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1.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 44(5): 2122-2138, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869490

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils play a pathogenic role in COVID-19 by releasing Neutrophils Extracellular Traps (NETs) or human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Given that HNE is inhibited by α1-antitrypsin (AAT), we aimed to assess the content of HNE, α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and HNE-AAT complexes (the AAT/HNE balance) in 33 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) samples from COVID-19 patients. These samples were submitted for Gel-Electrophoresis, Western Blot and ELISA, and proteins (bound to AAT or HNE) were identified by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. NETs' release was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Both HNE and AAT were clearly detectable in BALf at high levels. Contrary to what was previously observed in other settings, the formation of HNE-AAT complex was not detected in COVID-19. Rather, HNE was found to be bound to acute phase proteins, histones and C3. Due to the relevant role of NETs, we assessed the ability of free AAT to bind to histones. While confirming this binding, AAT was not able to inhibit NET formation. In conclusion, despite the finding of a high burden of free and bound HNE, the lack of the HNE-AAT inhibitory complex in COVID-19 BALf demonstrates that AAT is not able to block HNE activity. Furthermore, while binding to histones, AAT does not prevent NET formation nor their noxious activity.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RESULTS: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

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