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1.
Neurol Sci ; 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease that targets acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of the neuromuscular junction. New-onset MG after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We report about three patients who presented new-onset myasthenia gravis after receiving mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The patients were all males and older than 55 years. All the patients presented with ocular and bulbar symptoms. The interval between vaccine administration and MG onset ranged from 3 days after the first dose to 10 days after the second dose. All the patients had elevated serum AChR antibodies and responded to pyridostigmine. Two out of three patients were successfully treated with IVIG or plasma exchange and with long-term immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: MG is a rare disease; clinicians should be aware of possible new-onset MG after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, especially with the current recommendation of booster doses. The hyperstimulation of the innate immune system or the exacerbation of a subclinical pre-existing MG could be possible explanations.

2.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(3): 303-309, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Lombardy region, in Northern Italy, suffered a major outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of February 2020. The health system was rapidly overwhelmed by the pandemic. It became evident that patients suffering from time-sensitive medical emergencies like stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, trauma and acute myocardial infarction required timely, effective and safe pathways to be treated. The problem was addressed by a regional decree that created a hub-and-spoke system for time-sensitive medical emergencies. METHODS: We report the re-organizational changes adopted at a hub hospital (despite having already destined to COVID-19 patients most resources), and the number of emergent procedures for medical emergencies on the first 30-day of activity. These data were compared with the hospital activity in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: Organizational changes were implemented in few hours. Dedicated pathways for non-COVID-19 patients affected by a medical emergency were set up in the emergency department, in the labs and in the operating theater. Ten intensive beds were implemented from a high-dependency unit; two operating rooms were reserved 24 h/day to neurosurgical or trauma emergencies. The number of emergent procedures was not different from that of the previous year, no admission refusal, no treatment delay and no viral transmission to the treated patients were recorded. No viral transmission to health care workers was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Re-organization of a hospital in order to adopt a hub-and-spoke model resulted feasible and allowed to face acute coronary syndrome and other time-sensitive medical emergencies timely and safely.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319048

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the 10 centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients (median age, 74 [interquartile range (IQR), 62–80.75] years;males, 154 [52.0%];34 [11.5%] COVID-19) qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group (230 [IQR, 200.5–270] minutes vs 190 [IQR, 150–245] minutes;p=0.007), especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs 16.6%;OR, 5.05;95% CI, 1.82–13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs 81.0%;OR, 0.29;95% CI, 0.10–0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs 19.5%;OR, 2.24;95% CI, 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs 8.8%;OR, 6.43;95% CI, 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.

4.
Neuroradiology ; 64(7): 1367-1372, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but deadly event in patients with COVID-19 and its imaging features remain poorly characterized. We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of COVID-19-associated ICH. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, case-control analysis comparing ICH in COVID-19 patients (COV19 +) versus controls without COVID-19 (COV19 -). Clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and severity of COVID-19 disease were recorded. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers (intrahematoma hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, irregular shape fluid level), ICH location, and hematoma volume (ABC/2 method) were analyzed. The outcome of interest was ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) (defined as NCCT baseline ICH volume/onset-to-imaging time), whose predictors were explored with multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 33 COV19 + patients and 321 COV19 - controls with ICH were included. Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors were similar in the two groups. Multifocal ICH and NCCT markers were significantly more common in the COV19 + population. uHG was significantly higher among COV19 + patients (median 6.2 mL/h vs 3.1 mL/h, p = 0.027), and this finding remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (systolic blood pressure, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy), in linear regression (B(SE) = 0.31 (0.11), p = 0.005). This association remained consistent also after the exclusion of patients under anticoagulant treatment (B(SE) = 0.29 (0.13), p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: ICH in COV19 + patients has distinct NCCT imaging features and a higher speed of bleeding. This association is not mediated by antithrombotic therapy and deserves further research to characterize the underlying biological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies
5.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750433

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

7.
J Neurol ; 269(1): 1-11, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with acute ischemic stroke related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess the classification performance of clinical and laboratory parameters in predicting in-hospital outcome of these patients. METHODS: In the setting of the STROKOVID study including patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the ten hub hospitals in Lombardy, Italy, between March 8 and April 30, 2020, we compared clinical features of patients with confirmed infection and non-infected patients by logistic regression models and survival analysis. Then, we trained and tested a random forest (RF) binary classifier for the prediction of in-hospital death among patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 1013 patients, 160 (15.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male sex (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06-2.27) and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05-2.43) were independently associated with COVID-19 status. Patients with COVID-19 had increased stroke severity at admission [median NIHSS score, 9 (25th to75th percentile, 13) vs 6 (25th to75th percentile, 9)] and increased risk of in-hospital death (38.1% deaths vs 7.2%; HR 3.30; 95% CI 2.17-5.02). The RF model based on six clinical and laboratory parameters exhibited high cross-validated classification accuracy (0.86) and precision (0.87), good recall (0.72) and F1-score (0.79) in predicting in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19 patients have distinctive risk factor profile and etiology, increased clinical severity and higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients. A simple model based on clinical and routine laboratory parameters may be useful in identifying ischemic stroke patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are unlikely to survive the acute phase.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
J Neurol Sci ; 426: 117479, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213385

