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1.
Clin Exp Med ; 2023 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274851

ABSTRACT

Patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and SARS-CoV-2 infection present a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate whether vaccination and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have modified the outcomes of HM patients with COVID-19. This is a single-centre retrospective study in HM patients hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 2020 to April 2022. Patients were divided into PRE-V-mAb group (patients hospitalized before the introduction of vaccination and mAbs) and POST-V-mAb group (patients hospitalized after the use of vaccine and mAbs). A total of 126 patients were included (65 PRE-V-mAb and 61 POST-V-mAb). POST-V-mAb patients showed a significantly lower risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (8.2% vs. 27.7%, p = 0.005), shorter viral shedding [17 (IQR 10-28) vs. 24 days (IQR 15-50), p = 0.011] and shorter hospitalization length [13 (IQR 7-23) vs. 20 (IQR 14-41) days, p = 0.0003] compared to the PRE-V-mAb group. Nevertheless, both in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates did not significantly differ between the two groups (29.5% POST-V-mAb vs. 36.9% PRE-V-mAb and 21.3% POST-V-mAb vs. 29.2% PRE-V-mAb, respectively). At the multivariable analysis, an active malignancy (p = 0.042), a critical COVID-19 at admission (p = 0.025) and the need for high-level of oxygen support at respiratory worsening [either HFNC/CPAP (p = 0.022) or mechanical ventilation (p = 0.011)] were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. In the subgroup of POST-V-mAb patients, receiving therapy with mAbs was a protective factor (p = 0.033). Despite the new therapeutic and preventive strategies available, HM patients with COVID-19 disease represent an extremely vulnerable group with still high mortality rates.

2.
Intern Emerg Med ; 18(3): 889-895, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242832

ABSTRACT

PaO2/FiO2 (P/F ratio) is considered a marker of hypoxia/hypoxemia and mortality. Several prothrombotic changes are associated with the decrease of P/F ratio. The role of P/F ratio in patients with arterial and venous thrombosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the association between P/F ratio and arterial/venous thrombosis. One thousand and four hundred and six COVID-19 patients were recruited; 289 (21%) patients had P/F ratio < 200 and 1117 (79%) ≥ 200. Compared to the patients with P/F ratio ≥ 200, those with P/F ratio < 200 were older and with higher levels of glycemia, D-dimer and lower levels of albumin. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that albumin (standardized coefficient ß:  0.156; SE: 0.001; p = 0.0001) and D-dimer (standardized coefficient ß: -0.135; SE: 0.0001; p = 0.0001) were associated with P/F ratio. During the hospitalization 159 patients were transferred in intensive care unit (ICU), 253 patients died, 156 patients had arterial or venous thrombotic events. A bivariate logistic analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients; P/F ratio < 200 (Odds Ratio: [OR] 1.718, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.085-2.718, p = 0.021), albumin (OR 1.693, 95% CI 1.055-2.716, p = 0.029), D-dimer (OR 3.469, 95% CI 2.110-5.703, p < 0.0001), coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 1.800, 95% CI 1.086-2.984, p = 0.023) and heart failure (OR 2.410 95% CI 1.385-4.193, p = 0.002) independently predicted thrombotic events in this population. This study suggests that the P/F ratio is associated with thrombotic events by promoting a hypercoagulation state in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Hypoxia , Hospitalization , Retrospective Studies
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 30, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known on the burden of co-infections and superinfections in a specific setting such as the respiratory COVID-19 sub-intensive care unit. This study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of concurrent and superinfections in a respiratory sub-intensive care unit, (ii) evaluate the risk factors for superinfections development and (iii) assess the impact of superinfections on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: Single-center retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data including COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a newly established respiratory sub-intensive care unit managed by pneumologists which has been set up from September 2020 at a large (1200 beds) University Hospital in Rome. Inclusion criteria were: (i) COVID-19 respiratory failure and/or ARDS; (ii) hospitalization in respiratory sub-intensive care unit and (iii) age > 18 years. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves and the statistical significance of the differences between the two groups was assessed using the log-rank test. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression model were performed to tease out the independent predictors for superinfections' development and for mortality, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 201 patients were included. The majority (106, 52%) presented severe COVID-19. Co-infections were 4 (1.9%), whereas 46 patients (22%) developed superinfections, mostly primary bloodstream infections and pneumonia. In 40.6% of cases, multi-drug resistant pathogens were detected, with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) isolated in 47%. Overall mortality rate was 30%. Prior (30-d) infection and exposure to antibiotic therapy were independent risk factors for superinfection development whereas the development of superinfections was an independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. CR-Ab resulted independently associated with 14-d mortality. CONCLUSION: In a COVID-19 respiratory sub-intensive care unit, superinfections were common and represented an independent predictor of mortality. CR-Ab infections occurred in almost half of patients and were associated with high mortality. Infection control rules and antimicrobial stewardship are crucial in this specific setting to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Superinfection , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Superinfection/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Rome/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals, University , Risk Factors
4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 9(1)2023 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of candidemia in severe COVID-19 patients (0.8-14%) is two- to ten-fold higher than in non-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective analysis aimed to analyse the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSI) due to Candida in a cohort of COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO. RESULTS: Among 138 intubated and ventilated patients hospitalized for ≥10 days in the intensive care unit of a teaching hospital, 45 (32.6%) patients received ECMO support, while 93 patients (67.4%) did not meet ECMO criteria and were considered the control group. In the ECMO group, 16 episodes of candidaemia were observed, while only 13 in patients of the control group (36.0% vs. 14.0%, p-value 0.004). It was confirmed at the survival analysis (SHR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.39-5.88) and at the multivariable analyses (aSHR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.73-8.86). A higher candida score seemed to increase the hazard for candidemia occurrence (aSHR: 3.04, 95% CI: 2.09-4.42), while vasopressor therapy was negatively associated with the outcome (aSHR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.05-0.43). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that the incidence of candidemia was significantly higher in critically ill COVID-19 patients supported with VV-ECMO than in critically ill COVID patients who did not meet criteria for VV-ECMO.

