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1.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine ; 34(SUPPL 1):44, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1517730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION When COVID-19 first spread in Europe, it was unclear if the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be transmitted from mother to fetus. Hence, doubts arose as the best way to deliver considering that caesarean delivery (CD) indeed could prevent vertical transmission. METHODS We calculated CD rate in 5 Italian regions (Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, Sardinia) differently affected by the first wave of the pandemic. Data were retrospectively obtained from each birth center and aggregated by areas (provinces). Data related to March-April 2020, corresponding to first COVID-19 peak in Italy, were compared with the March-April 2019 as well with November-December 2019, and odds ratio (ORs) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 24 provinces were included, covering 21.8% of the Italian population. Overall CD rate did not differ in the three examined periods: neither in the comparison of March-April 2019 (reference period) versus November-December 2019 (OR: 0.98 95% CI 0.93-1.05) nor in the comparison of the reference period versus March-April 2020 (OR: 1.03;95 % CI 0.98-1.09). CD rate did not change even in areas with the highest incidence of COVID-19. Only 17 out of 3.257 CDs was due to direct COVID-19 complications (0.5%;95% CI 0.3-0.8). No pregnant women with COVID-19 proven infection died. CONCLUSIONS The first wave of COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect delivery mode in Italy, even in areas with the highest infection rates.

2.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine ; 34(SUPPL 1):117, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1517714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the respiratory mucosa via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Since ACE2 is a key player in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), its loss of function can explain endothelial dysfunction (ED): vasculitis and thrombosis are prominent features in severe COVID-19 patients. The RAS is also implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE). RAS-mediated mechanisms may explain the primary clinical-pathological features, suggestive of an underlying microvascular dysfunction in both diseases, with induction of vasculopathy, coagulopathy, and inflammation. Evidence suggests that PE is caused by an imbalanced proportion of anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic soluble plasmatic factors, which are important in the maintenance of the vascular endothelium. Soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1) placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio has been studied extensively as a predictive marker for PE. RAS components have been shown to regulate angiogenesis. Therefore, circulating levels of these angiogenesis-related factors could play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the clinical integration of these tests could also help to understand the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to manage these women. Moreover, an increased incidence of PE has been reported among COVID-19 infected mothers compared to the general pregnant population. This study aimed to evaluate the maternal serum levels of sFlt-1, PlGF in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection and to evaluate the utility of their clinical integration in the management of these women. METHODS A retrospective analysis of positive SARS-CoV-2 pregnant women was performed at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of Fondazione MBBM - San Gerardo Hospital in Monza - Italy from April 2020 to April 2021. Serum dosage of sFlt-1 and PlGF were collected at the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization, before the beginning of therapy. Patients already on drug therapy (enoxaparin sodium, steroid therapy or hydroxychloroquine) and also patients without a chest X-ray performed at the admission were excluded. Pregnant women were divided into two groups: women with signs and symptoms of COVID-19 at the hospitalization and asymptomatic women. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was stratified in ≥38. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Fisher's test. RESULTS A total of 57 women were included, of which 20 (35%) with pneumonia documented on chest X-ray. The mean gestational age at diagnosis of pneumonia was 32 weeks. 38 women were asymptomatic but with positivity to SARS-CoV-2 surveillance swab, 6 had a pneumonia (16%). 19 women had COVID-19 related symptoms, 12 of these had respiratory symptoms (cough and/or dyspnoea) and 14 had a pneumonia (74%). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was higher in SARS-CoV-2 positive asymptomatic patients compared to women with COVID-19 related symptoms (49 vs 15). In 15 of the 38 asymptomatic patients (39%), sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was ≥38 at admission (mean gestational age 38 weeks), while only in 1 of the 19 symptomatic patients (5%), sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was ≥38 at admission (mean gestational age 32 weeks) - p=.01. CONCLUSIONS Based on this small cohort, our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection could change the angiogenic profile during pregnancy, but in the symptomatic phase there is not a significant pathological alteration sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for placenta-related disorders.

