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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):92, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880775

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently available COVID-19 vaccination regimens in the US deliver either a homologous spike (S) mRNA prime-boost or a prime-only S DNA adenovirus-vectored antigen to elicit humoral and cell-mediated responses to confer protection against SAR-CoV-2 infection. Alternatively, heterologous vaccination using two different platforms has the potential to enhance and expand immune protection. Addition of a second SARS-CoV-2 antigen, the nucleocapsid (N) protein that is less subject to mutation and elicits vigorous T-cell responses, may also be advantageous. We report immunological responses to homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens with a human DNA adenovirus serotype 5 S plus N (AdS+N) and/or a self-amplifying S-only mRNA vaccine (AAAH) delivered with a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). Methods: CD-1 mice received homologous or heterologous prime-boost combinations of AdS+N and AAAH. Priming doses were administered on Day 0, booster doses were delivered on Day 21, and mice were euthanized for blood and organ collection on Day 35. Serum was analyzed for anti-S (both wild type and variant) and anti-N IgG subtypes by ELISA. Spleen-resident CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were tested for IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 production in response to S-WT, S Delta variant and N protein overlapping peptides by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Splenocyte cytokine secretion upon stimulation with S-WT/N peptides was also assessed by IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot. Serum neutralization of the original Wuhan strain, Delta, and B.1.351 variants was assessed by a pseudovirus neutralization assay. Results: The highest humoral and T-cell responses were seen with the heterologous AAAH prime-AdS+N boost regimen, with a significant increase in T-cell responses relative to homologous vaccination. S protein-binding IgG was similar between wild type and Delta variant S proteins, with a strong/clear Th1/Th2 bias, and T cells responded to S wild type and S Delta peptides with similar levels of cytokine expression. Sera from AAAH prime-AdS+N boost mice showed the ability to neutralize Wuhan D614G, Delta, and B.1.351 (South Africa) variant pseudoviruses at high levels. Conclusion: Heterologous vaccination with the AAAH RNA vaccine prime and an AdS+N DNA boost may provide substantially improved humoral and cell-based immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants by leveraging the advantages of each vaccine platform technology and by inclusion of immune responses to N.

2.
Library Hi Tech ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874123

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Mucormycosis has evolved as a post-COVID-19 complication globally, especially in India. The research on fungus has been very primitive, and many scientific publications have been discovered. The current COVID-19 pandemic needs further investigation into this unusual fungal infection. This review study aims to provide a pen-picture to researchers, science policymakers and scientists about different bibliometric indicators related to the research literature on mucormycosis. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research was conducted using the established procedure of bibliometric investigation on data collected from Scopus from 2011 to 2020 using a validated search query. The search query consisted of keywords “Mucormycosis” or “Mucormycoses” or “Mucormycose” or “Mucorales Infection” or “Mucorales Infections” or “Black Fungus Infection” or “Black Fungus Infections” or “Zygomycosis” in the “Title-Keyword-” search option for data extraction. The analysis of data is performed using MS-Excel. Mapping was done with state-of-the-art visualization tools Biblioshiny and VOSviewer, using bibliometric indicators as units of analysis. Findings: The analysis reveals that the first publication on this topic was reported from 1923 onwards. In total, 9,423 authors contributed 1,896 papers with 11,437 collaborated authors, documents per author are 0.201, authors per document are 4.97 and co-authors per document are 6.03. Total records were published in 779 journals in the English language from 75 countries globally. Mucormycosis literature is mostly open access, with 1,210 publications available via different open access routes. The highest number of articles (204) published in the journal “Mycoses” with 1,333 authors received 4,875 cited references, and the h-index has 24. The growth of publications is exponential, as depicted by the Price Law. The USA has recorded a maximum number of publications at both country and institutional levels compared to the other nations. There has been extensive research on mucormycosis before the outbreak as a post-COVID complication, as indicated by the highest number of publications in 2019. Practical implications: The research hot spots have altered from “Mucormycosis,” “fungi,” “Zygomycosis” and “Drug efficacy”, “Drug Safety” to “Microbiology,” “Pathology,” “nucleotide sequence,” “surgical debridement” which indicates that potential area of research in the near future will be concerned with more extensive research in mucormycosis to develop standard treatment procedures to fight this infection. The quantity of scientific publications has also increased over time. The research and health community are called upon to join forces to activate existing knowledge, generate new insights and develop decision-supporting tools for health authorities in different nations to leverage vaccination in its transformational role toward successfully attaining nil cases of COVID-19. Originality/value: The analysis of collaboration, findings, the research networks and visualization makes this study novel and separates from traditional metrics analysis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this work is original, and no similar studies have been found with the objectives included here. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

