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1.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 160-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rapidly spread globally. Due to different testing strategies, under-detection of positive subjects and COVID-19-related-deaths remains common. Aim of this analysis was to assess the real impact of COVID-19 through the analysis of 2020 Italian all-cause mortality data compared to historical series. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 2020 and 2015-2019 all-cause mortality data released by the Italian National Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) for the time period January 1st-March 21st. This preliminary sample included 1084 Italian municipalities showing at least 10 deaths during the above-mentioned timeframe and an increase in mortality of more than 20% as compared to the previous five years (2015-2019), with a resulting coverage of 21% of Italian population. The difference between 2020 observed and expected deaths (mean of weekly deaths in 2015-2019) was computed, together with mortality rate ratio (MRR) for each of the four weeks following detection of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Italy (February 23rd, 2020 - March 21st, 2020), as well as for this entire timeframe. Subgroup analysis by age groups was also performed. RESULTS: Overall MRR was 1.79 [1.75-1.84], with an observed excess mortality of 8750 individuals in the investigated sample, which in itself outweighs Italian Civil Protection report of only 4,825 COVID-19-related deaths across Italy, as of March 21. Subgroup analysis did not show any difference in mortality rate in '0-14 years' age group, while MRRs were significantly increased in older age groups, in particular in patients >75 years (MRR 1.84 [1.79-1.89]). In addition, week-by-week analysis showed a progressive increase in MRR during this period, peaking in the last week (March 15th, 2020 - March 21st, 2020) with an estimated value of 2.65 [2.53-2.78]. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of all-cause mortality data in Italy indicates that reported COVID-19-related deaths are an underestimate of the actual death toll. All-cause death should be seen as the epidemiological indicator of choice to assess the real mortality impact exerted by SARS-CoV-2, given that it also best reflects the toll on frail patient subsets (e.g. the elderly or those with cardiovascular disease).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Heart ; 108(6): 458-466, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The initial data of the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes - ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction COVID-19 showed in Europe a remarkable reduction in primary percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and higher in-hospital mortality during the initial phase of the pandemic as compared with the prepandemic period. The aim of the current study was to provide the final results of the registry, subsequently extended outside Europe with a larger inclusion period (up to June 2020) and longer follow-up (up to 30 days). METHODS: This is a retrospective multicentre registry in 109 high-volume primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) centres from Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia and North Africa, enrolling 16 674 patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PPPCI in March/June 2019 and 2020. The main study outcomes were the incidence of PPCI, delayed treatment (ischaemia time >12 hours and door-to-balloon >30 min), in-hospital and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In 2020, during the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in PPCI as compared with 2019 (incidence rate ratio 0.843, 95% CI 0.825 to 0.861, p<0.0001). This reduction was significantly associated with age, being higher in older adults (>75 years) (p=0.015), and was not related to the peak of cases or deaths due to COVID-19. The heterogeneity among centres was high (p<0.001). Furthermore, the pandemic was associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon time (40 (25-70) min vs 40 (25-64) min, p=0.01) and total ischaemia time (225 (135-410) min vs 196 (120-355) min, p<0.001), which may have contributed to the higher in-hospital (6.5% vs 5.3%, p<0.001) and 30-day (8% vs 6.5%, p=0.001) mortality observed during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous revascularisation for STEMI was significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a 16% reduction in PPCI procedures, especially among older patients (about 20%), and longer delays to treatment, which may have contributed to the increased in-hospital and 30-day mortality during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(1): 40-55, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498264

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular medicine is facing several challenges in the current era, dominated by the rapid spread of a previously unknown virus around the world. Indeed, the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic set the course of cardiovascular science and education in an extraordinary way, hogging the attention of the medical community. Notably, while COVID-19 impacted research progress, there has been considerable effort in exploring topics of great interest, from the management of acute coronary syndromes to new horizons in the treatment of heart failure, from novelties in the surgical treatment of cardiovascular disease to new data on implantable cardiac devices, and from new diagnostic applications of multimodal imaging techniques to relevant basic science findings. Minerva Cardiology and Angiology, formerly Minerva Cardioangiologica, has strived to inform its readers on these topics and novelties, aiming for a succinct yet poignant melding of timeliness and accuracy. Accordingly, the purpose of this narrative review is to highlight and summarize the major research and review articles published during 2020. In particular, we provide a broad overview of the novelties identifying six major areas of interest in the field of cardiovascular sciences in which new evidences have contributed to improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vessels diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Diabet Epidemiol Manag ; 4: 100022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487683

