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1.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 158, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of stratification tools based on the assessment of circulating mRNA of genes involved in the immune response is constrained by the heterogeneity of septic patients. The aim of this study is to develop a transcriptomic score based on a pragmatic combination of immune-related genes detected with a prototype multiplex PCR tool. METHODS: As training cohort, we used the gene expression dataset obtained from 176 critically ill patients enrolled in the REALISM study (NCT02638779) with various etiologies and still hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) at day 5-7. Based on the performances of each gene taken independently to identify patients developing ICU-acquired infections (ICU-AI) after day 5-7, we built an unweighted score assuming the independence of each gene. We then determined the performances of this score to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk to develop ICU-AI, and both longer ICU length of stay and mortality of this high-risk group were assessed. Finally, we validated the effectiveness of this score in a retrospective cohort of 257 septic patients. RESULTS: This transcriptomic score (TScore) enabled the identification of a high-risk group of patients (49%) with an increased rate of ICU-AI when compared to the low-risk group (49% vs. 4%, respectively), with longer ICU length of stay (13 days [95% CI 8-30] vs. 7 days [95% CI 6-9], p < 0.001) and higher ICU mortality (15% vs. 2%). High-risk patients exhibited biological features of immune suppression with low monocytic HLA-DR levels, higher immature neutrophils rates and higher IL10 concentrations. Using the TScore, we identified 160 high-risk patients (62%) in the validation cohort, with 30% of ICU-AI (vs. 18% in the low-risk group, p = 0.06), and significantly higher mortality and longer ICU length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptomic score provides a useful and reliable companion diagnostic tool to further develop immune modulating drugs in sepsis in the context of personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Transcriptome , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/genetics , Intensive Care Units , Disease Progression
2.
Sci Immunol ; 6(59)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300367

ABSTRACT

Multiple Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a delayed and severe complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection that strikes previously healthy children. As MIS-C combines clinical features of Kawasaki disease and Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), we aimed to compare the immunological profile of pediatric patients with these different conditions. We analyzed blood cytokine expression, and the T cell repertoire and phenotype in 36 MIS-C cases, which were compared to 16 KD, 58 TSS, and 42 COVID-19 cases. We observed an increase of serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFNγ, CD25s, MCP1, IL-1RA) in MIS-C, TSS and KD, contrasting with low expression of HLA-DR in monocytes. We detected a specific expansion of activated T cells expressing the Vß21.3 T cell receptor ß chain variable region in both CD4 and CD8 subsets in 75% of MIS-C patients and not in any patient with TSS, KD, or acute COVID-19; this correlated with the cytokine storm detected. The T cell repertoire returned to baseline within weeks after MIS-C resolution. Vß21.3+ T cells from MIS-C patients expressed high levels of HLA-DR, CD38 and CX3CR1 but had weak responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides in vitro. Consistently, the T cell expansion was not associated with specific classical HLA alleles. Thus, our data suggested that MIS-C is characterized by a polyclonal Vß21.3 T cell expansion not directed against SARS-CoV-2 antigenic peptides, which is not seen in KD, TSS and acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
iScience ; 26(3): 106260, 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275745

ABSTRACT

To understand the fine differential elements that can lead to or prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients, it is crucial to investigate the immune response architecture. We herein dissected the multiple layers of B cell responses by flow cytometry and Ig repertoire analysis from acute phase to recovery. Flow cytometry with FlowSOM analysis showed major changes associated with COVID-19 inflammation such as an increase of double-negative B-cells and ongoing plasma cell differentiation. This paralleled COVID-19-driven expansion of two disconnected B-cell repertoires. Demultiplexing successive DNA and RNA Ig repertoire patterns characterized an early expansion of IgG1 clonotypes with atypically long and uncharged CDR3, the abundance of this inflammatory repertoire being correlated with ARDS and likely pejorative. A superimposed convergent response included convergent anti-SARS-CoV-2 clonotypes. It featured progressively increasing somatic hypermutation together with normal-length or short CDR3 and it persisted until a quiescent memory B-cell stage after recovery.

