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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227038, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787607

ABSTRACT

Importance: Recent reports on waning of COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity have led to the approval and rollout of additional doses and booster vaccinations. Individuals at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection are receiving additional vaccine doses in addition to the regimen that was tested in clinical trials. Risks and adverse event profiles associated with additional vaccine doses are currently not well understood. Objective: To evaluate the safety of third-dose vaccination with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using electronic health record (EHR) data from December 2020 to October 2021 from the multistate Mayo Clinic Enterprise. Participants included all 47 999 individuals receiving 3-dose COVID-19 mRNA vaccines within the study setting who met study inclusion criteria. Participants were divided into 2 cohorts by vaccine brand administered and served as their own control groups, with no comparison made between cohorts. Data were analyzed from September through November 2021. Exposures: Three doses of an FDA-authorized COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vaccine-associated adverse events were assessed via EHR report. Adverse event risk was quantified using the percentage of study participants who reported the adverse event within 14 days after each vaccine dose and during a 14-day control period, immediately preceding the first vaccine dose. Results: Among 47 999 individuals who received 3-dose COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, 38 094 individuals (21 835 [57.3%] women; median [IQR] age, 67.4 [52.5-76.5] years) received BNT162b2 (79.4%) and 9905 individuals (5099 [51.5%] women; median [IQR] age, 67.7 [59.5-73.9] years) received mRNA-1273 (20.6%). Reporting of severe adverse events remained low after the third vaccine dose, with rates of pericarditis (0.01%; 95% CI, 0%-0.02%), anaphylaxis (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.01%), myocarditis (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.01%), and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (no individuals) consistent with results from earlier studies. Significantly more individuals reported low-severity adverse events after the third dose compared with after the second dose, including fatigue (2360 individuals [4.92%] vs 1665 individuals [3.47%]; P < .001), lymphadenopathy (1387 individuals [2.89%] vs 995 individuals [2.07%]; P < .001), nausea (1259 individuals [2.62%] vs 979 individuals [2.04%]; P < .001), headache (1185 individuals [2.47%] vs 992 individuals [2.07%]; P < .001), arthralgia (1019 individuals [2.12%] vs 816 individuals [1.70%]; P < .001), myalgia (956 individuals [1.99%] vs 784 individuals [1.63%]; P < .001), diarrhea (817 individuals [1.70%] vs 595 individuals [1.24%]; P < .001), fever (533 individuals [1.11%] vs 391 individuals [0.81%]; P < .001), vomiting (528 individuals [1.10%] vs 385 individuals [0.80%]; P < .001), and chills (224 individuals [0.47%] vs 175 individuals [0.36%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that although third-dose vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased reporting of low-severity adverse events, risk of severe adverse events remained comparable with risk associated with the standard 2-dose regime. These findings suggest the safety of third vaccination doses in individuals who were eligible for booster vaccination at the time of this study.

2.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 124, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751709

ABSTRACT

Acute cardiac injury has been observed in a subset of COVID-19 patients, but the molecular basis for this clinical phenotype is unknown. It has been hypothesized that molecular mimicry may play a role in triggering an autoimmune inflammatory reaction in some individuals after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we investigate if linear peptides contained in proteins that are primarily expressed in the heart also occur in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Specifically, we compared the library of 136,704 8-mer peptides from 144 human proteins (including splicing variants) to 9926 8-mers from all the viral proteins in the reference SARS-CoV-2 proteome. No 8-mers were exactly identical between the reference human proteome and the reference SARS-CoV-2 proteome. However, there were 45 8-mers that differed by only one amino acid when compared to the reference SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Interestingly, analysis of protein-coding mutations from 141,456 individuals showed that one of these 8-mers from the SARS-CoV-2 Replicase polyprotein 1a/1ab (KIALKGGK) is identical to an MYH6 peptide encoded by the c.5410 C > A (Q1804K) genetic variation, which has been observed at low prevalence in Africans/African Americans (0.08%), East Asians (0.3%), South Asians (0.06%), and Latino/Admixed Americans (0.003%). Furthermore, analysis of 4.85 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes from over 200 countries shows that viral evolution has already resulted in 20 additional 8-mer peptides that are identical to human heart-enriched proteins encoded by reference sequences or genetic variants. Whether such mimicry contributes to cardiac inflammation during or after COVID-19 illness warrants further experimental evaluation. We suggest that SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring peptides identical to human cardiac proteins should be investigated as "viral variants of cardiac interest".