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been arisen on the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) due to the potentially increased expression of Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE)2 and patient's susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection. Diabetes mellitus have been recognized favoring the coronavirus infection with consequent increase mortality in COVID-19. No data have been so far reported in diabetic patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a very high-risk population deserving of RASI treatment. Methods: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry retrospectively assessed STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in March/June 2019 and 2020 in 109 European high-volume primary PCI centers. This subanalysis assessed the prognostic impact of chronic RASI therapy at admission on mortality and SARS-CoV2 infection among diabetic patients. Results: Our population is represented by 3812 diabetic STEMI patients undergoing mechanical reperfusion, 2038 in 2019 and 1774 in 2020. Among 3761 patients with available data on chronic RASI therapy, between those ones with and without treatment there were several differences in baseline characteristics, (similar in both periods) but no difference in the prevalence of SARS-CoV2 infection (1.6% vs 1.3%, respectively, p = 0.786). Considering in-hospital medication, RASI therapy was overall associated with a significantly lower in-hospital mortality (3.3% vs 15.8%, p < 0.0001), consistently both in 2019 and in 2010. Conclusions: This is first study to investigate the impact of RASI therapy on prognosis and SARS-CoV2 infection of diabetic patients experiencing STEMI and undergoing PPCI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both pre-admission chronic RASI therapy and in-hospital RASI did not negatively affected patients' survival during the hospitalization, neither increased the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection. Trial registration number: NCT04412655.

6.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 29-39, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487626

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 can affect the cardiovascular system yielding a wide range of complications, including acute myocardial injury. The myocardium can be damaged by direct viral invasion or indirect mechanisms, sustained by systemic inflammation, immune-mediated response, and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Myocardial injury affects about one-quarter of patients with COVID-19, can manifest even in the absence of previous cardiovascular disease, and is associated to higher mortality rates and long-term sequelae. This review describes the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial injury and infarction and discusses the main clinical outcomes and diagnostic challenges associated with myocardial damage during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Infarction , Myocardium , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collective risk factors such as climate and pollution impact on the risk of acute cardiovascular events, including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). There is limited data however on the precise temporal and independent association between these factors and STEMI, and the potentially interacting role of government policies against Coronavrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially for Latin America. METHODS: We retrospectively collected aggregate data on daily STEMI admissions at 10 tertiary care centers in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, Argentina, from January 1, 2017 to November 30, 2020. Daily measurements for temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind direction, wind speed, and rainfall, as well as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter <10 µm (PM10), were retrieved. Exploratory analyses focused on key COVID-19-related periods (eg first case, first lockdown), and stringency index quantifying the intensity of government policy response against COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1498 STEMI occurred over 1430 days, for an average of 0.12 STEMI per center (decreasing from 0.130 in 2018 to 0.102 in 2020, p=0.016). Time series analysis showed that lower temperature and higher concentration of CO and PM10 were all significantly associated with an increased rate of STEMI (all p<0.05), whereas COVID-19 outbreak, lockdown, and stringency of government policies were all inversely associated with STEMI (all p<0.05). Notably, environmental features impacted as early as 28 days before the event (all p<0.05), even if same or prior day associations proved stronger (all p<0.05). Multivariable analysis suggested that maximum temperature (p=0.001) and PM10 (p=0.033) were the strongest predictor of STEMI, even after accounting for COVID-19-related countermeasures (p=0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Lower temperature and higher concentrations of CO and PM10 are associated with significant increases in the rate of STEMI in a large Latin American metropolitan area. The reduction in STEMI cases seen during the COVID-19 pandemic is at least in part mediated by improvements in pollution, especially reductions in PM10.

8.
Atherosclerosis ; 332: 48-54, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: SARS-Cov-2 predisposes patients to thrombotic complications, due to excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and coagulation/fibrinolysis disturbances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity among STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: We selected SARS-CoV-2 positive patients included in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter European registry including 6609 STEMI patients treated with PPCI from March 1st until April 30th, in 2019 and 2020. As a reference group, we randomly sampled 5 SARS-Cov-2 negative patients per each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient, individually matched for age, sex, and hospital/geographic area. Study endpoints were in-hospital mortality, definite stent thrombosis, heart failure. RESULTS: Our population is represented by 62 positive SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who were compared with a matched population of 310 STEMI patients. No significant difference was observed in baseline characteristics or the modality of access to the PCI center. In the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, the culprit lesion was more often located in the RCA (p < 0.001). Despite similar pre and postprocedural TIMI flow, we observed a trend in higher use of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and a significantly higher use of thrombectomy in the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was associated with a remarkably higher in hospital mortality (29% vs 5.5%, p < 0.001), definite in-stent thrombosis (8.1% vs 1.6%, p = 0.004) and heart failure (22.6% vs 10.6%, p = 0.001) that was confirmed after adjustment for confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that among STEMI patients, SARS-CoV-2 positivity is associated with larger thrombus burden, a remarkably higher mortality but also higher rates of in-stent thrombosis and heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Registries , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Treatment Outcome
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(30): 2876-2879, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231028