4.
Revue neurologique ; 179(3):S149-S149, 2023.
Article in French | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2274181

ABSTRACT

Introduction Les patients SEP sous anti-CD20 présentent un surrisque de forme sévère de COVID-19 et une réponse humorale anti-SARS-CoV-2 altérée. Peu de données existent sur la réponse cellulaire chez ces patients. Objectifs Caractériser les réponses immunitaires humorales et cellulaires spécifiques après au moins 2 vaccinations anti-SARS-CoV-2 chez des patients atteints de SEP traités par anti-CD20. Méthodes Étude observationnelle prospective monocentrique à l'hôpital neurologique de Lyon, France, de novembre 2021 à février 2022 chez 61 patients SEP traités par anti-CD20 et 10 volontaires sains comme contrôles, ayant bénéficié d'au moins 2 doses de vaccin anti-SARS-CoV-2. La réponse cellulaire anti-SARS-CoV-2 était évaluée par la prolifération des lymphocytes T spécifiques après stimulation antigénique par des peptides du SARS-CoV-2. La sérologie SARS-CoV-2 et l'immunophénotypage lymphocytaire étaient également analysés. Résultats Dix-huit pour cent (11/61) des patients présentaient une réponse humorale contre 100 % des contrôles (p < 0,0001). Soixante-dix pour cent (43/61) des patients présentaient une réponse cellulaire contre 100 % (10/10) des contrôles (p = 0,056). Les patients sous anti-CD20 développant des réponses humorales et cellulaires présentaient des délais plus courts depuis la dernière vaccination (45 j versus 152 j, p = 0,0089) et un nombre de lymphocytes B CD20+/μL plus élevé (8 contre 0, p < 0,0001), par rapport aux patients sans aucune réponse. Discussion Après vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2, la plupart des patients SEP sous anti-CD20 développent une réponse cellulaire spécifique malgré l'absence de réponse humorale. Un délai plus court après le dernier rappel vaccinal et la réplétion lymphocytaire B étaient associés à une meilleure réponse immunitaire cellulaire et humorale. L'impact clinique des réponses cellulaires et/ou humorales reste à évaluer. Conclusion Ces résultats suggèrent que les rappels vaccinaux devraient être répétés chez les patients SEP sous anti-CD20 avec un délai personnalisé, basé sur la réplétion des lymphocytes B.

5.
Sci Immunol ; : eabp8966, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251435

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening 'breakthrough' cases of critical COVID-19 are attributed to poor or waning antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals already at risk. Pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs underlie at least 15% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases in unvaccinated individuals; however, their contribution to hypoxemic breakthrough cases in vaccinated people remains unknown. Here, we studied a cohort of 48 individuals (age 20-86 years) who received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccine and developed a breakthrough infection with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks to 4 months later. Antibody levels to the vaccine, neutralization of the virus, and auto-Abs to type I IFNs were measured in the plasma. Forty-two individuals had no known deficiency of B cell immunity and a normal antibody response to the vaccine. Among them, ten (24%) had auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs (aged 43-86 years). Eight of these ten patients had auto-Abs neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω, while two neutralized IFN-ω only. No patient neutralized IFN-ß. Seven neutralized 10 ng/mL of type I IFNs, and three 100 pg/mL only. Seven patients neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) efficiently, while one patient neutralized Delta slightly less efficiently. Two of the three patients neutralizing only 100 pg/mL of type I IFNs neutralized both D61G and Delta less efficiently. Despite two mRNA vaccine inoculations and the presence of circulating antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs may underlie a significant proportion of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia cases, highlighting the importance of this particularly vulnerable population.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1022750, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119842

ABSTRACT

Immune responses affiliated with COVID-19 severity have been characterized and associated with deleterious outcomes. These approaches were mainly based on research tools not usable in routine clinical practice at the bedside. We observed that a multiplex transcriptomic panel prototype termed Immune Profiling Panel (IPP) could capture the dysregulation of immune responses of ICU COVID-19 patients at admission. Nine transcripts were associated with mortality in univariate analysis and this 9-mRNA signature remained significantly associated with mortality in a multivariate analysis that included age, SOFA and Charlson scores. Using a machine learning model with these 9 mRNA, we could predict the 28-day survival status with an Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUROC) of 0.764. Interestingly, adding patients' age to the model resulted in increased performance to predict the 28-day mortality (AUROC reaching 0.839). This prototype IPP demonstrated that such a tool, upon clinical/analytical validation and clearance by regulatory agencies could be used in clinical routine settings to quickly identify patients with higher risk of death requiring thus early aggressive intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Hospitalization , Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 939899, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022717