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329812

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the persistent emergence of fitter Variants of Concern (VOCs) that have successfully out-competed circulating strains, but the determinants of viral fitness remain unknown. Here we define ‘Distinctiveness’ of SARS-CoV-2 sequences based on a proteome-wide comparison with all prior sequences from the same geographical region. From the perspective of viral evolution, Distinctiveness captures “regional herd exposure” and has the advantage over the canonical concept of mutation, which relies foremost on the reference ancestral sequence that is invariant over time. By assessing the correlation between Distinctiveness and change in prevalence for all circulating lineages in each region when a new lineage is introduced, we find that the relative Distinctiveness of emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineages is associated with their competitive fitness (Pearson r = 0.67). Further, by assessing the Delta variant in India versus Brazil, we show that the same lineage can have different Distinctiveness-contributing positions in different geographical regions depending on the other variants that previously circulated in those regions. Finally, analysis of Omicron lineages in India and USA shows the BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages have comparable distinctiveness, suggesting that they may have similar levels of competitive fitness. Overall, our study proposes that augmenting the ongoing surveillance of highly mutated variants with real-time assessment of Distinctiveness can aid in achieving robust pandemic preparedness.

4.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329053

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical data to support the use of bamlanivimab for the treatment of outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is needed. Methods: 2,335 patients who received single-dose bamlanivimab infusion between November 12, 2020 to February 17, 2021 were compared with a propensity-matched control of 2,335 untreated patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at Mayo Clinic facilities across 4 states. The primary outcome was the rate of hospitalization at days 14, 21 and 28. Results: The median age of the population was 63;47.3% of the bamlanivimab-treated cohort were >=65 years;49.3% were female. High-risk characteristics included hypertension (54.2%), body mass index >=35 (32.4%), diabetes mellitus (26.5%), chronic lung disease (25.1%), malignancy (16.6%), and renal disease (14.5%). Patients who received bamlanivimab had lower all-cause hospitalization rates at days 14 (1.5% vs 3.5%;Odds Ratio [OR], 0.38), 21 (1.9% vs 3.9%;OR, 0.46), and 28 (2.5% vs 3.9%;OR, 0.61). Secondary exploratory outcomes included lower intensive care unit admission rates at days 14 (0.14% vs 1%;OR, 0.12), 21 (0.25% vs 1%;OR: 0.24) and 28 (0.56% vs 1.1%;OR: 0.52), and lower all-cause mortality at days 14 (0% vs 0.33%), 21 (0.05% vs 0.4%;OR,0.08) and 28 (0.11% vs 0.44%;OR, 0.01). Adverse events were uncommon with bamlanivimab, occurring in 19/2355, most commonly fever (n=6), nausea (n=5), and lightheadedness (n=3). Conclusions: Among high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, treatment with bamlanivimab was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of hospitalization compared with usual care. Funding: Mayo Clinic.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311128

ABSTRACT

Several recent surges in COVID-19 cases due to newly emerging variant strains of SARS-CoV-2 with greater transmissibility have highlighted the virus’s capability to directly modulate spike-ACE2 interactions and promote immune evasion by sterically masking the immunogenic epitopes. Recently, there have also been reports of the bidirectional transfer of coronavirus between different animal species and humans. The ability of coronavirus to infect and adapt to a wide range of hosts can be attributed to new variants that modify the molecular recognition profile of the spike protein (S protein). The receptor-binding domain of the spike protein specifically interacts with key host receptor molecules present on the host cell membranes to gain entry into the host and begin the infection cycle. In this review, we discuss the molecular, structural, and functional diversity associated with the coronavirus receptors across their different phylogenetic lineages and its relevance to various symptomatology in the rapid human-to-human infection in COVID-19 patients, tropism, and zoonosis. Despite this seeming diversity of host receptors, there may be some common underlying mechanisms that influence the host range, virus transmissibility, and pathogenicity. Understanding these mechanisms may be crucial in not only controlling the ongoing pandemic but also help in stopping the resurgence of such virus threats in the future.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327377

