7 days). All patients needed supplemental oxygen and severe patients were defined by the requirement of positive pressure ventilation (intubation). Levels of D-dimers, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in patients with severe compared with moderate respiratory failure. Concurrently, next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis demonstrated increased dysregulation of miRNA expression with progression of disease severity connected to extreme downregulation of miR-320a, miR-320b and miR-320c. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed involvement in the Hippo signaling pathway, the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling pathway and in the regulation of adherens junctions. The expression of all miR-320 family members was significantly correlated with CRP, IL-6, and D-dimer levels. In conclusion, our analysis underlines the importance of thromboembolic processes in patients with respiratory failure and emphasizes miRNA-320s as potential biomarkers for severe progressive SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/genetics , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374534

ABSTRACT

The capacity of convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants is currently of high relevance to assess the protection against infections. We performed a cell culture-based neutralization assay focusing on authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.427/B.1.429 (Epsilon), all harboring the spike substitution L452R. We found that authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring L452R had reduced susceptibility to convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera and mAbs. Compared to B.1, Kappa and Delta showed a reduced neutralization by convalescent sera by a factor of 8.00 and 5.33, respectively, which constitutes a 2-fold greater reduction when compared to Epsilon. BNT2b2 and mRNA1273 vaccine-elicited sera were less effective against Kappa, Delta, and Epsilon compared to B.1. No difference was observed between Kappa and Delta towards vaccine-elicited sera, whereas convalescent sera were 1.51-fold less effective against Delta, respectively. Both B.1.617 variants Kappa (+E484Q) and Delta (+T478K) were less susceptible to either casirivimab or imdevimab. In conclusion, in contrast to the parallel circulating Kappa variant, the neutralization efficiency of convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera against Delta was moderately reduced. Delta was resistant to imdevimab, which, however, might be circumvented by combination therapy with casirivimab together.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Alleles , Amino Acid Substitution , Cell Line , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neutralization Tests
16.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374437

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The aim of our study was to identify specific risk factors for fatal outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients. (2) Methods: Our data set consisted of 840 patients enclosed in the LEOSS registry. Using lasso regression for variable selection, a multifactorial logistic regression model was fitted to the response variable survival. Specific risk factors and their odds ratios were derived. A nomogram was developed as a graphical representation of the model. (3) Results: 14 variables were identified as independent factors contributing to the risk of death for critically ill COVID-19 patients: age (OR 1.08, CI 1.06-1.10), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.64, CI 1.06-2.55), pulmonary disease (OR 1.87, CI 1.16-3.03), baseline Statin treatment (0.54, CI 0.33-0.87), oxygen saturation (unit = 1%, OR 0.94, CI 0.92-0.96), leukocytes (unit 1000/µL, OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.07), lymphocytes (unit 100/µL, OR 0.96, CI 0.94-0.99), platelets (unit 100,000/µL, OR 0.70, CI 0.62-0.80), procalcitonin (unit ng/mL, OR 1.11, CI 1.05-1.18), kidney failure (OR 1.68, CI 1.05-2.70), congestive heart failure (OR 2.62, CI 1.11-6.21), severe liver failure (OR 4.93, CI 1.94-12.52), and a quick SOFA score of 3 (OR 1.78, CI 1.14-2.78). The nomogram graphically displays the importance of these 14 factors for mortality. (4) Conclusions: There are risk factors that are specific to the subpopulation of critically ill COVID-19 patients.

17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169921

ABSTRACT

A considerable fraction of B cells recognize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with germline-encoded elements of their B cell receptor, resulting in the production of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies. We found that antibody sequences from different discovery cohorts shared biochemical properties and could be retrieved across validation cohorts, confirming the stereotyped character of this naive response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While neutralizing antibody sequences were found independently of disease severity, in line with serological data, individual nonneutralizing antibody sequences were associated with fatal clinical courses, suggesting detrimental effects of these antibodies. We mined 200 immune repertoires from healthy individuals and 500 repertoires from patients with blood or solid cancers - all acquired prior to the pandemic - for SARS-CoV-2 antibody sequences. While the largely unmutated B cell rearrangements occurred in a substantial fraction of immune repertoires from young and healthy individuals, these sequences were less likely to be found in individuals over 60 years of age and in those with cancer. This reflects B cell repertoire restriction in aging and cancer, and may to a certain extent explain the different clinical courses of COVID-19 observed in these risk groups. Future studies will have to address if this stereotyped B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 emerging from unmutated antibody rearrangements will create long-lived memory.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072855

ABSTRACT

A considerable fraction of B cells recognize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with germline-encoded elements of their B cell receptor, resulting in the production of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies. We found that antibody sequences from different discovery cohorts shared biochemical properties and could be retrieved across validation cohorts, confirming the stereotyped character of this naive response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While neutralizing antibody sequences were found independently of disease severity, in line with serological data, individual nonneutralizing antibody sequences were associated with fatal clinical courses, suggesting detrimental effects of these antibodies. We mined 200 immune repertoires from healthy individuals and 500 repertoires from patients with blood or solid cancers - all acquired prior to the pandemic - for SARS-CoV-2 antibody sequences. While the largely unmutated B cell rearrangements occurred in a substantial fraction of immune repertoires from young and healthy individuals, these sequences were less likely to be found in individuals over 60 years of age and in those with cancer. This reflects B cell repertoire restriction in aging and cancer, and may to a certain extent explain the different clinical courses of COVID-19 observed in these risk groups. Future studies will have to address if this stereotyped B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 emerging from unmutated antibody rearrangements will create long-lived memory.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 56-61, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a pandemic with tens of millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. The infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease of the respiratory system of divergent severity. In the current study, humoral immune responses were characterized in a cohort of 143 patients with COVID-19 from the University Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Germany. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-specific-antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus NL63 neutralization activity was analyzed with pseudotyped lentiviral vectors. RESULTS: The severity of COVID-19 increased with age, and male patients encountered more serious symptoms than female patients. Disease severity was correlated with the amount of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA and the neutralization activity of the antibodies. The amount of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies decreased with time after polymerase chain reaction conformation of the infection, and antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein waned faster than spike protein-directed antibodies. In contrast, for the common flu coronavirus NL63, COVID-19 disease severity seemed to be correlated with low NL63-neutralizing activities, suggesting the possibility of cross-reactive protection. CONCLUSION: The results describe the humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and might aid the identification of correlates of protection needed for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Germany , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011056

ABSTRACT

A considerable fraction of B cells recognize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with germline-encoded elements of their B cell receptor, resulting in the production of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies. We found that antibody sequences from different discovery cohorts shared biochemical properties and could be retrieved across validation cohorts, confirming the stereotyped character of this naive response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While neutralizing antibody sequences were found independently of disease severity, in line with serological data, individual nonneutralizing antibody sequences were associated with fatal clinical courses, suggesting detrimental effects of these antibodies. We mined 200 immune repertoires from healthy individuals and 500 repertoires from patients with blood or solid cancers - all acquired prior to the pandemic - for SARS-CoV-2 antibody sequences. While the largely unmutated B cell rearrangements occurred in a substantial fraction of immune repertoires from young and healthy individuals, these sequences were less likely to be found in individuals over 60 years of age and in those with cancer. This reflects B cell repertoire restriction in aging and cancer, and may to a certain extent explain the different clinical courses of COVID-19 observed in these risk groups. Future studies will have to address if this stereotyped B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 emerging from unmutated antibody rearrangements will create long-lived memory.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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