ABSTRACT

A majority of patients with sepsis surviving the first days in intensive care units (ICU) enter a state of immunosuppression contributing to their worsening. A novel virotherapy based on the non-propagative Modified Virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the human interleukin-7 (hIL-7) cytokine fused to an Fc fragment, MVA-hIL-7-Fc, was developed and shown to enhance innate and adaptive immunity and confer survival advantages in murine sepsis models. Here, we assessed the capacity of hIL-7-Fc produced by the MVA-hIL-7-Fc to improve ex vivo T lymphocyte functions from ICU patients with sepsis. Primary hepatocytes were transduced with the MVA-hIL-7-Fc or an empty MVA, and cell supernatants containing the secreted hIL-7-Fc were harvested for in vitro and ex vivo studies. Whole blood from ICU patients [septic shock = 15, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) = 30] and healthy donors (n = 36) was collected. STAT5 phosphorylation, cytokine production, and cell proliferation were assessed upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation in presence of MVA-hIL-7-Fc-infected cell supernatants. Cells infected by MVA-hIL-7-Fc produced a dimeric, glycosylated, and biologically active hIL-7-Fc. Cell supernatants containing the expressed hIL-7-Fc triggered the IL-7 pathway in T lymphocytes as evidenced by the increased STAT5 phosphorylation in CD3+ cells from patients and healthy donors. The secreted hIL-7-Fc improved Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and/or Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) productions and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation after TCR stimulation in patients with bacterial and viral sepsis. This study demonstrates the capacity of the novel MVA-hIL-7-Fc-based virotherapy to restore ex vivo T cells immune functions in ICU patients with sepsis and COVID-19, further supporting its clinical development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-7/metabolism , Mice , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , STAT5 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Sepsis/therapy
10.
Bastard, Paul, Vazquez, Sara, Liu, Jamin, Laurie, Matthew T.; Wang, Chung Yu, Gervais, Adrian, Le Voyer, Tom, Bizien, Lucy, Zamecnik, Colin, Philippot, Quentin, Rosain, Jérémie, Catherinot, Emilie, Willmore, Andrew, Mitchell, Anthea M.; Bair, Rebecca, Garçon, Pierre, Kenney, Heather, Fekkar, Arnaud, Salagianni, Maria, Poulakou, Garyphallia, Siouti, Eleni, Sahanic, Sabina, Tancevski, Ivan, Weiss, Günter, Nagl, Laurenz, Manry, Jérémy, Duvlis, Sotirija, Arroyo-Sánchez, Daniel, Paz Artal, Estela, Rubio, Luis, Perani, Cristiano, Bezzi, Michela, Sottini, Alessandra, Quaresima, Virginia, Roussel, Lucie, Vinh, Donald C.; Reyes, Luis Felipe, Garzaro, Margaux, Hatipoglu, Nevin, Boutboul, David, Tandjaoui-Lambiotte, Yacine, Borghesi, Alessandro, Aliberti, Anna, Cassaniti, Irene, Venet, Fabienne, Monneret, Guillaume, Halwani, Rabih, Sharif-Askari, Narjes Saheb, Danielson, Jeffrey, Burrel, Sonia, Morbieu, Caroline, Stepanovskyy, Yurii, Bondarenko, Anastasia, Volokha, Alla, Boyarchuk, Oksana, Gagro, Alenka, Neuville, Mathilde, Neven, Bénédicte, Keles, Sevgi, Hernu, Romain, Bal, Antonin, Novelli, Antonio, Novelli, Giuseppe, Saker, Kahina, Ailioaie, Oana, Antolí, Arnau, Jeziorski, Eric, Rocamora-Blanch, Gemma, Teixeira, Carla, Delaunay, Clarisse, Lhuillier, Marine, Le Turnier, Paul, Zhang, Yu, Mahevas, Matthieu, Pan-Hammarström, Qiang, Abolhassani, Hassan, Bompoil, Thierry, Dorgham, Karim, consortium, Covid Hge, French, Covid study group, consortium, Comet, Gorochov, Guy, Laouenan, Cédric, Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos, Ng, Lisa F. P.; Renia, Laurent, Pujol, Aurora, Belot, Alexandre, Raffi, François, Allende, Luis M.; Martinez-Picado, Javier, Ozcelik, Tayfun, Keles, Sevgi, Imberti, Luisa, Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Troya, Jesus, Solanich, Xavier, Zhang, Shen-Ying, Puel, Anne, Wilson, Michael R.; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie, Abel, Laurent, Jouanguy, Emmanuelle, Ye, Chun Jimmie, Cobat, Aurélie, Thompson, Leslie M.; Andreakos, Evangelos, Zhang, Qian, Anderson, Mark S.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent, DeRisi, Joseph L..
Science immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918542