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 9, 2020, the Italian government imposed a national lockdown to tackle the COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, including stay at home recommendations. The precise impact of COVID-19 scare and lockdown on emergency access for acute myocardial infarction (MI) is still subject to debate. METHODS: Data on all patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography at 9 hospitals in the greater area of Rome, Italy, between February 19, 2020 and March 29, 2020, 9, 2020, were retrospectively collected. Incidence of ST-elevation MI (STEMI), and non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI), as well as corresponding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), was compared distinguishing two different 20-day time periods (before vs on or after March 10, 2020). RESULTS: During the study period, 1,068 patients underwent coronary angiography, 142 (13%) with STEMI and 169 (16%) with NSTEMI. The average daily number of STEMI decreased from 4.3 before the lockdown to 2.9 after the lockdown (p=0.021). Similarly, the average daily number of NSTEMI changed from 5.0 to 3.5 (p=0.028). The average daily number of primary PCI changed from 4.2 to 2.9 (p=0.030), while the average daily number of PCI for NSTEMI changed from 3.5 to 2.5 (p=0.087). For STEMI patients, the time from symptom onset to hospital arrival (onset-to-door time less than three hours) showed a significant increase after the lockdown (p=0.018), whereas door-to-balloon time did not change significantly from before to after the lockdown (p=0.609). CONCLUSIONS: The present study, originally reporting on the trends in STEMI and NSTEMI in the Rome area, highlights that significant decreases in the incidence of both acute coronary syndromes occurred between February 19, 2020 and March 29, 2020, together with increases in time from symptom onset to hospital arrival, luckily without changes in door-to-balloon time.

12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111469, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised on a potential interaction between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) and the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No data have been so far reported on the prognostic impact of RASI in patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during COVID-19 pandemic, which was the aim of the present study. METHODS: STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and enrolled in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry were included in the present sub-analysis and divided according to RASI therapy at admission. RESULTS: Our population is represented by 6095 patients, of whom 3654 admitted in 2019 and 2441 in 2020. No difference in the prevalence of SARSCoV2 infection was observed according to RASI therapy at admission (2.5% vs 2.1%, p = 0.5), which was associated with a significantly lower mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.68 [0.51-0.90], P = 0.006), confirmed in the analysis restricted to 2020 (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.5[0.33-0.74], P = 0.001). Among the 5388 patients in whom data on in-hospital medication were available, in-hospital RASI therapy was associated with a significantly lower mortality (2.1% vs 16.7%, OR [95% CI]=0.11 [0.084-0.14], p < 0.0001), confirmed after adjustment in both periods. Among the 62 SARSCoV-2 positive patients, RASI therapy, both at admission or in-hospital, showed no prognostic effect. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the impact of RASI therapy on the prognosis and SARSCoV2 infection of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both pre-admission and in-hospital RASI were associated with lower mortality. Among SARSCoV2-positive patients, both chronic and in-hospital RASI therapy showed no impact on survival.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Myocardial Reperfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Registries , Renin-Angiotensin System , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
14.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic with the stay-at-home orders and lockdown has dramatically forced athletes to stop team training and competitions, causing deep changes in habits and lifestyle. Aim of this study was to evaluate in a retrospective single center study the cardiovascular (CV) health and fitness of elite football player after COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and to compare such findings with the 2019 off-season period, in order to identify potential differences in the CV features and outcomes. METHODS: All 29 professional Football players of the first male team were enrolled before resuming training and competition after COVID-19 lockdown and underwent several exams including physical examination, resting and stress electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, spirometry and blood tests. RESULTS: Median age was 27 years (23; 31), with no athlete being COVID-19 positive at the time of the evaluation. In comparison with the usual off-season 2-month detraining, significant differences were found for left ventricular (LV) mass (189g [172; 212] vs. 181g [167; 206], p=0.024) and LV mass index for body surface area (94g/m2 [85; 104] vs 88g/m2 [79.5; 101.5], p=0.017), while LV mass/fat free mass remained unchanged (2.8 g/Kg [2.6; 2.9] vs 2.9 g/Kg [2.6; 3.2], p=0.222). Respiratory function and metabolic profile were improved, while no significant changes were found in ECG findings, at rest and during exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged abstinence from training and competitions induced by lockdown elicited significant changes in comparison with off-season in parameters ascribable to detraining, as the changes in LV mass, in respiratory function and in metabolic profile.