3.
2021 International Conference on Computational Performance Evaluation, ComPE 2021 ; : 832-835, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831752

ABSTRACT

Due to the effect of Covid-19 the pattern of energy consumption of Uttarakhand State has affected during lockdown. Since the inception of Covid-19 in Uttarakhand there has drastic change in electricity consumption in thirteen districts of the State including Dehradun which is also a Smart City. It has reported that there is decrease in electricity consumption in the year 2020-21. In this study the long-term load forecasting using Artificial Neural Network is used as per the information released by Uttarakhand Electricity Regulatory Commission (UERC) in their tariff order for Financial Year 2021-22. There is eleven million population in Uttarakhand at present. During economic shutdown in Uttarakhand State the power utilities has faced the challenge of electricity generation, transmission, and distribution. It has been observed that during Covid-19 there is 939.97 million units generated energy loss has faced by power utilities companies in Uttarakhand. Uttarakhand is a emerging State where lots of new Technologies are in pipeline. In this Study the forecasted results is for nine years (2022-2030) which represents that there will be sudden rise in electricity consumption after 2025 to 2030 in Uttarakhand due to the intervention of electric vehicles. In Uttarakhand Dehradun is also a smart city where lots of IoT devices have been deployed across city which are are also consuming electricity. This study has reduced the forecast error upto 7.17 % so that there would be minimum revenue loss in future to the power utilities in Uttarakhand. © 2021 IEEE.

4.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334741

ABSTRACT

We assessed if immune responses are enhanced in CD-1 mice by heterologous vaccination with two different nucleic acid-based COVID-19 vaccines: a next-generation human adenovirus serotype 5 (hAd5)-vectored dual-antigen spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) vaccine (AdS+N) and a self-amplifying and -adjuvanted S RNA vaccine (SASA S) delivered by a nano-lipid carrier. The AdS+N vaccine encodes S modified with a fusion motif to increase cell-surface expression. The N antigen is modified with an Enhanced T-cell Stimulation Domain (N-ETSD) to direct N to the endosomal/lysosomal compartment and increase MHC class I and II stimulation potential. The S sequence in the SASA S vaccine comprises the D614G mutation, two prolines to stabilize S in the prefusion conformation, and 3 glutamines in the furin cleavage region to increase cross-reactivity across variants. CD-1 mice received vaccination by homologous and heterologous prime > boost combinations. Humoral responses to S were the highest with any regimen including the SASA S vaccine, and IgG bound to wild type and Delta (B.1.617.2) variant S1 at similar levels. An AdS+N boost of an SASA S prime particularly enhanced both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to both wild type and Delta S peptides relative to all other vaccine regimens. Sera from mice receiving SASA S homologous or heterologous vaccination were found to be highly neutralizing of all pseudovirus strains tested: Wuhan, Beta, Delta, and Omicron strain. The findings here support the clinical testing of heterologous vaccination by an SASA S > AdS+N regimen to provide increased protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

5.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 13(2):108-113, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1754356

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of BCG and MMR/Measles vaccination in reducing the burden of COVID-19 has been based on ecological data mostly. We planned this explorative pilot case-control study to under-stand the role of vaccination with Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) and measles administered as part of MMR vaccine on COVID 19. Methodology: A case-control study was conducted in AIIMS Patna during December 2020 and January 2021. A total of 100 COVID-19 patients confirmed by RT-PCR test were taken as cases, and for each case, age and gender-matched SARS-COV-2 negative individual was taken as control. A study tool containing a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used. Results: The unadjusted odds of COVID-19 were found to be significantly higher among BCG vaccinated [1.88(1.03-4.4)] and MMR vaccinated individuals [5.06(2.34-10.90]. BCG vaccine was not found to have an independent effect on COVID-19 after adjusting for tobacco use, MMR vaccination status, unprotected contact with SARS-COV-2 positive patients, and co-morbidities. But Measles vaccine was found to inde-pendently increase the risk of COVID-19 [AOR: 4.505(1.8-11.3)]. Conclusion: BCG vaccination status was not found to be an independent predictor of COVID-19. Further studies with large sample size and better study design (cohort, randomized trials) need to be conducted. © 2022, MedSci Publications. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i614-i615, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722367