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening ‘breakthrough’ cases of critical COVID-19 are attributed to poor or waning antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals already at risk. Pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs underlie at least 15% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases in unvaccinated individuals;however, their contribution to hypoxemic breakthrough cases in vaccinated people remains unknown. Here, we studied a cohort of 48 individuals (age 20-86 years) who received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccine and developed a breakthrough infection with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks to 4 months later. Antibody levels to the vaccine, neutralization of the virus, and auto-Abs to type I IFNs were measured in the plasma. Forty-two individuals had no known deficiency of B cell immunity and a normal antibody response to the vaccine. Among them, ten (24%) had auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs (aged 43-86 years). Eight of these ten patients had auto-Abs neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω, while two neutralized IFN-ω only. No patient neutralized IFN-β. Seven neutralized 10 ng/mL of type I IFNs, and three 100 pg/mL only. Seven patients neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) efficiently, while one patient neutralized Delta slightly less efficiently. Two of the three patients neutralizing only 100 pg/mL of type I IFNs neutralized both D61G and Delta less efficiently. Despite two mRNA vaccine inoculations and the presence of circulating antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs may underlie a significant proportion of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia cases, highlighting the importance of this particularly vulnerable population. Type I IFN auto-Abs are found in 20% of hypoxemic, mRNA vaccinated COVID-19 patients despite SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Description

11.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 38(6-7): 545-552, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908318

ABSTRACT

NLRP3 is one of the best characterized innate immune cytosolic sensor. As part of the innate immune response, the NLRP3 inflammasome detects a wide range of danger signals such as pathogens, tissue damages, cellular stress. The priming and activation of NLRP3 lead to the formation of an oligomeric intracellular complex and to the recruitment and activation of caspase-1. Once activated, not only this inflammasome complex controls the processing and release of pro-inflammatory factors including IL-1ß and IL-18, but also the inflammatory cell death pyroptosis mediated by gasdermin D pores. In this review, we describe the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in viral infections with a particular interest on SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we present therapies evaluated or under evaluation targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway as COVID-19 treatment.


Title: L'inflammasome NLRP3 dans la physiopathologie des infections virales - Un focus sur la COVID-19. Abstract: L'inflammasome NLRP3 est un complexe multiprotéique intracellulaire impliqué dans la réponse immunitaire innée. Après la détection de signaux de dangers, tels que ceux provenant d'agents pathogènes, ce complexe s'assemble afin d'initier la production et la sécrétion de molécules pro-inflammatoires, comme l'IL(interleukine)-1ß et l'IL-18. L'inflammasome NLRP3 régule aussi l'activation de la gasdermine D, une protéine impliquée dans la mort cellulaire inflammatoire, ou pyroptose. Cette revue s'intéresse à l'activation et aux rôles de l'inflammasome NLRP3 dans les infections virales et plus particulièrement dans le cas de l'infection par le SARS-CoV-2. Une attention particulière est portée dans cette revue aux traitements évalués, ou en cours d'évaluation, ciblant la voie de l'inflammasome NLRP3 activée au cours de la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Annals of Intensive Care ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837129