15.
Panminerva Med ; 62(4): 252-259, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strong epidemiologic evidence has highlighted the role of pollution, on top of adverse climate features, as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. However, mechanistic proof that reducing pollution may be beneficial to prevent atherothrombotic events is limited. We aimed at appraising the impact of temporary traffic bans in a large metropolitan area on the risk of acute coronary syndromes. METHODS: Aggregate and anonymized data from 15 tertiary cardiac care centers were obtained detailing precoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) daily cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), including those treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Data on pollutants and climate were sought for the same days. Mixed level regression was used to compare the week before vs after the traffic ban (Fortnight analysis), the 3 days before vs. after (Weekly analysis) and the Sunday before vs. after (Sunday analysis). RESULTS: A total of 8 days of temporary traffic bans were included, occurring between 2017 and 2020, totaling 802 STEMI and 1196 NSTEMI in the Fortnight analysis, 382 STEMI and 585 in the Weekly analysis, and 148 STEMI and 210 NSTEMI in the Sunday analysis.Fortnight and Sunday analyses did not disclose a significant impact of traffic ban on STEMI or NSTEMI (all P>0.05). Conversely, Weekly analysis showed non-significant changes for STEMI, but a significant decrease in daily NSTEMI when comparing the 3 days before the traffic ban with the ban day (P=0.043), as well as the 3 days before vs. the 3 days after the ban (P=0.025). No statistically significant effect of traffic ban was found at Fortnight, Weekly or Sunday analyses for daily mean concentrations of benzene, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm or PM <10 µm (all P>0.05). However, minimum daily concentrations showed a significant reduction of ozone during the ban in comparison to the week preceding it (P=0.034), nitric oxide during the ban in comparison to the 3 days preceding it (P=0.046), and an increase in benzene during the ban in comparison to the Sunday before (P=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Temporary traffic ban may favorably reduce coronary atherothrombotic events, and in particular NSTEMI, even if not globally and immediately impacting on environmental pollution. Further controlled studies are required to confirm and expand this hypothesis-generating results.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 329: 251-259, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented change in the apparent epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the interplay between this disease, changes in pollution, climate, and aversion to activation of emergency medical services represents a challenging conundrum. We aimed at appraising the impact of COVID-19, weather, and environment features on the occurrence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in a large Italian region and metropolitan area. METHODS AND RESULTS: Italy was hit early on by COVID-19, such that state of emergency was declared on January 31, 2020, and national lockdown implemented on March 9, 2020, mainly because the accrual of cases in Northern Italy. In order to appraise the independent contribution on changes in STEMI and NSTEMI daily rates of COVID-19, climate and pollution, we collected data on these clinical events from tertiary care cardiovascular centers in the Lazio region and Rome metropolitan area. Multilevel Poisson modeling was used to appraise unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates for the daily incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI cases. The sample included 1448 STEMI and 2040 NSTEMI, with a total of 2882 PCI spanning 6 months. Significant reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI were evident already in early February 2020 (all p<0.05), concomitantly with COVID-19 spread and institution of national countermeasures. Changes in STEMI and NSTEMI were inversely associated with daily COVID-19 tests, cases, and/or death (p<0.05). In addition, STEMI and NSTEMI incidences were associated with daily NO2, PM10, and O3 concentrations, as well as temperature (p<0.05). Multi-stage and multiply adjusted models highlighted that reductions in STEMI were significantly associated with COVID-19 data (p<0.001), whereas changes in NSTEMI were significantly associated with both NO2 and COVID-19 data (both p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI in the COVID-19 pandemic may depend on different concomitant epidemiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms. In particular, recent changes in STEMI may depend on COVID-19 scare, leading to excess all-cause mortality, or effective reduced incidence, whereas reductions in NSTEMI may also be due to beneficial reductions in NO2 emissions in the lockdown phase.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Weather , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 215, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested the COVID pandemic may have indirectly affected the treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, by avoidance or significant delays in contacting the emergency system. No data have been reported on the impact of diabetes on treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, that was therefore the aim of the current subanalysis conducted in patients included in the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (ISACS-STEMI) COVID-19. METHODS: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 is a retrospective registry performed in European centers with an annual volume of > 120 primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and assessed STEMI patients, treated with primary PCI during the same periods of the years 2019 versus 2020 (March and April). Main outcomes are the incidences of primary PCI, delayed treatment, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 6609 patients underwent primary PCI in 77 centers, located in 18 countries. Diabetes was observed in a total of 1356 patients (20.5%), with similar proportion between 2019 and 2020. During the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in primary PCI as compared to 2019, similar in both patients with (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.85, p < 0.0001) and without diabetes (IRR 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85, p < 0.0001) (p int = 0.40). We observed a significant heterogeneity among centers in the population with and without diabetes (p < 0.001, respectively). The heterogeneity among centers was not related to the incidence of death due to COVID-19 in both groups of patients. Interaction was observed for Hypertension (p = 0.024) only in absence of diabetes. Furthermore, the pandemic was independently associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon and total ischemia times only among patients without diabetes, which may have contributed to the higher mortality, during the pandemic, observed in this group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the treatment of patients with STEMI, with a similar reduction in primary PCI procedures in both patients with and without diabetes. Hypertension had a significant impact on PCI reduction only among patients without diabetes. We observed a significant increase in ischemia time and door-to-balloon time mainly in absence of diabetes, that contributed to explain the increased mortality observed in this group of patients during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_N):N17-N18, 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-979620