5.
Circ Res ; 132(3): 290-305, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is associated with an increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of platelet function in 25 SARS-CoV-2 and 10 healthy subjects by measuring Nox2 (NADPH oxidase 2)-derived oxidative stress and thromboxane B2, and investigated if administration of monoclonal antibodies against the S protein (Spike protein) of SARS-CoV-2 affects platelet activation. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro if the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 or plasma from SARS-CoV-2 enhanced platelet activation. RESULTS: Ex vivo studies showed enhanced platelet Nox2-derived oxidative stress and thromboxane B2 biosynthesis and under laminar flow platelet-dependent thrombus growth in SARS-CoV-2 compared with controls; both effects were lowered by Nox2 and TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) inhibitors. Two hours after administration of monoclonal antibodies, a significant inhibition of platelet activation was observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 compared with untreated ones. In vitro study showed that S protein per se did not elicit platelet activation but amplified the platelet response to subthreshold concentrations of agonists and functionally interacted with platelet TLR4. A docking simulation analysis suggested that TLR4 binds to S protein via three receptor-binding domains; furthermore, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence showed S protein-TLR4 colocalization in platelets from SARS-CoV-2. Plasma from patients with SARS-CoV-2 enhanced platelet activation and Nox2-related oxidative stress, an effect blunted by TNF (tumor necrosis factor) α inhibitor; this effect was recapitulated by an in vitro study documenting that TNFα alone promoted platelet activation and amplified the platelet response to S protein via p47phox (phagocyte oxidase) upregulation. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies 2 TLR4-dependent and independent pathways promoting platelet-dependent thrombus growth and suggests inhibition of TLR4. or p47phox as a tool to counteract thrombosis in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thromboxanes/metabolism , Thromboxanes/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963673