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLymphopenia is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Similar alterations have been described in bacterial sepsis and therapeutic strategies targeting T cell function such as recombinant human interleukin 7 (rhIL-7) have been proposed in this clinical context. As COVID-19 is a viral sepsis, the objectives of this study were to characterize T lymphocyte response over time in severe COVID-19 patients and to assess the effect of ex vivo administration of rhIL-7.ResultsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) were collected at admission and after 20 days. Transcriptomic profile was evaluated through NanoString technology. Inhibitory immune checkpoints expressions were determined by flow cytometry. T lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production were evaluated after ex vivo stimulation in the presence or not of rhIL-7. COVID-19 ICU patients were markedly lymphopenic at admission. Mononuclear cells presented with inhibited transcriptomic profile prevalently with impaired T cell activation pathways. CD4 + and CD8 + T cells presented with over-expression of co-inhibitory molecules PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4 and TIM-3. CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production were markedly altered in samples collected at ICU admission. These alterations, characteristic of a T cell exhaustion state, were more pronounced at ICU admission and alleviated over time. Treatment with rhIL-7 ex vivo significantly improved both T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in cells from COVID-19 patients.ConclusionsSevere COVID-19 patients present with features of profound T cell exhaustion upon ICU admission which can be reversed ex vivo by rhIL-7. These results reinforce our understanding of severe COVID-19 pathophysiology and opens novel therapeutic avenues to treat such critically ill patients based of immunomodulation approaches. Defining the appropriate timing for initiating such immune-adjuvant therapy in clinical setting and the pertinent markers for a careful selection of patients are now warranted to confirm the ex vivo results described so far.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04392401 Registered 18 May 2020, http:// clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04392401.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103967, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, the initial response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by major immune dysfunctions. The capacity of these severe patients to mount a robust and persistent SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response despite the presence of severe immune alterations during the ICU stay is unknown. METHODS: Critically ill COVID-19 patients were sampled five times during the ICU stay and 9 and 13 months afterwards. Immune monitoring included counts of lymphocyte subpopulations, HLA-DR expression on monocytes, plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and T cell proliferation in response to three SARS-CoV-2 antigens. FINDINGS: Despite the presence of major lymphopenia and decreased monocyte HLA-DR expression during the ICU stay, convalescent critically ill COVID-19 patients consistently generated adaptive and humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 maintained for more than one year after hospital discharge. Patients with long hospital stays presented with stronger anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response but no difference in anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG levels. INTERPRETATION: Convalescent critically ill COVID-19 patients consistently generated a memory immune response against SARS-CoV-2 maintained for more than one year after hospital discharge. In recovered individuals, the intensity of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response was dependent on length of hospital stay. FUNDING: This observational study was supported by funds from the Hospices Civils de Lyon, Fondation HCL, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University and Région Auvergne Rhône-Alpes and by partial funding by REACTing (Research and ACTion targeting emerging infectious diseases) INSERM, France and a donation from Fondation AnBer (http://fondationanber.fr/).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
15.
Arch Med Res ; 52(8): 850-857, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 pandemic and vaccination effects progress, research now focuses on adaptive immunological response to SARS-CoV-2. Few studies specifically investigated intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and little is known about kinetics of humoral response in such critically ill patients. In this context, the main objective of the present work was to perform a longitudinal analysis of the humoral response in critically ill COVID-19 patients with prolonged ICU stays in regard with initial inflammatory response, disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Over a 3 week period, circulating immunoglobulins (Ig) against SARS-CoV-2 along with several immunological and clinical parameters were measured in 64 ICU COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Critically ill COVID-19 patients mounted a dynamic and sustained antibody response of both IgM and IgG as soon as the first day of ICU hospitalization. This serological response was not associated with any of the classical immunological parameters measured at ICU admission or with initial severity clinical scores. IgM and IgG levels and seroconversion trajectories were not associated with unfavourable outcome. CONCLUSION: Despite rapid seroconversion and elevated humoral response, COVID-19 patients are still characterized by elevated mortality. Additional studies, including cytotoxic T cell functions, are mandatory to understand the immunological mechanisms contributing to long stay of COVID-19 patients in ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
16.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 64, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477471

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone improves survival of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, but might shorten the delay between the start of invasive mechanical ventilation and the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, suggesting possible worsening of COVID-19-induced immune dysfunction with this treatment. In a prospective observational study, we found that mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 treated with dexamethasone presented earlier ventilator-associated pneumonia, had significantly lower monocyte Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR expression and number of circulating CD4 + cells after ICU admission, than those not treated with corticoids.