ABSTRACT

Aims: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented change in the apparent epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the interplay between this disease, changes in pollution, climate, and aversion to activation of emergency medical services represents a challenging conundrum. We aimed at appraising the impact of COVID-19, weather, and environment features on the occurrence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in a large Italian region and metropolitan area. Methods and results: Italy was hit early on by COVID-19, such that state of emergency was declared on January 31, 2020, and national lockdown implemented on March 9, 2020, mainly because the accrual of cases in Northern Italy. In order to appraise the independent contribution on changes in STEMI and NSTEMI daily rates of COVID-19, climate and pollution, we collected data on these clinical events from ter-tiary care cardiovascular centers in the Lazio region and Rome metropolitan area. Multilevel Poisson modeling was used to appraise unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates for the daily incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI. The sample included 1448 STEMI and 2040 NSTEMI, with a total of 2882 PCI spanning 6 months. Significant reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI were evident already in early February 2020 (all P < 0.05), concomitantly with COVID-19 spread and institution of national countermeasures. Changes in STEMI and NSTEMI were inversely associated with daily COVID-19 tests, cases, and/or death (P < 0.05). In addition, STEMI and NSTEMI incidences were associated with daily NO2, PM10, and O3 concentrations, as well as temperature (P < 0.05). Multi-stage and multiply adjusted models highlighted that reductions in STEMI were significantly associated with COVID-19 data (P < 0.001), whereas changes in NSTEMI were significantly associated with both NO2 and COVID-19 data (both P < 0.001). Conclusion: Reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI in the COVID-19 pandemic may depend on different concomitant epidemiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms. In particular , recent changes in STEMI may depend on COVID-19 scare, leading to excess all-cause mortality, or effective reduced incidence, whereas reductions in NSTEMI may also be due to beneficial reductions in NO2 emissions in the lockdown phase. 510 Mother and daughter: two sides of the same coin Most of the coronary events are due to atherosclerosis and its complications, though about the 20% of coronary heart disease in young adults is related to other patholo-gies such as coronary abnormalities, autoimmune diseases and connective tissue disorders. The last two of these conditions are also associated to an increased risk of thromboembolic events. We report a case of a 41-year-old woman, with two unexplained miscarriages and no cardiovascular risk factors, who had an ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by several episodes of ventricular fibrillations, and of her daughter, a 20-year-old-woman, previously healthy, who had, a few days later her mother's admission, a massive pulmonary embolism with syncope at presentation. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of anticardiolipines antibodies of IgG isotype in both patients' serum. With this case report we want to focus on the importance of considering acute myocardial infarction caused by an unexplained intracoronary thrombosis or pulmonary embolism such as first manifestations of pro-thrombotic states, especially in young patients. Early diagnosis of these conditions, in fact, is crucial because it might entail therapeutic implications not only on the short-term (i.e., rapid diagnosis and treatment of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome) but also on the long-term patient management. Aims: Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of athero-thrombosis. Many evidences have clearly indicated that endothelial cells stimulated with inflammatory mediators show an athero-thormbotic phenotype, since they express adhesion molecules and Tissue Factor (TF) on their surface. L-6 seems to have a central role in modulating these phenomena. Patients with elevated plasma levels of IL-6 have as higher risk to develop acute cardiovascular events (ACS). Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is associated with the increased risk of ACS. Here, we have investigated whether VitD might modulate TF expression in IL-6 treated endothelial cells. Methods and results: HUVEC cultivated in medium enriched with VitD (10 nM) were stimulated with IL-6 (0,5ng/mL). TF gene (RT-PCR), protein (western blot), surface expression (FACS) and procoagulant activity (FXa generation assay) were measured. NF-kB translocation was also investigated. VitD significantly reduced TF gene as well protein expression and procoagulant activity in oxLDL-treated HUVEC. These effects were associated with VitD modulation of NF-jB pathway. Conclusion: This study, although in vitro, shows that VitD prevents the pro-throm-botic effects of IL-6 on endothelial cells by inhibiting TF expression. Thus, we might speculate that this is one of the mechanims by which VitD exerts its protective cardi-ovascular effects.