ABSTRACT

Background Case reports of patients infected with COVID-19 and influenza virus (“flurona”) have raised questions around the prevalence and clinical significance of these reports. Methods Epidemiological data from the HHS Protect Public Data Hub was analyzed to show trends in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza co-infection-related hospitalizations in the United States in relation to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza strain data from NCBI Virus and FluView . In addition, we retrospectively analyzed all cases of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 across the Mayo Clinic Enterprise from January 2020 to January 2022 and identified cases of influenza co-infections within two weeks of PCR-positive diagnosis date. Using a cohort from the Mayo Clinic with joint PCR testing data, we estimated the expected number of co-infection cases given the background prevalences of COVID-19 and influenza during the Wuhan (Original), Alpha, Delta, and Omicron waves of the pandemic. Findings Considering data from all states of the United States using HHS Protect Public Data Hub, hospitalizations due to influenza co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 were seen to be highest in January 2022 compared to all previous months during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among 171,639 SARS-CoV-2-positive cases analyzed at Mayo Clinic between January 2020 and January 2022, only 73 cases of influenza co-infection were observed. Identified coinfected patients were relatively young (mean age: 28.4 years), predominantly male, and had few comorbidities. During the Delta era (June 16, 2021 to December 13, 2021), there were 9 lab-confirmed co-infection cases observed compared to 13.9 expected cases (95% CI: [12.7, 15.2]), and during the Omicron era (December 14, 2021 to January 17, 2022), there were 54 lab-confirmed co-infection cases compared to 80.9 expected cases (95% CI: [76.6, 85.1]). Conclusions Reported co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza are rare. These co-infections have occurred throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and their prevalence can be explained by background rates of COVID-19 and influenza infection. Preliminary assessment of longitudinal EHR data suggests that most co-infections so far have been observed among relatively young and healthy patients. Further analysis is needed to assess the outcomes of “flurona” among subpopulations with risk factors for severe COVID-19 such as older age, obesity, and immunocompromised status. Significance Statement Reports of COVID-19 and influenza co-infections (“flurona”) have raised concern in recent months as both COVID-19 and influenza cases have increased to significant levels in the US. Here, we analyze trends in co-infection cases over the course of the pandemic to show that these co-infection cases are expected given the background prevalences of COVID-19 and influenza independently. In addition, from an initial analysis of these co-infection cases which have been observed at the Mayo Clinic, we find that these co-infection cases are extremely rare and have mostly been observed in relatively young, healthy patients.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321928

ABSTRACT

Large Phase 3 clinical trials of the two FDA-approved COVID-19 vaccines, mRNA-1273 (Moderna) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), have demonstrated efficacies of 94.1% (n = 30,420, 95% CI: 89.3-96.8) and 95% (n = 43,448, 95% CI: 90.3-97.6) in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, respectively. Given the ongoing vaccine rollout to healthcare personnel and residents of long-term care facilities, here we provide a preliminary assessment of real-world vaccination efficacy in 62,598 individuals from the Mayo Clinic and associated health system (Arizona, Florida, Minnesota, Wisconsin) between December 1st 2020 and February 8th 2021. Our retrospective analysis contrasts 31,299 individuals receiving at least one dose of either vaccine with 31,299 unvaccinated individuals who are propensity-matched based on demographics, location (zip code), and number of prior SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests. Administration of two COVID-19 vaccine doses was 89.0% effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (95% CI: 69.1-97.2%) with onset at least 36 days after the first dose. Furthermore, vaccinated patients who were subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19 had significantly lower 14-day hospital admission rates than propensity-matched unvaccinated COVID-19 patients (3.7% vs. 9.2%;Relative Risk: 0.4;p-value: 0.007). Building upon the previous randomized trials of these vaccines, this study demonstrates their real-world effectiveness in reducing the rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity among individuals at highest risk for infection.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319897