ABSTRACT

Two mutually related pandemics are ongoing worldwide: the COVID-19 and antimicrobial resistance pandemics. This study aims to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GN) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a single intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted a retrospective study including patients admitted to the ICU, reorganized for COVID-19 patients' healthcare, with at least one confirmed MDR-GN BSI during 2019-2020. We compared clinical and microbiological features, incidence density, antibiotic therapy and mortality rate in pre- and during-COVID-19 pandemic periods. We estimated the impact of COVID-19 on mortality by means of univariate Cox regression analyses. A total of 46 patients were included in the study (28 non-COVID-19/18 COVID-19). Overall, 63 BSI episodes occurred (44/19), and non-COVID-19 patients had a higher incidence of MDR-GN BSIs and were more likely to present K. pneumoniae BSIs, while the COVID-19 group showed more A. baumannii BSIs with higher per pathogen incidence. COVID-19 patients presented more critical conditions at the BSI onset, a shorter hospitalization time from BSI to death and higher 30-day mortality rate from BSI onset. COVID-19 and septic shock were associated with 30-day mortality from MDR-GN BSIs, while early active therapy was a protective factor. In conclusion, COVID-19 showed a negative impact on patients with MDR-GN BSIs admitted to the ICU.

7.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 4(3): dlac064, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961072

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients who developed secondary infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Methods: Retrospective observational study including COVID-19 patients admitted to 12 Italian hospitals from March to December 2020 who developed a superinfection by CRE. Superinfection was defined as the occurrence of documented bacterial infection >48 h from admission. Patients with polymicrobial infections were excluded. Demographic, clinical characteristics and outcome were collected. Isolates were classified as KPC, metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) and OXA-48-producing CRE. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with 30 day mortality. Results: Overall, 123 patients (median age 66 years, IQR 59-75) were included. The majority of infections occurred in the ICU (81, 65.9%), while 42 (34.1%) in medical wards. The most common types of infection were bloodstream infections (BSI) (n = 64, 52%), followed by urinary-tract infections (UTI) (n = 28, 22.8%), hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) (n = 28, 22.8%), intra-abdominal infections (n = 2, 1.6%) and skin infections (n = 1, 0.8%). Sixty-three (51.2%) infections were caused by KPC-, 54 (43.9%) by MBL-, and 6 (4.8%) by OXA-48-producing CRE. Thirty-day mortality was 33.3% (41/123). On Cox regression analysis, HAP/VAP compared with UTI (HR 7.23, 95% CI 2.09-24.97, P = 0.004), BSI compared with UTI (HR 3.96, 95% CI, 1.33-11.77, P = 0.004), lymphopenia on admission (HR 3, 95% CI 1.44-6.26, P = 0.003) and age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.002) were predictors of 30 day mortality. Conclusions: Superinfections by CRE were associated with high risk of 30 day mortality in patients with COVID-19. HAP/VAP was the strongest predictor of death in these patients.

8.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(9): 1567-1572, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related pneumonia is associated with venous and arterial thrombosis. Aim of the study was to find out a new score for predicting thrombosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We included a cohort of 674 patients affected by SARS-CoV-2, not requiring intensive care units, and followed-up during the hospitalization until discharge. Routine analyses performed at in-hospital admission included also serum albumin and D-dimer while arterial and venous thromboses were the endpoints of the study. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 110 thrombotic events were registered; patients with thrombotic events were older and had lower albumin and higher D-dimer, compared with thrombotic event-free ones. On multivariable logistic regression with step-by-step procedure age, serum albumin, and D-dimer were independently associated with thrombotic events. The linear combination of age, D-dimer, and albumin allowed to build-up the ADA (age-D-dimer-albumin) score, whose area under the curve (AUC) was 0.752 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.708-0.795). ADA score was internally validated by bootstrap sampling procedure giving an AUC of 0.752 (95% CI: 0.708-0.794). CONCLUSION: Combination of age, D-dimer, and albumin in the ADA score allows identifying SARS-CoV-2 patients at higher risk of thrombotic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin
9.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(3): 495-500, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603573