18.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(2): 489-496, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293207

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with immunosuppressive properties. In cancer patients, the expression of lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) on granulocytic MDSC identifies a subset of MDSC that retains the most potent immunosuppressive properties. The main objective of the present work was to explore the presence of LOX-1+ MDSC in bacterial and viral sepsis. To this end, whole blood LOX-1+ cells were phenotypically, morphologically, and functionally characterized. They were monitored in 39 coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19, viral sepsis) and 48 septic shock (bacterial sepsis) patients longitudinally sampled five times over a 3 wk period in intensive care units (ICUs). The phenotype, morphology, and immunosuppressive functions of LOX-1+ cells demonstrated that they were polymorphonuclear MDSC. In patients, we observed the significant emergence of LOX-1+ MDSC in both groups. The peak of LOX-1+ MDSC was 1 wk delayed with respect to ICU admission. In COVID-19, their elevation was more pronounced in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The persistence of these cells may contribute to long lasting immunosuppression leaving the patient unable to efficiently resolve infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Scavenger Receptors, Class E/metabolism , Shock, Septic/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Shock, Septic/metabolism , Shock, Septic/microbiology , Shock, Septic/pathology
19.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 102(5): 384-389, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diminished expression of human leukocyte antigen DR on circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR), measured by standardized flow cytometry procedure, is a reliable indicator of immunosuppression in severely injured intensive care unit patients. As such, it is used as stratification criteria in clinical trials evaluating novel immunostimulating therapies. Preanalytical constraints relative to the short delay between blood sampling and flow cytometry staining have nevertheless limited its use in multicentric studies. The objective of the present work was to compare mHLA-DR expression between whole blood samples simultaneously drawn in EDTA or Cyto-Chex BCT tubes. METHODS: In two university hospitals, mHLA-DR was assessed in fresh whole blood from septic patients (n = 12) and healthy donors (n = 6) simultaneously sampled on EDTA and Cyto-Chex BCT tubes. Staining was performed immediately after sampling and after blood storage at room temperature. RESULTS: We confirmed that samples collected in Cyto-Chex tube had substantially enhanced stability for mHLA-DR results (48-72 h) over those collected in EDTA. On baseline values, despite good correlation between tubes (r = 0.98, p < 0.001), mHLA-DR expression was systematically lower with Cyto-Chex BCT. CONCLUSION: The present reports confirms the potential of Cyto-Chex BCT tubes to stabilize mHLA-DR expression before staining and extends the work of Quadrini et al. [Cytometry B 2021;100:103-114]. In centers without rapid access to flow cytometry facilities, it enables to tolerate delays in mHLA-DR staining. However, a 30% gap exists between results obtained with EDTA and Cyto-Chex BCT tubes. As current thresholds for clinical decisions were obtained with EDTA samples, further studies are needed to confirm clinical thresholds with Cyto-Chex BCT tubes.


Subject(s)
HLA-DR Antigens , Monocytes , Edetic Acid , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Specimen Handling
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 622-642, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219780

ABSTRACT

The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, with devastating consequences. While the medical community has gained insight into the epidemiology of COVID-19, important questions remain about the clinical complexities and underlying mechanisms of disease phenotypes. Severe COVID-19 most commonly involves respiratory manifestations, although other systems are also affected, and acute disease is often followed by protracted complications. Such complex manifestations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates the host response, triggering wide-ranging immuno-inflammatory, thrombotic, and parenchymal derangements. We review the intricacies of COVID-19 pathophysiology, its various phenotypes, and the anti-SARS-CoV-2 host response at the humoral and cellular levels. Some similarities exist between COVID-19 and respiratory failure of other origins, but evidence for many distinctive mechanistic features indicates that COVID-19 constitutes a new disease entity, with emerging data suggesting involvement of an endotheliopathy-centred pathophysiology. Further research, combining basic and clinical studies, is needed to advance understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and to characterise immuno-inflammatory derangements across the range of phenotypes to enable optimum care for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Organ Failure , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Patient Acuity , Severity of Illness Index
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