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence has been published as to the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) on cerebrovascular events over the last few months, with considerable attention paid to ischemic strokes. Conversely, little is known about the clinical course of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: The Italian Society of Hospital Neurosciences (SNO) promoted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study (SNO-COVID-19), involving 20 Neurological Departments in Northern Italy. Clinical data on patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases, admitted from March 1st to April 30th, 2020, were collected. A comparison was made of the demographical and clinical features of both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients with ICH. RESULTS: 949 patients were enrolled (average age 73.4 years; 52.7% males); 135 patients had haemorrhagic stroke and 127 (13.4%) had a primary ICH. Only 16 patients with ICH (12.6%) had laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia or respiratory distress (OR 5.4), lobar location (OR 5.0) and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment (OR 2.9) were the only factors significantly associated with increased mortality in ICH. SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of respiratory involvement, led to a non-significantly increased risk of in-hospital death (37.5% vs 23.4%, p = 0.2). DISCUSSION: ICH patients with COVID-19 did not experience an increase in mortality as striking as ischemic stroke. The inflammatory response and respiratory complications could justify the slight increase of death in ICH. Bleeding sites and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment were the only other predictors of a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3561-3568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121219

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the ten centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients [median age, 74 years (interquartile range (IQR), 62-80.75); males, 154 (52.0%); 34 (11.5%) COVID-19] qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group [230 (IQR 200.5-270) minutes vs. 190 (IQR 150-245) minutes; p = 0.007], especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤ 50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs. 16.6%; OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.82-13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs. 81.0%; OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs. 19.5%; OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs. 8.8%; OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy
10.
eNeurologicalSci ; 22: 100306, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987639

ABSTRACT

Posterior reversible encephalopathy cases are increasingly being reported in patients affected by COVID-19, but the largest series so far only includes 4 patients. We present a series of 6 patients diagnosed with PRES during COVID-19 hospitalized in 5 Centers in Lombardia, Italy. 5 out of the 6 patients required intensive care assistence and seizures developed at weaning from assisted ventilation. 3 out of 6 patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid analysis which was normal in all cases, with negative PCR for Sars-CoV-2 genome search. PRES occurrence may be less rare than supposed in COVID-19 patients and a high suspicion index is warranted for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

11.
Front Neurol ; 11: 1029, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908891

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, the Neurology and Stroke Unit (SU) of the hospital of Varese had to serve as a cerebrovascular hub, meaning that the referral area for the unit doubled. The number of beds in the SU was increased from 4 to 8. We took advantage of the temporary suspension of the out-patient clinic and reshaped our activity to guarantee the 24/7 availability of recombinant tissue Plasminogen Activator (rtPA) intravenous therapy (IVT) in the SU, and to ensure we were able to admit patients to the SU as soon as they completed endovascular treatment (EVT). In 42 days, 46 stroke patients were admitted to our hospital, and 34.7% of them underwent IVT and/or EVT, which means that we treated 0.38 patients per day; in the baseline period from 2016 to 2018, these same figures had been 23.5% and 0.23, respectively. The mean values of the door-to-first CT/MRI and the door-to-groin puncture, but not of the onset-to-door and the door-to-needle periods were slightly but significantly longer than those observed in the baseline period in 276 patients. On an individual basis, only one patient exceeded the door-to-groin puncture time limit computed from the baseline period by about 10 min. None of the patients had a major complication following the procedures. None of the patients was or became SARS-CoV2 positive. In conclusion, we were able to manage the new hub-and-spoke system safely and without significant delays. The reshaping of the SU was made possible by the significant reduction of out-patient activity. The consequences of this reduction are still unknown but eventually, this emergency will suggest ways to reconsider the management and the allocation of health system resources.

12.
Spinal Cord ; 58(9): 1045, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689613

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

13.
J Neurol ; 267(11): 3157-3160, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612464

ABSTRACT

Recently WHO has declared novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. Acute respiratory syndrome seems to be the most common manifestation of COVID-19. Besides pneumonia, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects multiple organs, including brain tissues, causing different neurological manifestations, especially acute cerebrovascular disease (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), impaired consciousness and skeletal muscle injury. To our knowledge, among neurological disorders associated with SARS-CoV2 infection, no Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) has been described yet. Herein, we report a case of a 64-year old woman with COVID19 infection who developed a PRES, and we suggest that it could be explained by the disruption of the blood brain barrier induced by the cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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