ABSTRACT

Background: Real-world clinical data to support the use of casirivimab-imdevimab for the treatment of outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is needed. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of casirivimab-imdevimab treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19.Methods: A retrospective cohort of 696 patients who received casirivimab-imdevimab between December 4, 2020 and April 9, 2021 was compared to a propensity-matched control of 696 untreated patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at Mayo Clinic sites in Arizona, Florida, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Primary outcome was rate of hospitalization at days 14, 21 and 28 after infusion.Findings: The median age of the antibody-treated cohort was 63 years (interquartile range, 52-71);45·5% were ≥65 years old;51·4% were female. High-risk characteristics were hypertension (52·4%), body mass index ≥35 (31·0%), diabetes mellitus (24·6%), chronic lung disease (22·1%), chronic renal disease (11·4%), congestive heart failure (6·6%), and compromised immune function (6·7%). Compared to the propensity-matched untreated control, patients who received casirivimab-imdevimab had significantly lower all-cause hospitalization rates at day 14 (1·2% vs 3·4%;Odds Ratio [OR], 0·26;95% confidence interval (CI): 0·11-0·64), day 21 (1·2% vs 4·2%;OR, 0·22;95% CI: 0·09-0·52), and day 28 (1·3% vs 4·9%;OR, 0·21;95% CI: 0·09-0·48). Rates of intensive care unit admission and mortality at days 14, 21 and 28 were similarly low for antibody-treated and untreated groups.Interpretation:Among high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, casirivimab-imdevimab treatment was associated with a significantly lower rate of hospitalization.Funding Information: This work was funded by an intramural grant from Mayo Clinic to RRR.Declaration of Interests: CP, AP, AV, and PL are employees of nference and have financial interests in the company. JCO is supported by grants from nference, and is a paid consultant for Elsevier, Inc. and Bates College. ADB is supported by grants from NIAID (grants AI110173 and AI120698) Amfar (#109593) and Mayo Clinic (HH Shieck Khalifa Bib Zayed Al-Nahyan Named Professorship of Infectious Diseases). ADB is a paid consultant for Abbvie and Flambeau Diagnostics, is a paid member of the DSMB for Corvus Pharmaceuticals and Equilium, owns equity for scientific advisory work in Zentalis and Nference, and is founder and President of Splissen therapeutics. RRR is supported by research grants from Regeneron, Roche, Gilead and the Mayo Clinic, and is a member of DSMB for Novartis. All other have nothing to disclose. Ethics Approval Statement: The Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board approved this study. Informed consent was waived and patients without research authorization were excluded.

9.
Mol Syst Biol ; 18(2): e10673, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687579

ABSTRACT

The highly contagious Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 has become a prevalent strain globally and poses a public health challenge around the world. While there has been extensive focus on understanding the amino acid mutations in the Delta variant's Spike protein, the mutational landscape of the rest of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome (25 proteins) remains poorly understood. To this end, we performed a systematic analysis of mutations in all the SARS-CoV-2 proteins from nearly 2 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 176 countries/territories. Six highly prevalent missense mutations in the viral life cycle-associated Membrane (I82T), Nucleocapsid (R203M, D377Y), NS3 (S26L), and NS7a (V82A, T120I) proteins are almost exclusive to the Delta variant compared to other variants of concern (mean prevalence across genomes: Delta = 99.74%, Alpha = 0.06%, Beta = 0.09%, and Gamma = 0.22%). Furthermore, we find that the Delta variant harbors a more diverse repertoire of mutations across countries compared to the previously dominant Alpha variant. Overall, our study underscores the high diversity of the Delta variant between countries and identifies a list of amino acid mutations in the Delta variant's proteome for probing the mechanistic basis of pathogenic features such as high viral loads, high transmissibility, and reduced susceptibility against neutralization by vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
Med (N Y) ; 3(1): 28-41.e8, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559964

ABSTRACT

Background: mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are safe and effective, but increasing reports of breakthrough infections highlight the need to vigilantly monitor and compare the effectiveness of these vaccines. Methods: We retrospectively compared protection against symptomatic infection conferred by mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 at Mayo Clinic sites from December 2020 to September 2021. We used a test-negative case-control design to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) and to compare the odds of symptomatic infection after full vaccination with mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2, while adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, geography, comorbidities, and calendar time of vaccination and testing. Findings: Both vaccines were highly effective over the study duration (VEmRNA-1273: 84.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.6%-86.2%; VEBNT162b2: 75.6%, 95% CI: 72.2%-78.7%), but their effectiveness was reduced during July-September (VEmRNA-1273: 75.6%, 95% CI: 70.1%-80%; VEBNT162b2: 63.5%, 95% CI: 55.8%-69.9%) as compared to December-May (VEmRNA-1273: 93.7%, 95% CI: 90.4%-95.9%; VEBNT162b2: 85.7%, 95% CI: 81.4%-88.9%). Adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical comorbidities, time of vaccination, and time of testing, the odds of experiencing a symptomatic breakthrough infection were lower after full vaccination with mRNA-1273 than with BNT162b2 (odds ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.55-0.67). Conclusions: Both mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 strongly protect against symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. It is imperative to continue monitoring and comparing available vaccines over time and with respect to emerging variants to inform public and global health decisions. Funding: This study was funded by nference.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293207