ABSTRACT

The objective was to study ceftazidime-avibactam resistant and susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a patient admitted to the Policlinico Umberto I of Rome for SARS-CoV2. Data on the evolution of patient's conditions, antimicrobial therapies, and microbiological data were collected. Whole-genome sequencing performed by Illumina and Nanopore sequencing methods were used to type the strains. During the hospitalization, a SARS-CoV2-infected patient was colonized by a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strain and empirically treated with ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) when presenting spiking fever symptoms. Successively, ST2502 CZA-resistant strain producing the KPC-31 variant gave a pulmonary infection to the patient. The infection was treated with high doses of meropenem. The KPC-31-producing strain disappeared but the patient remained colonized by a KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae strain. An interplay between highly conserved KPC-31- and KPC-3-producing ST2502 strains occurred in the SARS-CoV2 patient during the hospitalization, selected by CZA and carbapenem treatments, respectively.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Meropenem , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactamases/genetics
10.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 257-266, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different rate, typology, and impact of thrombosis on survival. METHODS: In this multicenter observational cohort study, 1,138 patients, hospitalized for CAP (n = 559) or COVID-19 (n = 579) from seven clinical centers in Italy, were included in the study. Consecutive adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with confirmed COVID-19-related pneumonia, with or without mechanical ventilation, hospitalized from March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020, were enrolled. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Patients were followed-up until discharge or in-hospital death, registering the occurrence of thrombotic events including ischemic/embolic events. RESULTS: During the in-hospital stay, 11.4% of CAP and 15.5% of COVID-19 patients experienced thrombotic events (p = 0.046). In CAP patients all the events were arterial thromboses, while in COVID-19 patients 8.3% were venous and 7.2% arterial thromboses.During the in-hospital follow-up, 3% of CAP patients and 17% of COVID-19 patients died (p < 0.001). The highest mortality rate was found among COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (47.6 vs. 13.4% in thrombotic-event-free patients; p < 0.001). In CAP, 13.8% of patients experiencing thrombotic events died versus 1.8% of thrombotic event-free ones (p < 0.001). A multivariable Cox-regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with CAP, COVID-19 is characterized by a higher burden of thrombotic events, different thrombosis typology and higher risk of thrombosis-related in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
11.
Infez Med ; 29(3): 408-415, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444695

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is the need of a simple but highly reliable score system for stratifying the risk of mortality and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transfer in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Emergency Room. PURPOSE: In this study, the ability of CURB-65, extended CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to predict intra-hospital mortality and ICU admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were evaluated. METHODS: During March-May 2020, a retrospective, single-center study including all consecutive adult patients with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was conducted. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data as well as CURB-65, expanded CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores were calculated based on data recorded at hospital admission. RESULTS: Overall, 224 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were included in the study. As for intrahospital mortality (24/224, 11%), PSI performed better than all the other tested scores, which showed lower AUC values (AUC=0.890 for PSI versus AUC=0.885, AUC=0.858 and AUC=0.743 for expanded CURB-65, CURB-65 and CALL scores, respectively). Of note, the addition of hypoalbuminemia to the CURB-65 score increased the prediction value of intra-hospital mortality (AUC=0.905). All the tested scores were less predictive for the need of ICU transfer (26/224, 12%), with the best AUC for extended CURB-65 score (AUC= 0.708). CONCLUSION: The addition of albumin level to the easy-to-calculate CURB-65 score at hospital admission is able to improve the quality of prediction of intra-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

12.
Infection ; 50(1): 83-92, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Superinfections in patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) are an important and challenging complication, also in COVID-19. However, no definitive data are available about the role of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) in COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study including patients with MDR-AB infections admitted to ICU with or without COVID-19, between January 2019 and January 2021. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate risk factor for MDR-AB infections in ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 or other etiology. The secondary endpoints were 30-days mortality in all study population and risk factors associated with development of bloodstream infection (BSI). RESULTS: During the study period 32 adults with COVID-19 were enrolled and compared with 115 patients admitted in the same ICU for other reasons. We observed a total of 114 deaths, with a survival rate of 29.3%: 18.8% in COVID-19 and 32.2% in control group. Relative risk for MDR-AB infection in COVID-19 showed that serum lactate levels mmol/l > 2, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, BSI and steroid therapy were observed more frequently in COVID-19 patients. Cox regression analysis showed that serum lactate levels > 2 mmol/l, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, BSI, and steroid therapy were associated with 30-days mortality. Finally, patients with COVID-19, white blood cells count > 11,000 mm3, serum lactate levels > 2 mmol/l, infections at time of ICU admission, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, and steroid therapy were independently associated with development of BSI. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the impact of BSI on outcome, the role of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and the use of steroids on the risk to develop MDR-AB infections also during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00348, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259760