ABSTRACT

Background: The information on seroprevalence rates of COVID-19 infection among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its comparison to healthy controls is sparse. We compared the seroprevalence rates in immunocompromised and immunocompetent IBD patients and healthy controls. Methods: Patients with IBD under follow-up at the IBD clinic, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were included. After obtaining informed consent, patients underwent SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing (chemiluminescent immunoassay: Seimens kit IgG against antigen S1RBD) and information on demography, drug history, past history of COVID infection and vaccination status were noted. Patients with IBD on 5-aminosalicylic acid or not on any treatment were considered immunocompetent and those who had received steroids, thiopurines or methotrexate within 6 months of sample collection were considered immunocompromised. Results: 235 patients (51.9%-males;mean age at enrolment- 38.7±12.4 years;median disease duration-60 months [IQR:36- 120]) (UC-69.4%, CD-28.9%, IBDU-1.7%) and 73 healthy controls (HCs- mean age-39.6± 10.9 years, 79% males) were enrolled from July 2020 - April 2021 (Table1). 128 (54.5%) patients were immunocompromised and 107 were immunocompetent (treatment details: 5 ASA-72.3%, steroids-15.3%, Thiopurines-40%, methotrexate-2.6%). Seventy-four (31.5%) patients were positive for IgG antibody against SARS CoV2, 2 patients (0.9%) had previous history of COVID infection and none received COVID vaccine. Seroprevalence rates between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with IBD and healthy controls was similar (28.1% vs 36% vs 28%, p>0.05) (Figure1). Demographic and disease characteristics such as age, gender, disease type, disease activity in last 6 months, disease duration and medication use was similar between patients with positive and negative serology (Table2). There was progressive increase in seroprevalence from July 2020 to April 2021 Conclusion: Upto 1/3rd patients with IBD were seropositive for IgG SARS Cov2 antibody indicating asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. The seroprevalence was similar to healthy controls and was not different between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with IBD.

8.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(11):OI1-OI3, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1538818

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory and systemic illness that may progress to severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). There is a pressing need to identify clinical predictors of severe COVID-19 which can help in risk stratification and prognostication. The COVID-19 pandemic tends to have more severe clinical presentation in older age group and in chronic diseases;Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of them. COPD is the common cause of high mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is obvious to fear for patients with underlying COPD. Acute episode of exacerbation and COVID-19 pneumonia are the two pivotal differential diagnoses in contemporary era, in patients of COPD presenting with worsening dyspnoea. Mortality rate have been higher among COPD group of patients with the development of hypoxemia. Literature shows that pre-existing COPD worsens the risk of COVID-19 progression and leads to poorer prognosis. Even after recovery from the acute event, proper adherence to maintenance therapy for COPD (inhalational agents) continues to be of paramount importance and remains the standard of care. Because COPD remains a subset that is highly vulnerable for adverse outcomes with COVID-19 infection, preventive therapy should be directed towards-attenuation of contact with droplets, proper hand hygiene and maintenance of adequate nutritional status. The aim of this brief review is to know the burden and impact of COPD on COVID-19 pandemic and challenges in diagnosis and management of COPD patients.