ABSTRACT

Acute cardiac injury has been observed in a subset of COVID-19 patients, but the molecular basis for this clinical phenotype is unknown. It has been hypothesized that molecular mimicry may play a role in triggering an autoimmune inflammatory reaction in some individuals after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we investigate if linear peptides contained in proteins that are primarily expressed in the heart also occur in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Specifically, we compared the library of 136,704 8-mer peptides from 144 human proteins (including splicing variants) to 9,926 8-mers from all 17 viral proteins in the reference SARS-CoV-2 proteome. No 8-mers were exactly identical between the reference human proteome and the reference SARS-CoV-2 proteome. However, there were 45 8-mers that differed by only one amino acid when compared to the reference SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Interestingly, analysis of protein-coding mutations from 141,456 individuals showed that one of these 8-mers from the SARS-CoV-2 Replicase polyprotein 1a/1ab (KIALKGGK) is identical to a MYH6 peptide encoded by the c.5410C>A (Q1804K) genetic variation, which has been observed at low prevalence in Africans/African Americans (0.08%), East Asians (0.3%), South Asians (0.06%) and Latino/Admixed Americans (0.003%). Furthermore, analysis of 4.85 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes from over 200 countries shows that viral evolution has already resulted in 20 additional 8-mer peptides that are identical to human heart-enriched proteins encoded by reference sequences or genetic variants. Whether such mimicry contributes to cardiac inflammation during or after COVID-19 illness warrants further experimental evaluation. We suggest that SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring peptides identical to human cardiac proteins should be investigated as ‘viral variants of cardiac interest’.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDClinical data to support the use of bamlanivimab for the treatment of outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) are needed.METHODS2335 Patients who received single-dose bamlanivimab infusion between November 12, 2020, and February 17, 2021, were compared with a propensity-matched control of 2335 untreated patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at Mayo Clinic facilities across 4 states. The primary outcome was the rate of hospitalization at days 14, 21, and 28.RESULTSThe median age of the population was 63 years; 47.3% of the bamlanivimab-treated cohort were 65 years or more; 49.3% were female and 50.7% were male. High-risk characteristics included hypertension (54.2%), BMI greater than or equal to 35 (32.4%), diabetes mellitus (26.5%), chronic lung disease (25.1%), malignancy (16.6%), and renal disease (14.5%). Patients who received bamlanivimab had lower all-cause hospitalization rates at days 14 (1.5% vs. 3.5%; risk ratio [RR], 0.41), 21 (1.9% vs. 3.9%; RR, 0.49), and 28 (2.5% vs. 3.9%; RR, 0.63). Secondary exploratory outcomes included lower intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates at days 14 (0.14% vs. 1%; RR, 0.14), 21 (0.25% vs.1%; RR, 0.25), and 28 (0.56% vs.1.1%; RR. 0.51) and lower all-cause mortality at days 14 (0% vs. 0.33%), 21 (0.05% vs. 0.4%; RR,0.13), and 28 (0.11% vs. 0.44%; RR, 0.26). Adverse events were uncommon with bamlanivimab, occurring in 19 of 2355 patients, and were most commonly fever (n = 6), nausea (n = 5), and lightheadedness (n = 3).CONCLUSIONSAmong high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, treatment with bamlanivimab was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of hospitalization, ICU admission, and mortality compared with usual care.FUNDINGMayo Clinic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101102, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world clinical data to support the use of casirivimab-imdevimab for the treatment of outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is needed. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of casirivimab-imdevimab treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 696 patients who received casirivimab-imdevimab between December 4, 2020 and April 9, 2021 was compared to a propensity-matched control of 696 untreated patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at Mayo Clinic sites in Arizona, Florida, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Primary outcome was rate of hospitalization at days 14, 21 and 28 after infusion. FINDINGS: The median age of the antibody-treated cohort was 63 years (interquartile range, 52-71); 45·5% were ≥65 years old; 51.4% were female. High-risk characteristics were hypertension (52.4%), body mass index ≥35 (31.0%), diabetes mellitus (24.6%), chronic lung disease (22.1%), chronic renal disease (11.4%), congestive heart failure (6.6%), and compromised immune function (6.7%). Compared to the propensity-matched untreated control, patients who received casirivimab-imdevimab had significantly lower all-cause hospitalization rates at day 14 (1.3% vs 3.3%; Absolute Difference: 2.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-3.7%), day 21 (1.3% vs 4.2%; Absolute Difference: 2.9%; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7%), and day 28 (1.6% vs 4.8%; Absolute Difference: 3.2%; 95% CI: 1.4-5.1%). Rates of intensive care unit admission and mortality at days 14, 21 and 28 were similarly low for antibody-treated and untreated groups. INTERPRETATION: Among high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, casirivimab-imdevimab treatment was associated with a significantly lower rate of hospitalization. FUNDING: Mayo Clinic.