19.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_N):N81-N82, 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-979588

ABSTRACT

Aims Strong epidemiologic evidence has highlighted the role of pollution, on top of adverse climate features, as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. However, mechanistic proof that reducing pollution may be beneficial to prevent atherothrombotic events is limited. We aimed at appraising the impact of temporary traffic bans in a large metropolitan area on the risk of acute coronary syndromes. Methods and results Aggregate and anonymized data from 15 tertiary cardiac care centers were obtained detailing pre-coronarivus disease 2019 (COVID-19) daily cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), including those treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Data on pollutants and climate were sought for the same days. Mixed level regression was used to compare the week before vs. after the traffic ban (Fortnight analysis), the 3 days before vs. after (Weekly analysis) and the Sunday before vs. after (Sunday analysis). A total of 8 days of temporary traffic bans were included, occurring between 2017 and 2020, totaling 802 STEMI and 1196 NSTEMI in the Fortnight analysis, 382 STEMI and 585 in the Weekly analysis, and 148 STEMI and 210 NSTEMI in the Sunday analysis. Fortnight and Sunday analysis did not disclose a significant impact of traffic ban on STEMI or NSTEMI (all P > 0.05). Conversely, Weekly analysis showed non-significant changes for STEMI but a significant decrease in daily NSTEMI when comparing the 3 days before the traffic ban with the ban day (P = 0.043), as well as the 3 days before vs. the 3 days after the ban (P = 0.025). No statistically significant effect of traffic ban was found at Fortnight, Weekly or Sunday analyses for daily mean concentrations of benzene, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm or PM < 10 µm (all P > 0.05). However, minimum daily concentrations showed a significant reduction of ozone during the ban in comparison to the week preceding it (P = 0.034), nitric oxide during the ban in comparison to the 3 days preceding it (P = 0.046), and an increase in benzene during the ban in comparison to the Sunday before (P = 0.039). Conclusion Temporary traffic bans may favorably reduce coronary atherothrombotic events, and in particular NSTEMI, even if not globally and immediately impacting on environmental pollution. Further controlled studies are required to confirm and expand this hypothesis-generating results.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2321-2330, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fear of contagion during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have potentially refrained patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from accessing the emergency system, with subsequent impact on mortality. OBJECTIVES: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry aims to estimate the true impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the treatment and outcome of patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), with identification of "at-risk" patient cohorts for failure to present or delays to treatment. METHODS: This retrospective registry was performed in European high-volume PPCI centers and assessed patients with STEMI treated with PPPCI in March/April 2019 and 2020. Main outcomes are the incidences of PPCI, delayed treatment, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 6,609 patients underwent PPCI in 77 centers, located in 18 countries. In 2020, during the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in PPCI as compared with 2019 (incidence rate ratio: 0.811; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.84; p < 0.0001). The heterogeneity among centers was not related to the incidence of death due to COVID-19. A significant interaction was observed for patients with arterial hypertension, who were less frequently admitted in 2020 than in 2019. Furthermore, the pandemic was associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon and total ischemia times, which may have contributed to the higher mortality during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had significant impact on the treatment of patients with STEMI, with a 19% reduction in PPCI procedures, especially among patients suffering from hypertension, and a longer delay to treatment, which may have contributed to the increased mortality during the pandemic. (Primary Angioplasty for STEMI During COVID-19 Pandemic [ISACS-STEMI COVID-19] Registry; NCT04412655).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Aged , COVID-19 , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
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