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia display enhanced levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) compared with controls, suggesting that low-grade endotoxemia may be implicated in vascular disturbances. It is unknown whether this occurs in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on thrombotic complications. METHODS: We measured serum levels of zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, LPS, and D-dimer in 81 patients with COVID-19 and 81 healthy subjects; the occurrence of thrombotic events in COVID-19 during the intrahospital stay was registered. RESULTS: Serum LPS and zonulin were higher in patients with COVID-19 than in control subjects and, in COVID-19, significantly correlated (R = 0.513; P < 0.001). Among the 81 patients with COVID-19, 11 (14%) experienced thrombotic events in the arterial (n = 5) and venous circulation (n = 6) during a median follow-up of 18 days (interquartile range 11-27 days). A logistic regression analysis showed that LPS (P = 0.024) and D-dimer (P = 0.041) independently predicted thrombotic events. DISCUSSION: The study reports that low-grade endotoxemia is detectable in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombotic events. The coexistence of low-grade endotoxemia with enhanced levels of zonulin may suggest enhanced gut permeability as an underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Haptoglobins/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Protein Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Endotoxemia/diagnosis , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Endotoxemia/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Permeability , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology
15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 546-571, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155566

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads mainly by means of aerosols (microdroplets) in enclosed environments, especially those in which temperature and humidity are regulated by means of air-conditioning. About 30% of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Among them, approximately 25% require hospitalization. In medicine, cases are identified as those who become ill. During this pandemic, cases have been identified as those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test, including approximately 70% who were asymptomatic-this has caused unnecessary anxiety. Individuals more than 65 years old, those affected by obesity, diabetes, asthma, or are immune-depressed owing to cancer and other conditions, are at a higher risk of hospitalization and of dying of COVID-19. Healthy individuals younger than 40 years very rarely die of COVID-19. Estimates of the COVID-19 mortality rate vary because the definition of COVID-19-related deaths varies. Belgium has the highest death rate at 154.9 per 100,000 persons, because it includes anyone who died with symptoms compatible with COVID-19, even those never tested for SARS-CoV-2. The United States includes all patients who died with a positive test, whether they died because of, or with, SARS-CoV-2. Countries that include only patients in which COVID-19 was the main cause of death, rather than a cofactor, have lower death rates. Numerous therapies are being developed, and rapid improvements are anticipated. Because of disinformation, only approximately 50% of the U.S. population plans to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. By sharing accurate information, physicians, health professionals, and scientists play a key role in addressing myths and anxiety, help public health officials enact measures to decrease infections, and provide the best care for those who become sick. In this article, we discuss these issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Coronavirus , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(9): 1125-1134, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically challenged the national health systems worldwide in the last months. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with a long plasmatic half-life and simplified weekly administration regimens, thus representing a promising option for the outpatient treatment of Gram-positive infections and the early discharge of hospitalized patients. Dalbavancin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Many preliminary data seem to support its use in other indications, such as osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, and infective endocarditis. AREAS COVERED: A search in the literature using validated keywords (dalbavancin, Gram-positive infections, Gram-positive cocci, ABSSSI, intravenous treatment, and long-acting antibiotics) was conducted on biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMed and Embase) from 2004 to 30 September 2020. Results were analyzed during two consensus conferences with the aim to review the current evidence on dalbavancin in Gram-positive infections, mainly ABSSSI, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis, highlight the main limitations of available studies and suggest possible advantages of the molecule. EXPERT OPINION: The board identifies some specific subgroups of patients with ABSSSIs who could mostly benefit from a treatment with dalbavancin and agrees that the design of homogenous and robust studies would allow a broader use of dalbavancin even in other clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care/methods , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Teicoplanin/administration & dosage , Teicoplanin/pharmacology
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4319-4325, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118173