9.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):314A-315A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508771

ABSTRACT

Background: CLD patients may experience substantial burden and disruption of life associated with COVID-19 pandemic. The aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on CLD patients. Methods: CLD patients from our Global Liver and Global NASH Registries (GLR/GNR) were invited to complete a COVID-19 survey with 23 items starting March 2020. Questions included whether patients had been infected with COVID-19, characteristics of the illness for those who had been infected, and various aspects of pandemicrelated disruptions of life regardless of being diagnosed with COVID-19. Results: Out of 10,500 GLR/GNR enrollees, 2500 from 7 countries completed the survey: 20% chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 14% chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and 66% non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), mean (SD) age 49±13 years, 53% male. Of all survey completers, 9.3% had had COVID-19. Of those infected, 86% were diagnosed by laboratory test, 93% had least one symptom, 75% received treatment for their symptoms. The mean duration of illness was 12.5±10.5 days, 64% reported receiving antiviral treatment, 19% were hospitalized, 13% needed oxygen support, no one required mechanical ventilation. Of patients regardless of COVID-19 diagnosis, 11.3% reported that the pandemic had an impact on their liver disease with 73% reporting delays in follow-up care. The Life Disruption Event Perception (LDEP) questionnaire confirmed that 81% of COVID-19-infected patients vs. 69% patients without COVID-19 (p=0.0001) experienced worsening in at least one aspect of their life (Figure). Self-assessed health scores were lower in patients with COVID-19: 6.7±2.2 vs. 7.4±2.2 (on a 1-10 scale with 10 indicating perfect health) (p<0.0001) despite having reported similar scores before the pandemic (8.5±1.4 vs. 8.4±1.6, p=0.59). The highest proportion of exercise and social impairments were reported from Turkey and Mexico, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for country of enrollment, liver disease etiology and severity, age, sex, BMI, diabetes, history of psychiatric comorbidities, having had COVID-19 was found to be independently associated with lower self-assessed health scores (β=-0.71±0.14, p<0.0001). Conclusion: CLD patients experience substantial burden of COVID-19 pandemic on their daily lives regardless of whether they had been infected. However, self-reported health scores were lower in CLD patients with COVID-19 infection in comparison to those who did not have it.

10.
International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology & Pharmacology ; 13(4):117-125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1426778

ABSTRACT

Lockdown was implemented throughout the world in March 2020 to control the spread of covid-19 infection. It affected the mental health of people in various ways. This web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the general population of India with an aim to evaluate the mental health of the healthy individuals in the later stage of the lockdown period. Data on socio-demographic factors, anxiety, depression (HADS scale), perceived stress (PSS scale), insomnia (insomnia severity index), subjective psychological feeling of well-being (WHO-5 well-being Index), and attitude towards covid-19 (7-point Likert scale) was collected. Univariate regression analysis and Karl Pearson's correlation were used to analyze the correlation of mental health abnormalities with socio-demographic factors. 119 subjects of mean age of 36.03 +/- 18.04 years took part in the study. Their average number of days of stay at home during the lockdown and the average number of days of the lifestyle changes was 49.07 +/- 31.92 and 61.39 +/- 20.03 days, respectively. Depression, anxiety, stress, and clinical insomnia due to covid-19 were reported in 13.45%, 10.92%, 14.29%, and 11.76% subjects, respectively. There was a significant correlation of depression, anxiety, stress, and WHO-5 well-being score with age, socio-economic status, and the average number of days of the change in lifestyle due to the COVID-19 pandemic (P < 0.05). Therefore, the study concluded that the abnormalities of mental health were less prevalent in the older age group and lower socioeconomic status in the later phase of lockdown.

11.
J. Pure Appl. Microbiol. ; 1(14): 775-788, 20200523.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1395571

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), a new enveloped RNA virus known as Coronavirus (COvID-19) are most prevalent in humans and wild animals. All four species that is alpha, beta, delta and theta have been identified till date and are responsible for human disease; causing influenza like illness (ILI). This virus has similar lineage of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and related Coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This outbreak initially presented as pneumonia-like illness in a group of people in Wuhan, China. The infection was said to be caused by seafood and unusual animals in the wholesale markets of this city. SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and has resulted in a rapid pandemic. As of now it has spread to 197 countries with total no of cases in the world being 3.76 million as of early march. The mortality till now is 7.11% . The cases have been increasing since its first discovery in China. In India also the number has been increased. Till now India has total of 39,980 cases and mortality is attributed to be 3.26%. As per data from Ministry of health and family welfare (MoHFW) death is more commonly seen in males with age >60years. Among these most of the deaths were related to other co-morbid conditions. This article will help the readers with an overview of novel Coronavirus spanning around the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, treatment strategies and infection control measures. It will also help in raising awareness among healthcare workers regarding COVID-19 and aid in early recognition of these patients. Moreover, this review will also focus on the most recent information for the effective management, prevention, and treatment of patients worldwide.