14.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 117, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328860

ABSTRACT

Understanding the relationships between pre-existing conditions and complications of COVID-19 infection is critical to identifying which patients will develop severe disease. Here, we leverage ~1.1 million clinical notes from 1803 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and deep neural network models to characterize associations between 21 pre-existing conditions and the development of 20 complications (e.g. respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, and hematologic) of COVID-19 infection throughout the course of infection (i.e. 0-30 days, 31-60 days, and 61-90 days). Pleural effusion was the most frequent complication of early COVID-19 infection (89/1803 patients, 4.9%) followed by cardiac arrhythmia (45/1803 patients, 2.5%). Notably, hypertension was the most significant risk factor associated with 10 different complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrhythmia, and anemia. The onset of new complications after 30 days is rare and most commonly involves pleural effusion (31-60 days: 11 patients, 61-90 days: 9 patients). Lastly, comparing the rates of complications with a propensity-matched COVID-negative hospitalized population confirmed the importance of hypertension as a risk factor for early-onset complications. Overall, the associations between pre-COVID conditions and COVID-associated complications presented here may form the basis for the development of risk assessment scores to guide clinical care pathways.

15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 105923, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of COVID-19 vaccines and non-COVID-19 vaccines with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). MATERIALS AND METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 771,805 vaccination events across 266,094 patients in the Mayo Clinic Health System between 01/01/2017 and 03/15/2021. The primary outcome was a positive diagnosis of CVST, identified either by the presence of a corresponding ICD code or by an NLP algorithm which detected positive diagnosis of CVST within free-text clinical notes. For each vaccine we calculated the relative risk by dividing the incidence of CVST in the 30 days following vaccination to that in the 30 days preceding vaccination. RESULTS: We identified vaccination events for all FDA-approved COVID-19 vaccines including Pfizer-BioNTech (n = 94,818 doses), Moderna (n = 36,350 doses) and Johnson & Johnson - J&J (n = 1,745 doses). We also identified vaccinations events for 10 common FDA-approved non-COVID-19 vaccines (n = 771,805 doses). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence rate of CVST in 30-days before and after vaccination for any vaccine in this population. We further found the baseline CVST incidence in the study population between 2017 and 2021 to be 45 to 98 per million patient years. CONCLUSIONS: This real-world evidence-based study finds that CVST is rare and is not significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination in our patient cohort. Limitations include the rarity of CVST in our dataset, a relatively small number of J&J COVID-19 vaccination events, and the use of a population drawn from recipients of a SARS-CoV-2 PCR test in a single health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
16.
Med (N Y) ; 2(8): 965-978.e5, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination campaign unfolds, it is important to continuously assess the real-world safety of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized vaccines. Curation of large-scale electronic health records (EHRs) enables near-real-time safety evaluations that were not previously possible. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we deployed deep neural networks over a large EHR system to automatically curate the adverse effects mentioned by physicians in over 1.2 million clinical notes between December 1, 2020 and April 20, 2021. We compared notes from 68,266 individuals who received at least one dose of BNT162b2 (n = 51,795) or mRNA-1273 (n = 16,471) to notes from 68,266 unvaccinated individuals who were matched by demographic, geographic, and clinical features. FINDINGS: Individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 had a higher rate of return to the clinic, but not the emergency department, after both doses compared to unvaccinated controls. The most frequently documented adverse effects within 7 days of each vaccine dose included myalgia, headache, and fatigue, but the rates of EHR documentation for each side effect were remarkably low compared to those derived from active solicitation during clinical trials. Severe events, including anaphylaxis, facial paralysis, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, were rare and occurred at similar frequencies in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of vaccine-related adverse effects from over 1.2 million EHR notes of more than 130,000 individuals reaffirms the safety and tolerability of the FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in practice. FUNDING: This study was funded by nference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Mass Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Med (N Y) ; 2(8): 979-992.e8, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna), have demonstrated high efficacy in large phase 3 randomized clinical trials. It is important to assess their effectiveness in a real-world setting. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 136,532 individuals in the Mayo Clinic health system (Arizona, Florida, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) with PCR testing data between December 1, 2020 and April 20, 2021. We compared clinical outcomes for a vaccinated cohort of 68,266 individuals who received at least one dose of either vaccine (nBNT162b2 = 51,795; nmRNA-1273 = 16,471) and an unvaccinated control cohort of 68,266 individuals propensity matched based on relevant demographic, clinical, and geographic features. We estimated real-world vaccine effectiveness by comparing incidence rates of positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR testing and COVID-19-associated hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission starting 7 days after the second vaccine dose. FINDINGS: The real-world vaccine effectiveness of preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection was 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.4%-89.1%) for BNT162b2 and 93.3% (95% CI: 85.7%-97.4%) for mRNA-1273. BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 were 88.8% (95% CI: 75.5%-95.7%) and 86.0% (95% CI: 71.6%-93.9%) effective in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization. Both vaccines were 100% effective (95% CIBNT162b2: 51.4%-100%; 95% CImRNA-1273: 43.3%-100%) in preventing COVID-19-associated ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are effective in a real-world setting and are associated with reduced rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased burden of COVID-19 on the healthcare system. FUNDING: This study was funded by nference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
iScience ; 24(7): 102780, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284160

