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Nat Mater ; 22(3): 380-390, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221825


The ideal vaccine against viruses such as influenza and SARS-CoV-2 must provide a robust, durable and broad immune protection against multiple viral variants. However, antibody responses to current vaccines often lack robust cross-reactivity. Here we describe a polymeric Toll-like receptor 7 agonist nanoparticle (TLR7-NP) adjuvant, which enhances lymph node targeting, and leads to persistent activation of immune cells and broad immune responses. When mixed with alum-adsorbed antigens, this TLR7-NP adjuvant elicits cross-reactive antibodies for both dominant and subdominant epitopes and antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in mice. This TLR7-NP-adjuvanted influenza subunit vaccine successfully protects mice against viral challenge of a different strain. This strategy also enhances the antibody response to a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine against multiple viral variants that have emerged. Moreover, this TLR7-NP augments antigen-specific responses in human tonsil organoids. Overall, we describe a nanoparticle adjuvant to improve immune responses to viral antigens, with promising implications for developing broadly protective vaccines.

COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Nanoparticles , Animals , Mice , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Immunity , Vaccines, Subunit
Asian J Psychiatr ; 76: 103230, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035680


Delirious mania has been described as a state of acute excitement, fluctuating sensorium, affective and catatonic symptoms. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) despite being an effective treatment modality in such cases, has been under-utilised during pregnancy, mainly due to safety concerns. Here, we report the effectiveness of ECT in acute management of delirious mania in a 24 weeks pregnant woman who also tested COVID-19 positive during hospitalisation. Patient presented with three weeks history of acute manic excitement with period of altered sensorium and catatonic symptoms with no response to trials of two antipsychotic agents. After organic causes ruled out, patient was planned for ECT while ongoing antipsychotic was continued. After the first ECT session, patient tested positive for COVID-19, though asymptomatic and had to be shifted to COVID-19 isolation facility. Complete resolution of psychiatric symptoms occurred after fifth ECT. All five ECT sessions, including those in COVID-19 isolation facility were carried out under supervision of a multidisciplinary team. None of the ECT sessions had any major adverse event. Symptom remission sustained even following ECT discontinuation. No neonatal or maternal adverse effects observed after an uneventful delivery at 35 weeks. Both mother and child continued to maintain well in follow-up period of one year on oral olanzapine. In this unusual concurrent presentation of mania, delirium and catatonic symptoms during second trimester pregnancy, we highlighted the effectiveness and safety of ECT as a viable treatment modality. Additionally, management challenges posed by patient testing COVID-19 positive and then, administering ECT in COVID-19 isolation facility using personal protective equipment by multidisciplinary team has been highlighted.

Antipsychotic Agents , Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Catatonia , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Catatonia/etiology , Female , Humans , Mania , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Treatment Outcome
Cureus ; 14(7): e27459, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025394


INTRODUCTION: A rapid surge in cases during the COVID-19 pandemic can overwhelm any healthcare system. It is imperative to triage patients who would require oxygen and ICU care, and predict mortality. Specific parameters at admission may help in identifying them. METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational study was undertaken in a COVID-19 ward of a tertiary care center. All baseline clinical and laboratory data were captured. Patients were followed till death or discharge. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to find predictors of the need for oxygen, need for ICU care, and mortality. Objective scoring systems were developed for the same using the predictors. RESULTS: The study included 209 patients. Disease severity was mild, moderate, and severe in 98 (46.9%), 74 (35.4%), and 37 (17.7%) patients, respectively. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >4 was a common independent predictor of the need for oxygen (p<0.001), need for ICU transfer (p=0.04), and mortality (p=0.06). Clinical risk scores were developed (10*c-reactive protein (CRP) + 14.8*NLR + 12*urea), (10*aspartate transaminase (AST) + 15.7*NLR + 14.28*CRP), (10*NLR + 10.1*creatinine) which, if ≥14.8, ≥25.7, ≥10.1 predicted need for oxygenation, need for ICU transfer and mortality with a sensitivity and specificity (81.6%, 70%), (73.3%, 75.7%), (61.1%, 75%), respectively.  Conclusion: The NLR, CRP, urea, creatinine, and AST are independent predictors in identifying patients with poor outcomes. An objective scoring system can be used at the bedside for appropriate triaging of patients and utilization of resources.

Med Mycol ; 60(9)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008595


We describe presenting clinical and imaging manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated Rhino-oculo-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in a hospital setting during the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in India. Data on the presenting manifestations were collected from 1 March to 31 May 2021. Associations between clinical and imaging findings were explored, specifically: (1) the presence or absence of orbital pain and infiltration of a superior orbital fissure on imaging; (2) the presence of unilateral facial nerve palsy and pterygopalatine fossa infiltration and geniculate ganglion signal on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, and (3) vision loss and optic nerve findings on imaging. Orbital pain was reported by 6/36 subjects. A fixed, frozen eye with proptosis and congestion was documented in 26 (72%), complete vision loss in 23 (64%), and a unilateral lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy in 18 (50%). No association was found between the presence of orbital pain and superior orbital fissure infiltration on imaging. The ipsilateral geniculate ganglion was found to enhance more profoundly in 7/11 subjects with facial palsy and available magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the ipsilateral pterygopalatine fossa was found infiltrated in 14. Among 23 subjects with complete loss of vision, 9 (39%) demonstrated long-segment bright signal in the posterior optic nerve on diffusion MR images. We conclude that orbital pain might be absent in SARS-CoV-2-associated ROCM. Facial nerve palsy is more common than previously appreciated and ischemic lesions of the posterior portion of the optic nerve underlie complete vision loss.

Unique clinical and radiological manifestations identified in the outbreak of Rhino-oculo-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) during the second epidemic wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection included the common occurrence of facial paralysis, frequent absence of ocular pain, and long segments of optic nerve damage.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Mucormycosis/veterinary , Pain/veterinary , Paralysis/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 197-199, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954296


Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the mental well-being of the population and posed many challenges in availing mental healthcare. Telepsychiatry has been proven to be an effective route for the delivery of mental healthcare. We share our experience of using the telemedicine approach in providing mental health services at a tertiarycare hospital in India during the COVID-19 pandemic, following the break in routine outpatient services during the national lockdown. The telepsychiatry approach helped in ensuring the maintenance of mental healthcare. The utility of telepsychiatry as an option for such future situations and for its use in routine follow up care in indicated cases, have also been discussed.

COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Communicable Disease Control , Developing Countries , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control