12.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 33(2):304-308, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1395858

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created worldwide emergency with morbidities, mortality and panic. The BCG vaccine, usually given to prevent childhood tuberculosis, surfaced as an option as suggested by some ecological observations. However, some others studies could not establish and explain the protective effects of BCG vaccination against COVID-19 pandemic. India is one country with high BCG vaccination coverage and is among the countries with lowest COVID-19 case fatality rate. Aims and Objectives: We examine the relationship between the BCG coverage and COVID-19 burden in various states/UTs of India. Materials and methods: The information on BCG coverage and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 was obtained from NFHS and www.covid19India.org respectively. Results: The analysis suggested very weak positive relationship of BCG coverage with cases and deaths due to COVID-19. Moderate positive relationship was observed between BCG coverage and COVID-19 case fatality rate even after adjusting for health system performance. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study is against the role of BCG vaccination in containing the COVID-19 pandemic. The positive correlation which is not significant may be spurious and affected by many confounding factors like co-morbid conditions, testing strategies, population level immunity for other viral infections etc. Hence, the states and UTs should not be complacent by the hypothesized role of BCG vaccine in COVID-19 control. Rather, they should continue with the principles of social distancing, contact tracing, treating and surveillance of COVID-19. © 2021, Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine. All rights reserved.

13.
International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research ; 11(2):23-27, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1338034

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Depression has been reported in patients suffered from COVID 19 (corona virus disease). Inflammatory markers like IL-6 and CRP have been also found raised in COVID 19 patients. Aim: The objective of present study was to find out the association of serum IL-6 and CRP levels with depression in COVID 19 patients discharged from hospital. Materials and Methodology: This Case control study included 30 patients of depression attending post COVID OPD after getting discharged from hospital and 30 post COVID patients without depression. Depression was diagnosed using PHQ-9 scores. A cutoff value of 10 was taken to diagnose depression upon PHQ-9 scale. Both groups were compared in relation to socio-demographic variables, serum IL-6 & CRP levels and other clinical variables. Results: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher in post COVID patients with depression (IL-6=39.71 ± 46.39, CRP=43.66 ± 31.78) than those without depression (IL-6= 13.42 ± 18.98, CRP= 21.02 ± 25.36). Hospital stay was also greater in post COVID patients with depression. Conclusion: Post COVID depression was significantly associated with IL-6 and CRP levels. Patients with raised level of these markers could be screened for early identification of depression and counseled preferentially for prevention of depression during post COVID period.

15.
Frontiers in Education ; 6, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1295629

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreak of COVID 19 in February 2020, Indian universities were shut down and used digital platforms to teach their students since then. Drawing from Kolb’s Learning Theory, John Dewey’s theory, Jack Mezirows transformative learning theory, and Jean Piaget’s theory, the authors in this paper offer a viewpoint on some of the practical teaching practices which can be adapted in business schools in India to be successful in this emerging blended or phygital environment. Using a Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, the authors reflect on the effective teaching practices based on their own experience, theoretical knowledge gained from an exhaustive web search of various databases of the period, particularly from February to August 2020. The authors performed a careful manual content analysis of the selected research papers. They concluded seven principal teaching methods to create an effective blended environment for students and faculties in Indian business schools: a) reframing virtual spaces in India through online knowledge repository and virtual labs b) using reflective thinking for andragogical and pedagogical Indian approach c) Indian teachers’ readiness to offer various genres of courses on demand d) reinforcing resilience in Indian schools through meaningful participation and conflict resolution e) purposeful learning and inquiry-based learning for Indian students f) experiential learning through an inclusive online pivot in India g) useful apps are discussed to reach out to Indian parents community. These initiatives can influence academicians, educationists, podcasters, and the entire teacher fraternity to design an efficient and adequate teaching plan for the student community in India. © Copyright © 2021 Chaturvedi, Purohit and Verma.

