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1.
Viruses ; 15(1):201, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200872

ABSTRACT

Background: Chile has achieved the highest coverage for vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus worldwide. Objective: To assess the progression of immunity (natural and acquired by vaccine) in a cohort from two Chilean cities. Methods: Individuals (n = 386) who participated in three phases of population-based serial prevalence studies were included (2020-2021 and 2022). Presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was measured in serum. Data including time of vaccination and type of vaccine received were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Seroprevalence was 3.6% in the first round and increased to 96.9% in the second and 98.7% in the third. In the third round, 75% of individuals who had received the basal full scheme were seropositive at 180 days or more since their last dose;98% of individuals who received one booster dose were seropositive at 180 days or more, and 100% participants who received two boosters were seropositive, regardless of time since their last dose. Participants receiving mRNA vaccines had higher seroprevalence rates over time. Conclusions: The high vaccination coverage in Chile enabled the population to maintain high levels of antibodies. Vaccination boosters are essential to maintain immunity over time, which also depends on the type of vaccine administered.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(5): 1074-1085.e11, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening disease that occurs 2-5 weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 exposure and is characterized by severe multisystemic inflammation. Early recognition of MIS-C is key to prognosis; therefore, establishing clinical and laboratory biomarkers that predict complications is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: We characterized the immune response and clinical features of patients with acute MIS-C and determined biomarkers of disease in a cohort of 42 Latin American patients. METHODS: Immune characterization was performed using flow cytometry from peripheral mononuclear cells and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific humoral and cellular response was performed using flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunospot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and neutralizing antibody assays. RESULTS: MIS-C is characterized by robust T-cell activation and cytokine storm. We uncovered that while C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9, IL-10, CXCL8, CXCL10, IL-6, and IL-18 are significantly elevated in patients with shock, while CCL5 was increased in milder disease. Monocyte dysregulation was specifically associated with KD-like MIS-C. Interestingly, MIS-C patients show a natural killer cell degranulation defect that is persistent after 6 months of disease presentation, suggesting it could underlie disease susceptibility. Most MIS-C had gastrointestinal involvement, and higher levels of neopterin were identified in their stools, potentially representing a biomarker of intestinal inflammation in MIS-C. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific cellular response and neutralizing antibodies were identifiable in convalescent MIS-C patients, suggesting sustained immunity. CONCLUSION: Clinical characterization and comprehensive immunophenotyping of Chilean MIS-C cohort provide valuable insights in understanding immune dysregulation in MIS-C and identify relevant biomarkers of disease that could be used to predict severity and organ involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Latin America , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Biomarkers
3.
JCI Insight ; 7(16)2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950563

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation may play a role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19; however, its role in the pediatric manifestations of this disease, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and chilblain-like lesions (CLLs), otherwise known as "COVID toes," remains unclear. Studying multinational cohorts, we found that, in CLLs, NETs were significantly increased in serum and skin. There was geographic variability in the prevalence of increased NETs in MIS-C, in association with disease severity. MIS-C and CLL serum samples displayed decreased NET degradation ability, in association with C1q and G-actin or anti-NET antibodies, respectively, but not with genetic variants of DNases. In adult COVID-19, persistent elevations in NETs after disease diagnosis were detected but did not occur in asymptomatic infection. COVID-19-affected adults displayed significant prevalence of impaired NET degradation, in association with anti-DNase1L3, G-actin, and specific disease manifestations, but not with genetic variants of DNases. NETs were detected in many organs of adult patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Infection with the Omicron variant was associated with decreased NET levels when compared with other SARS-CoV-2 strains. These data support a role for NETs in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 in pediatric and adult patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Actins/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Deoxyribonuclease I , Humans , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
Epidemics ; 40: 100606, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Chile occurred during the cold season reaching a peak by the end of June 2020, with 80 % of the cases concentrated in its capital, Santiago. The main objective of this study was to estimate the attack rate during this first wave of SARS-CoV-2 in a large, densely populated city with more than seven million inhabitants. Since the number of confirmed cases provides biased information due to individuals' potential self-selection, mostly related to asymptomatic patients and testing access, we measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 to assess infection prevalence during the first wave in the city, as well as estimate asymptomatic cases, and infection fatality ratio. To our knowledge this is one of the few population-based cross-sectional serosurvey during the first wave in a highly affected emerging country. The challenges of pandemic response in urban settings in a capital city like Santiago, with heterogeneous subpopulations and high mobility through public transportation, highlight the necessity of more accurate information regarding the first waves of new emerging diseases. METHODS: From April 24 to June 21, 2020, 1326 individuals were sampled from a long-standing panel of household representatives of Santiago. Immunochromatographic assays were used to detect IgM and IgG antibody isotypes. RESULTS: Seroprevalence reached 6.79 % (95 %CI 5.58 %-8.26 %) in the first 107 days of the pandemic, without significant differences among sex and age groups; this figure indicates an attack rate 2.8 times higher than the one calculated with registered cases. It also changes the fatality rate estimates, from a 2.33 % case fatality rate reported by MOH to an estimated crude 1.00 % (CI95 % 0.97-1.03) infection fatality rate (adjusted for test performance 1.66 % [CI95 % 1.61-1.71]). Most seropositive were symptomatic (81,1 %). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of cases registered, mortality rates, and the stress produced over the health system, the vast majority of the people remained susceptible to potential new epidemic waves. We contribute to the understanding of the initial spread of emerging epidemic threats. Consequently, our results provide better information to design early strategies that counterattack new health challenges in urban contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917865

ABSTRACT

Using levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), we evaluate the successful Chilean SARS-CoV-2 vaccine campaign, which combines different vaccine technologies and heterologous boosters. From a population-based study performed in November 2021, we randomly selected 120 seropositive individuals, organized into six groups of positive samples (20 subjects each) according to natural infection history and the five most frequent vaccination schemes. We conclude that the booster dose, regardless of vaccine technology or natural infection, and mRNA vaccines significantly improve nAbs response.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911710