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 can experience symptoms and complications after viral clearance. It is important to identify clinical features of patients who are likely to experience these prolonged effects. We conducted a retrospective study to compare longitudinal laboratory test measurements (hemoglobin, hematocrit, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen) in patients rehospitalized after PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 clearance (n = 104) versus patients not rehospitalized after viral clearance (n = 278). Rehospitalized patients had lower median hemoglobin levels in the year prior to COVID-19 diagnosis (Cohen's D = -0.50; p = 1.2 × 10-3) and during their active SARS-CoV-2 infection (Cohen's D = -0.71; p = 4.6 × 10-8). Rehospitalized patients were also more likely to be diagnosed with moderate or severe anemia during their active infection (Odds Ratio = 4.07; p = 4.99 × 10-9). These findings suggest that anemia-related laboratory tests should be considered in risk stratification algorithms for patients with COVID-19.

19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100793, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results are being considered to estimate viral clearance in COVID-19 patients. However, there are anecdotal reports of hospitalization from protracted COVID-19 complications despite such confirmed viral clearance, presenting a clinical conundrum. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 222 hospitalized COVID-19 patients to compare those that were readmitted post-viral clearance (hospitalized post-clearance cohort, n = 49) with those that were not re-admitted post-viral clearance (non-hospitalized post-clearance cohort, n = 173) between February and October 2020. In order to differentiate these two cohorts, we used neural network models for the 'augmented curation' of comorbidities and complications with positive sentiment in the Electronic Hosptial Records physician notes. FINDINGS: In the year preceding COVID-19 onset, anemia (n = 13 [26.5%], p-value: 0.007), cardiac arrhythmias (n = 14 [28.6%], p-value: 0.015), and acute kidney injury (n = 7 [14.3%], p-value: 0.030) were significantly enriched in the physician notes of the hospitalized post-clearance cohort. INTERPRETATION: Overall, this retrospective study highlights specific pre-existing conditions that are associated with higher hospitalization rates in COVID-19 patients despite viral clearance and motivates follow-up prospective research into the associated risk factors. FUNDING: This work was supported by Nference, inc.

20.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 55, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135657

ABSTRACT

Intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality in severe COVID-19 patients are driven by "cytokine storms" and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Interim clinical trial results suggest that the corticosteroid dexamethasone displays better 28-day survival in severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation or oxygen. In this study, 10 out of 16 patients (62.5%) that had an average plasma IL-6 value over 10 pg/mL post administration of corticosteroids also had worse outcomes (i.e., ICU stay >15 days or death), compared to 8 out of 41 patients (19.5%) who did not receive corticosteroids (p-value = 0.0024). Given this potential association between post-corticosteroid IL-6 levels and COVID-19 severity, we hypothesized that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR or NR3C1) may be coupled to IL-6 expression in specific cell types that govern cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Examining single-cell RNA-seq data from BALF of severe COVID-19 patients and nearly 2 million cells from a pan-tissue scan shows that alveolar macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells co-express NR3C1 and IL-6, motivating future studies on the links between the regulation of NR3C1 function and IL-6 levels.

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