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] ; 18(8):16, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208611

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus emergency spread to Italy when little was known about the infection's impact on mothers and newborns. This study aims to describe the extent to which clinical practice has protected childbirth physiology and preserved the mother-child bond during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. A national population-based prospective cohort study was performed enrolling women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted for childbirth to any Italian hospital from 25 February to 31 July 2020. All cases were prospectively notified, and information on peripartum care (mother-newborn separation, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and rooming-in) and maternal and perinatal outcomes were collected in a structured form and entered in a web-based secure system. The paper describes a cohort of 525 SARS-CoV-2 positive women who gave birth. At hospital admission, 44.8% of the cohort was asymptomatic. At delivery, 51.9% of the mothers had a birth support person in the delivery room;the average caesarean section rate of 33.7% remained stable compared to the national figure. On average, 39.0% of mothers were separated from their newborns at birth, 26.6% practised skin-to-skin, 72.1% roomed in with their babies, and 79.6% of the infants received their mother's milk. The infants separated and not separated from their SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers both had good outcomes. At the beginning of the pandemic, childbirth raised awareness and concern due to limited available evidence and led to "better safe than sorry" care choices. An improvement of the peripartum care indicators was observed over time.

4.
Obstetrics & Gynecology ; 136(2):252-258, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1044008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical evolution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hospitalized pregnant women and potential factors associated with severe maternal outcomes. METHODS: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study of pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were admitted to 12 Italian maternity hospitals between February 23 and March 28, 2020. Clinical records, laboratory and radiologic examinations, and pregnancy outcomes were collected. A subgroup of patients with severe disease was identified based on intensive care unit (ICU) admission, delivery for respiratory compromise, or both. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included, 14 of whom had severe disease (18%). Two thirds of the patients in the cohort were admitted during the third trimester, and 84% were symptomatic on admission. Eleven patients underwent urgent delivery for respiratory compromise (16%), and six were admitted to the ICU (8%). One woman received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation;no deaths occurred. Preterm delivery occurred in 12% of patients, and nine newborns were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Patients in the severe subgroup had significantly higher pregestational body mass indexes (BMIs) and heart and respiratory rates and a greater frequency of fever or dyspnea on admission compared with women with a nonsevere disease evolution. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, one in five women hospitalized with COVID-19 infection delivered urgently for respiratory compromise or were admitted to the ICU. None, however, died. Increased pregestational BMI and abnormal heart and respiratory rates on admission were associated with severe disease.

5.
BJOG ; 127(9): 1116-1121, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report mode of delivery and immediate neonatal outcome in women infected with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Twelve hospitals in northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women with COVID-19-confirmed infection who delivered. EXPOSURE: COVID 19 infection in pregnancy. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-infected women who were admitted and delivered from 1 to 20 March 2020 were eligible. Data were collected from the clinical records using a standardised questionnaire on maternal general characteristics, any medical or obstetric co-morbidity, course of pregnancy, clinical signs and symptoms, treatment of COVID 19 infection, mode of delivery, neonatal data and breastfeeding. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Data on mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. RESULTS: In all, 42 women with COVID-19 delivered at the participating centres; 24 (57.1%, 95% CI 41.0-72.3) delivered vaginally. An elective caesarean section was performed in 18/42 (42.9%, 95% CI 27.7-59.0) cases: in eight cases the indication was unrelated to COVID-19 infection. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 19/42 (45.2%, 95% CI 29.8-61.3) cases: of these, 7/19 (36.8%, 95% CI 16.3-61.6) required oxygen support and 4/19 (21.1%, 95% CI 6.1-45.6) were admitted to a critical care unit. Two women with COVID-19 breastfed without a mask because infection was diagnosed in the postpartum period: their newborns tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 infection. In one case, a newborn had a positive test after a vaginal operative delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Although postpartum infection cannot be excluded with 100% certainty, these findings suggest that vaginal delivery is associated with a low risk of intrapartum SARS-Cov-2 transmission to the newborn. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This study suggests that vaginal delivery may be associated with a low risk of intrapartum SARS-Cov-2 transmission to the newborn.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vagina/virology
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