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Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):649-650, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570431

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well accepted that specific micronutrients can enhance the immune response to improve resistance to viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs), such as COVID-19. The primary objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for primary prevention of any respiratory viral infection through supplementation with nutrients that already have a recognized role in immune function. Method: We conducted a systematic search in EMBASE, AMED, CAB International, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science papers, published from the inception of these respective databases until 10th of April 2020. Our primary outcome was the incidence of RTIs with (potential) viral origins in subjects without increased risk of RTIs. Results: The search produced 15,163 records of which 93 papers (based on 115 studies) met the criteria to be included in the review. These studies included 199,055 study participants (191,636 children and 7,419 adults) in 37 countries around the world on supplementation with multiple micronutrients, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin B12, C, D, E, beta-carotene, zinc, iron and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The overall ROB across all studies was moderate. Sixty-three studies were included in the meta-analyses, which was performed for children and adults separately. Supplementation with zinc in children showed a non-significant decreased risk of incidence of RTI (RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.82-1.01, I2 = 83.70% p = 0.000.) By stratifying the meta-analysis by regions of the world, only studies performed in Asia showed a significant (RR 0.86, 95%CI 0.7-0.96, I2 = 79.1%, p = 0.000) protective effect of zinc supplementation on RTI. Vitamin D supplementation in adults showed a significant decreased incidence of RTI (RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.79-0.99, I2 = 20.7%), p = 0.272). However, when subdivided by world regions, studies performed in North America showed a significant effect (RR 0.82 95%CI 0.68-0.97), but not those from Europe (RR 1.02, 95%CI 0.60-1.44) or Oceania (RR 0.97, (95%CI 0.84-1.10). Conclusion: Based on the systematic review and meta-analyses, supplementation of vitamins, multiple nutrients or fatty acids in the general population has no, or at least very limited, effect in the prevention of respiratory infections, such as COVID-19. However, there was some evidence that zinc supplementation among children in Asia, and vitamin D among adults in the USA and Canada might potentially confer protection.

2.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(7): 1567-1577, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617321

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The state of limited resource settings that Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created globally should be taken seriously into account especially in healthcare sector. In oncofertility, patients should receive their fertility preservation treatments urgently even in limited resource settings before initiation of anticancer therapy. Therefore, it is very crucial to learn more about oncofertility practice in limited resource settings such as in developing countries that suffer often from shortage of healthcare services provided to young patients with cancer. METHODS: As an extrapolation during the global crisis of COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed oncofertility centers from 14 developing countries (Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, Panama, Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala, Argentina, Chile, Nigeria, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, and India). Survey questionnaire included questions on the availability and degree of utilization of fertility preservation options in case of childhood cancer, breast cancer, and blood cancer. RESULTS: All surveyed centers responded to all questions. Responses and their calculated oncofertility scores showed different domestic standards for oncofertility practice in case of childhood cancer, breast cancer, and blood cancer in the developing countries under limited resource settings. CONCLUSIONS: Medical practice in limited resource settings has become a critical topic especially after the global crisis of COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the resources necessary to provide oncofertility treatments is important until the current COVID-19 pandemic resolves. Lessons learned will be valuable to future potential worldwide disruptions due to infectious diseases or other global crises.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Fertility Preservation/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Developing Countries , Female , Fertility Preservation/economics , Fertility Preservation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Neoplasms/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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