ABSTRACT

Chile is among the most successful nations worldwide in terms of its COVID-19 vaccine rollout. By 31 December 2021, 84.1% of the population was fully vaccinated, and 56.1% received booster doses using different COVID-19 vaccines. In this context, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following the infection and vaccination campaign. Using a three-stage stratified sampling, we performed a population-based cross-sectional serosurvey based on a representative sample of three Chilean cities. Selected participants were blood-sampled on-site and answered a short COVID-19 and vaccination history questionnaire using Wantai SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA to determine seroprevalence. We recruited 2198 individuals aged 7-93 between 5 October and 25 November 2021; 2132 individuals received COVID-19 vaccinations (97%), 67 (3.1%) received one dose, 2065 (93.9%) received two doses, and 936 received the booster jab (42.6%). Antibody seroprevalence reached 97.3%, ranging from 40.9% among those not vaccinated to 99.8% in those with booster doses (OR = 674.6, 154.8-2938.5). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with vaccination, previous COVID-19 diagnosis, age group, and city of residence. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the type of vaccine used, education, nationality, or type of health insurance. We found a seroprevalence close to 100%, primarily due to the successful vaccination program, which strongly emphasizes universal access.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775675

ABSTRACT

The antibody profile against autoantigens previously associated with autoimmune diseases and other human proteins in patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains poorly defined. Here we show that 30% of adults with COVID-19 had autoantibodies against the lung antigen KCNRG, and 34% had antibodies to the SLE-associated Smith-D3 protein. Children with COVID-19 rarely had autoantibodies; one of 59 children had GAD65 autoantibodies associated with acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. While autoantibodies associated with SLE/Sjögren's syndrome (Ro52, Ro60, and La) and/or autoimmune gastritis (gastric ATPase) were detected in 74% (40/54) of MIS-C patients, further analysis of these patients and of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), showed that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was largely responsible for detection of these autoantibodies in both groups of patients. Monitoring in vivo decay of the autoantibodies in MIS-C children showed that the IVIG-derived Ro52, Ro60, and La autoantibodies declined to undetectable levels by 45-60 days, but gastric ATPase autoantibodies declined more slowly requiring >100 days until undetectable. Further testing of IgG and/or IgA antibodies against a subset of potential targets identified by published autoantigen array studies of MIS-C failed to detect autoantibodies against most (16/18) of these proteins in patients with MIS-C who had not received IVIG. However, Troponin C2 and KLHL12 autoantibodies were detected in 2 of 20 and 1 of 20 patients with MIS-C, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that IVIG therapy may be a confounding factor in autoantibody measurements in MIS-C and that antibodies against antigens associated with autoimmune diseases or other human proteins are uncommon in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adult , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Ribonucleoproteins , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1050-1062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701612

ABSTRACT

Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (pCOVID-19) is rarely severe; however, a minority of children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with substantial morbidity. In this longitudinal multi-institutional study, we applied multi-omics (analysis of soluble biomarkers, proteomics, single-cell gene expression and immune repertoire analysis) to profile children with COVID-19 (n = 110) and MIS-C (n = 76), along with pediatric healthy controls (pHCs; n = 76). pCOVID-19 was characterized by robust type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas prominent type II IFN-dependent and NF-κB-dependent signatures, matrisome activation and increased levels of circulating spike protein were detected in MIS-C, with no correlation with SARS-CoV-2 PCR status around the time of admission. Transient expansion of TRBV11-2 T cell clonotypes in MIS-C was associated with signatures of inflammation and T cell activation. The association of MIS-C with the combination of HLA A*02, B*35 and C*04 alleles suggests genetic susceptibility. MIS-C B cells showed higher mutation load than pCOVID-19 and pHC. These results identify distinct immunopathological signatures in pCOVID-19 and MIS-C that might help better define the pathophysiology of these disorders and guide therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , T-Lymphocytes
9.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678789

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac vaccine from Sinovac Life Science is currently being used in several countries. In Chile, the effectiveness of preventing hospitalization is higher than 80% with a vaccination schedule. However, to date, there are no data about immune response induction or specific memory. For this reason, we recruited 15 volunteers without previous suspected/diagnosed COVID-19 and with negative PCR over time to evaluate the immune response to CoronaVac 28 and 90 days after the second immunization (dpi). The CoronaVac administration induces total and neutralizing anti-spike antibodies in all vaccinated volunteers at 28 and 90 dpi. Furthermore, using ELISpot analysis to assay cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we found an increase in IFN-gamma- and Granzyme B-producing cells in vaccinated volunteers at 28 and 90 dpi. Together, our results indicate that CoronaVac induces a robust humoral immune response and cellular immune memory of at least 90 dpi.

10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261853, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622346

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). "Extraction-less" or "direct" real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a transparent and accessible qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that direct RT-PCR assay methods can be clearly translated across sites utilizing readily available equipment and expertise and are thus a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Specimen Handling/methods
11.
Curr Mol Med ; 21(1): 2-4, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154163

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 plague is hitting mankind. Several viruses, including SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, EBOV, and SARS-CoV-2, use the endocytic machinery to enter the cell. Genomic variants in NPC1, which encodes for the endo-lysosomal Niemann-Pick type C1 protein, restricts the host-range of viruses in bats and susceptibility to infections in humans. Lack of NPC1 and its pharmacological suppression inhibits many viral infections including SARS-CoV-1 and Type I Feline Coronavirus Infection. Antiviral effects of NPC1-inhibiting drugs for COVID-19 treatment should be explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Niemann-Pick C1 Protein , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
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