16.
Vikalpa ; 46(1):27-40, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1295341

ABSTRACT

Pandemics like COVID-19 result in a disruption in the lifestyle and buying pattern of a consumer and adversely impact the global economy. Consumer purchase of country’s own brand and the products manufactured in their own country plays a vital role in the GDP of that country and help in revival of the country’s economy. This study focuses on understanding the factors that influence consumer’s buying behaviour and model these factors to understand the causal relationship using partial least square-structural equation modelling. An online survey which was carried out between 30 March 2020 and 18 April 2020. A total of 367 responses were collected during this period. Findings of the study indicate that economic nationalism, lockdown sentiments and sustainable approach (LSSA), and product-specific ethnocentric behaviour (PSEB) tendency significantly influence the willingness to buy country’s own brands and products. Present study results reveal that during pandemic consumers have realized the importance of hygiene products, environment-friendly products, regional (local) products, and satisfaction beyond shopping;these factors determine their willingness to buy Indian brands (WBIB)/made-in-India products. Further, post lockdown and post COVID era, consumers feel that buying Indian-made products and encouraging others to buy them would impact and revive the Indian economy constructively. It was also found that the influence of factors such as economic nationalism, LSSA, and PSEB on the WBIB is mediated by attitude towards foreign products. The findings of the study can aid marketing managers in planning appropriate promotion strategies to stimulate ethnocentric tendency, and cues can be provided to invoke a sense of economic nationalism in consumers when they buy products or services. © 2021 Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.

17.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):92, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250185

ABSTRACT

Background: To address the need for an efficacious COVID-19 vaccine suitable for world-wide distribution, we have developed a dual-antigen vaccine incorporating genes for a modified SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-Fusion) and the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) with an Enhanced T-cell Stimulation Domain (N-ETSD) with the potential to increase MHC class I/II responses. The adenovirus serotype 5 platform used, hAd5 [E1-, E2b-, E3-] can be delivered in an oral formulation that overcomes cold-chain limitations. The hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine was evaluated in rhesus macaques to determine both humoral and cell-mediated responses to vaccination, and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Methods: Non-human primates (NHP) received either a subcutaneous (SC) prime and two oral boosts at 2-week intervals, or one SC and one oral boost (each group n = 5). There was also a placebo group (n = 2). Humoral responses to spike (S) were determined by ELISA and T-cell responses to S and nucleocapsid (N) by ELISpot. Neutralization capability of sera was assessed by a surrogate assay and by a microneutralization assay. After SARS-CoV-2 challenge of 10e6 TCID50, genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) were determined in nasal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples by RT qPCR. Results: In response to hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccination, NHP generated SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing anti-spike (S) antibodies and demonstrated T-cell activation by both S and nucleocapsid (N). Both the subcutaneous (SC) prime followed by two oral boosts or an SC and oral boost protected the upper and lower respiratory tracts of non-human primates from high titer SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, inhibition of viral replication began within 24 hours of challenge in both lung and nasal passages, becoming undetectable within 7 days post-challenge. Rapidly enhanced neutralization capability of sera in the two weeks after challenge suggests the presence of memory B cells that were activated by infection. Conclusion: The hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine, when give as a subcutaneous prime with oral boosts, protects rhesus macaques from subsequent viral challenge. The decrease in subgenomic RNA seen at the first time point for sample collection post-challenge (24 hours) provides evidence that protection was almost immediate. The thermally-stable oral form of the vaccine has the potential to facilitate global distribution of vaccines, especially in developing nations.