ABSTRACT

Teicoplanin has a potential antiviral activity expressed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was suggested as a complementary option to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In this multicentric, retrospective, observational research the aim was to evaluate the impact of teicoplanin on the course of COVID-19 in critically ill patients. Fifty-five patients with severe COVID-19, hospitalized in the intensive care units (ICUs) and treated with best available therapy were retrospectively analysed. Among them 34 patients were also treated with teicoplanin (Tei-COVID group), while 21 without teicoplanin (control group). Crude in-hospital Day-30 mortality was lower in Tei-COVID group (35.2%) than in control group (42.8%), however not reaching statistical significance (p = .654). No statistically significant differences in length of stay in the ICU were observed between Tei-COVID group and control group (p = .248). On Day 14 from the ICU hospitalization, viral clearance was achieved in 64.7% patients of Tei-COVID group and 57.1% of control group, without statistical difference. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly reduced in Tei-COVID group compared to control group, but not other biochemical parameters. Finally, Gram-positive were the causative pathogens for 25% of BSIs in Tei-COVID group and for 70.6% in controls. No side effects related to teicoplanin use were observed. Despite several limitations require further research, in this study the use of teicoplanin is not associated with a significant improvement in outcomes analysed. The antiviral activity of teicoplanin against SARS-CoV-2, previously documented, is probably more effective at early clinical stages.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
18.
Front Nutr ; 7: 613928, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052491

ABSTRACT

Background: Mounting evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 may impact on host microbiota and gut inflammation, infecting intestinal epithelial cells. This possible link and its implications can be investigated by observing the effects of modulation of the microbial flora in patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of mortality, the need of ICU hospitalization and the length of hospitalization in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received the best available therapy (BAT) vs. patients treated with BAT and supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. Methods: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 200 adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients received therapeutic regimens including low molecular weight heparin plus one or more between hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antivirals, and Tocilizumab. Oral bacteriotherapy was used as complementary treatment. Results: Out of the 200 patients, 112 received BAT without oral bacteriotherapy, and 88 BAT with oral bacteriotherapy. Crude mortality was 22%. Eleven percent died in the group of patients treated with BAT plus oral bacteriotherapy vs. 30% subjects in the group of patients managed only with BAT (p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the age >65 years, CRP >41.8 mg/L, Platelets <150.000 mmc, and cardiovascular events were associated with the increased risk of mortality. Oral bacteriotherapy was an independent variable associated with a reduced risk for death. Despite large prospective trials are needed, this study highlights a possible role for oral bacteriotherapy in the management of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia.

20.
Infez Med ; 28(4): 534-538, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950578

ABSTRACT

Since the most frequent symptoms of novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) are common in influenza A/B (FLU), predictive models to distinguish between COVID-19 and FLU using standardized non-specific laboratory indicators are needed. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a recently dynamic nomogram, established in the Chinese population and based on age, lymphocyte percentage and monocyte absolute count, might apply to a different context. We collected data from 299 patients (243 with COVID-19 and 56 with FLU) at Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome. The nomogram included age, lymphocyte percentage and monocyte absolute count to differentiate COVID-19 from FLU. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for all associations. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Patients with COVID-19 had higher age, lymphocyte percentage and monocyte absolute count than patients with FLU. Although univariate analysis confirmed that age, lymphocyte percentage and monocyte absolute count were associated with COVID-19, only at multivariate analysis was monocyte count statistically significant as a predictive factor of COVID-19. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we found that a monocyte count >0.35x1000/mL showed an AUC of 0.680 (sensitivity 0.992, specificity 0.368). A dynamic nomogram including age, lymphocyte percentage and monocyte absolute count cannot be applied to our context, probably due to differences in demographic characteristics between Italian and Chinese populations. However, our data showed that monocyte absolute count is highly predictive of COVID-19, suggesting its potential role above all in settings where prompt PCR nasopharyngeal testing is lacking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Monocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Diagnosis, Differential , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Nomograms , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Symptom Assessment/methods
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