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1.
World J Virol ; 11(2): 107-110, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791988

ABSTRACT

Microbial co-infections are another primary concern in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet it is an untouched area among researchers. Preliminary data and systematic reviews only show the type of pathogens responsible for that, but its pathophysiology is still unknown. Studies show that these microbial co-infections are hospital-acquired/nosocomial infections, and patients admitted to intensive care units with invasive mechanical ventilation are highly susceptible to it. Patients with COVID-19 had elevated inflammatory cytokines and a weakened cell-mediated immune response, with lower CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell counts, indicating vulnerability to various co-infections. Despite this, there are only a few studies that recommend the management of co-infections.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(45): 7855-7858, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580320

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe liver disease who have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (coronavirus disease 2019) frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure, with a high mortality rate, as a result of the hyper-proinflammatory state known as the cytokine storm. Clinicians must recognize cytokine storms earlier to avoid intensive care admission and multi-organ damage, a critical life-threatening condition with prognostic and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Life ; 14(4): 431-442, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464171

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a global health concern. The transmission method is human-to-human. Since this second wave of SARS-CoV-2 is more aggressive than the first wave, rapid testing is warranted to use practical diagnostics to break the transfer chain. Currently, various techniques are used to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. A full review of online databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was analyzed to identify relevant articles focusing on SARS-CoV-2 and diagnosis and therapeutics. The most recent article search was on May 10, 2021. We summarize promising methods for detecting the novel Coronavirus using sensor-based diagnostic technologies that are sensitive, cost-effective, and simple to use at the point of care. This includes loop-mediated isothermal amplification and several laboratory protocols for confirming suspected 2019-nCoV cases, as well as studies with non-commercial laboratory protocols based on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and a field-effect transistor-based bio-sensing device. We discuss a potential discovery that could lead to the mass and targeted SARS-CoV-2 detection needed to manage the COVID-19 pandemic through infection succession and timely therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Front Nutr ; 8: 747956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463493

ABSTRACT

An entirely unknown species of coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in December 2019. COVID-19 has already affected more than 180 million people causing ~3.91 million deaths globally till the end of June 2021. During this emergency, the food nutraceuticals can be a potential therapeutic candidate. Curcumin is the natural and safe bioactive compound of the turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) plant and is known to possess potent anti-microbial and immuno-modulatory properties. This review paper covers the various extraction and quantification techniques of curcumin and its usage to produce functional food. The potential of curcumin in boosting the immune system has also been explored. The review will help develop insight and new knowledge about curcumin's role as an immune-booster and therapeutic agent against COVID-19. The manuscript will also encourage and assist the scientists and researchers who have an association with drug development, pharmacology, functional foods, and nutraceuticals to develop curcumin-based formulations.

7.
World J Radiol ; 13(3): 53-63, 2021 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170527

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by +ve strand RNA virus (SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) that belongs to the corona viridae family. In March, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of novel coronavirus for the public health emergency. Although SARS-CoV-2 infection presents with respiratory symptoms, it affects other organs such as the kidneys, liver, heart and brain. Early-stage laboratory disease testing shows many false positive or negative outcomes such as less white blood cell count and a low number of lymphocyte count. However, radiological examination and diagnosis are among the main components of the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. In particular, for COVID-19, chest computed tomography developed vigorous initial diagnosis and disease progression assessment. However, the accuracy is limited. Although real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of COVID-19, sometimes it may give false-negative results. Due to the consequences of the missing diagnosis. This resulted in a discrepancy between the two means of examination. Conversely, based on currently available evidence, we summarized the possible understanding of the various patho-physiology, radio diagnostic methods in severe COVID-19 patients. As the information on COVID-19 evolves rapidly, this review will provide vital information for scientists and clinicians to consider novel perceptions for the comprehensive knowledge of the diagnostic approaches based on current experience.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(6): 449-469, 2021 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110488

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus which belongs to the Coronaviridae family. In March 2019 the World Health Organization declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. COVID-19 patients typically have a fever, dry cough, dyspnea, fatigue, and anosmia. Some patients also report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, as well as liver enzyme abnormalities. Surprisingly, many studies have found severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA in rectal swabs and stool specimens of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. In addition, viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine-type 2, were also found to be highly expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 can dynamically infect and replicate in both GI and liver cells. Taken together these results indicate that the GI tract is a potential target of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the present review summarizes the vital information available to date on COVID-19 and its impact on GI aspects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications
9.
3 Biotech ; 11(2): 94, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064627

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus which belongs to the Coronaviridae family. COVID-19 outbreak became evident after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the twenty-first century as the start of the third deadly coronavirus. Currently, research is at an early stage, and the exact etiological dimensions of COVID-19 are unknown. Several candidate drugs and plasma therapy have been considered and evaluated for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients. These include clinically available drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. However, understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of this virus is critical for predicting interaction with humans. Based on recent evidence, we have summarized the current virus biology in terms of the possible understanding of the various pathophysiologies, molecular mechanisms, recent efficient diagnostics, and therapeutic approaches to control the disease. In addition, we briefly reviewed the biochemistry of leading candidates for novel therapies and their current status in clinical trials. As information from COVID-19 is evolving rapidly, this review will help the researcher to consider new insights and potential therapeutic approaches based on up-to-date knowledge. Finally, this review illustrates a list of alternative therapeutic solutions for a viral infection.

10.
Biomed J ; 43(5): 424-433, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679602

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major public health concern currently. To date, there are no approved antiviral drugs or vaccines against this transmissible disease. This report sheds light on available information for a better understanding of clinical trials and pharmacotherapy related to COVID-19. MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus databases, Web of Science, WHO, and EU clinical trial sites were used to perform comparative analysis. Information was collected on the use of therapeutic agents for human therapy in patients with COVID-19 up to May 2020. We have extracted data from 60 clinical trials. Amongst these trials, 34 were from the European Union database of clinical trials and 26 from the National Institute of Health. The data selection procedure includes active, completed, and recruitment in progress status. Most of the clinical trials are ongoing and hence, there is a lack of precise results for the treatment.There is a lack of high-quality clinical evidence. The protocol to be developed requires large randomized clinical trials with a combination of available drugs and prospective therapies. We propose the usage of a large number of cases and different statistical analyses to conduct systematic clinical trials. This could provide comprehensive information about the clinical trial and potential therapeutic progress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , World Health Organization
11.
Antib Ther ; 3(2): 115-125, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381881

ABSTRACT

While there is no proven treatment available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), convalescent plasma (CP) may provide therapeutic relief as the number of cases escalate steeply world-wide. At the time of writing this review, vaccines, monoclonal antibodies or drugs are still lacking for the recent large COVID-19 outbreak, which restores the interest in CP as an empirical life-saving treatment. However, formal proof of efficacy is needed. The purpose of this review is to summarize all historical clinical trials on COVID-19 infected patients treated with CP to provide precise evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of CP therapy in severe COVID-19 patients. Although there are many clinical trials in progress, high-quality clinical evidence is still lacking to analyze the existing problems. Meanwhile, based on the previous successful outcomes, we recommend healthcare systems to use CP therapy cautiously in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

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