18.
Int J Pept Res Ther ; 27(3): 1633-1640, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139372

ABSTRACT

The realm Riboviria constitutes Coronaviruses, which led to the emergence of the pandemic COVID 19 in the twenty-first century affected millions of lives. At present, the management of COVID 19 largely depends on antiviral therapeutics along with the anti-inflammatory drug. The vaccine is under the final clinical phase, and emergency use is available. We aim at ACE2 and Nsp10/Nsp16 MTase as potential drug candidate in COVID 19 management in the present work. For drug designing, various computational simulation strategies have been employed like Swiss-Model, Hawk Dock, HDOCK, py Dock, and PockDrug for homology modeling, binding energies of the molecule with a target, simulate the conformation and binding poses, statistics of protein lock with target key and drug ability, respectively. The current in-silico screening depicts that the spike protein receptor is complementary to the target when bound to each other and forms a stable complex. The MMGBSA free energy binding property of receptor and ligand is critical. The intermolecular Statistics with the target Nsp10/Nsp16 MTase complex are plausible. We have also observed a high-affinity pocket binding site with the target. Therefore, the favorable intermolecular interactions and Physico-chemical properties emanate as a drug candidate treating COVID-19. This study has approached computational tools to analyze the conformation, binding affinity, and drug ability of receptor-ligand. Thus, the spike receptor with its ACE2 receptor with Nsp10/Nsp16 MTase complex would be a potent drug against SARS CoV-2 and can cure the infection as per consensus scoring.

19.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 183(SUPPL 1):206-207, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1093718

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has enforced drastic changes in dermatological practice with skin cancer services prioritized. Two-week-wait referrals from April to May 2019 were compared with the same period from 2020 - at the height of the pandemic - and analysed using Stata version 16 in order to inform a long-term change in practice. There were 695 referrals across both years (4 months);441 (63.4%) in 2019 and 254 (36.5%) in 2020. The rate of attendance was higher in 2019 (pre-COVID-19): 418 (95%) vs. 227 (90%) in 2020 (P = 0.008). Mean patient age in 2019 was 56 years and in 2020 it was 52 years. There was no change in sex distribution. Among the attendees, 45.3% required a biopsy. The rate of biopsy requirement was lower in 2020 than in 2019 (38% vs. 49%;P = 0.007);however, more of the biopsies were carried out on the day in 2020 than in 2019 (33% vs. 11%;P < 0.001). The most common reason for not performing a biopsy in those requiring one in 2019 was due to elective booking (85%);however, in 2020 there were only 10 patients who did not have a biopsy when one was required and the reasons were mainly unknown. Across both years, there were 17 histologically confirmed cases of malignant melanoma: 2.6% of all attendees. This rate was slightly higher in 2020 (3.1% vs. 2.4%) but was not statistically significant (P = 0.6). The rated of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and other malignancies were 6.8%, 5.1% and 5.9%, respectively, and were not statistically significant different between 2019 and 2020. The rate of melanocytic naevus was 6.2% and other melanocytic lesions was 1.1%. The rate of histological confirmation of 'other benign' conditions was 14.6%;this was significantly lower in 2020 (9.3%) compared with 2019 (17.5%;P = 0.005). Overall, 47% were discharged on the same day;57.6% in 2020 vs. 40.7% in 2019 (P < 0.001). Among those requiring follow-up, the majority in 2019 had face-to-face appointments (56%);however, in 2020 the majority had telephone appointments (65%), which was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Our data suggest that the changes incurred by COVID-19 have driven a more effective and accurate skin cancer service;similar amounts of malignancies were identified with a simultaneous reduction in biopsy-proven benign conditions. In the future, there is an important role for on-the-day biopsies with more telephone follow-up consultations.

20.
Library Philosophy and Practice ; 2020(2020):1-14, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1012048

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 virus originated from Wuhan city of China in December 2019. The emergence of COVID-19 the whole world and severely affected by The United States, China, Brazil, and India etc. World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a pandemic in March 2020. Due to COVID-19, a large number of literature published in early 2020. However, very few studies address the impact of published related to literature Coronavirus. In response to the current study conducted and reviewed 20 years’ period from 2001- May 2020. A total of 14439 documents were found in the Scopus database, which was published during the study period i.e. 2001- May 2020. The study found that The United States 9973 contributed the highest number of published literature on Coronavirus followed by China. Overall, the USA, China, Germany, The UK, Canada, South Korea accounted for most of the Coronavirus research activity at the global level. Globally, the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong ranked with first and second positions in terms of the number of publications contributed to individual institutes. The large quantity of scholarly documents related to Coronavirus has considerably increased in early 2020. © 2020. All Rights Reserved.

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