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2.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 221: 106873, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 severity spans an entire clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to fatal. Most patients who require in-hospital care are admitted to non-intensive wards, but their clinical conditions can deteriorate suddenly and some eventually die. Clinical data from patients' case series have identified pre-hospital and in-hospital risk factors for adverse COVID-19 outcomes. However, most prior studies used static variables or dynamic changes of a few selected variables of interest. In this study, we aimed at integrating the analysis of time-varying multidimensional clinical-laboratory data to describe the pathways leading to COVID-19 outcomes among patients initially hospitalised in a non-intensive care setting. METHODS: We collected the longitudinal retrospective data of 394 patients admitted to non-intensive care units at the University Hospital of Padova (Padova, Italy) due to COVID-19. We trained a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to encode the conditional probability relationships over time between death and all available demographics, pre-existing conditions, and clinical laboratory variables. We applied resampling, dynamic time warping, and prototyping to describe the typical trajectories of patients who died vs. those who survived. RESULTS: The DBN revealed that the trajectory linking demographics and pre-existing clinical conditions to death passed directly through kidney dysfunction or, more indirectly, through cardiac damage. As expected, admittance to the intensive care unit was linked to markers of respiratory function. Notably, death was linked to elevation in procalcitonin and D-dimer levels. Death was associated with persistently high levels of procalcitonin from admission and throughout the hospital stay, likely reflecting bacterial superinfection. A sudden raise in D-dimer levels 3-6 days after admission was also associated with subsequent death, possibly reflecting a worsening thrombotic microangiopathy. CONCLUSIONS: This innovative application of DBNs and prototyping to integrated data analysis enables visualising the patient's trajectories to COVID-19 outcomes and may instruct timely and appropriate clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 140: 126-135, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To disentangle the pathophysiology of cognitive/affective impairment in Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), we studied long-term cognitive and affective sequelae and sleep high-density electroencephalography (EEG) at 12-month follow-up in people with a previous hospital admission for acute COVID-19. METHODS: People discharged from an intensive care unit (ICU) and a sub-intensive ward (nonICU) between March and May 2020 were contacted between March and June 2021. Participants underwent cognitive, psychological, and sleep assessment. High-density EEG recording was acquired during a nap. Slow and fast spindles density/amplitude/frequency and source reconstruction in brain gray matter were extracted. The relationship between psychological and cognitive findings was explored with Pearson correlation. RESULTS: We enrolled 33 participants ( 17 nonICU) and 12 controls. We observed a lower Physical Quality of Life index, higher post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) score, and a worse executive function performance in nonICU participants. Higher PTSD and Beck Depression Inventory scores correlated with lower executive performance. The same group showed a reorganization of spindle cortical generators. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show executive and psycho-affective deficits and spindle alterations in COVID-19 survivors - especially in nonICU participants - after 12 months from discharge. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings may be suggestive of a crucial contribution of stress experienced during hospital admission on long-term cognitive functioning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition , Electroencephalography , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Quality of Life , Sleep/physiology
4.
Computer methods and programs in biomedicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837513

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective COVID-19 severity spans an entire clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to fatal. Most patients who require in-hospital care are admitted to non-intensive wards, but their clinical conditions can deteriorate suddenly and some eventually die. Clinical data from patients’ case series have identified pre-hospital and in-hospital risk factors for adverse COVID-19 outcomes. However, most prior studies used static variables or dynamic changes of a few selected variables of interest. In this study, we aimed at integrating the analysis of time-varying multidimensional clinical-laboratory data to describe the pathways leading to COVID-19 outcomes among patients initially hospitalised in a non-intensive care setting. Methods We collected the longitudinal retrospective data of 394 patients admitted to non-intensive care units at the University Hospital of Padova (Padova, Italy) due to COVID-19. We trained a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to encode the conditional probability relationships over time between death and all available demographics, pre-existing conditions, and clinical laboratory variables. We applied resampling, dynamic time warping, and prototyping to describe the typical trajectories of patients who died vs. those who survived. Results The DBN revealed that the trajectory linking demographics and pre-existing clinical conditions to death passed directly through kidney dysfunction or, more indirectly, through cardiac damage. As expected, admittance to the intensive care unit was linked to markers of respiratory function. Notably, death was linked to elevation in procalcitonin and D-dimer levels. Death was associated with persistently high levels of procalcitonin from admission and throughout the hospital stay, likely reflecting bacterial superinfection. A sudden raise in D-dimer levels 3-6 days after admission was also associated with subsequent death, possibly reflecting a worsening thrombotic microangiopathy. Conclusions This innovative application of DBNs and prototyping to integrated data analysis enables visualising the patient's trajectories to COVID-19 outcomes and may instruct timely and appropriate clinical decisions.

5.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 869-874, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764343

ABSTRACT

Background: A higher risk for COVID-19 infection and severity for men compared to women has been described since the beginning of the pandemic. The role of androgens has been recently highlighted as they control two key steps of coronavirus infection mediated through the transmembrane protease serin 2 (TMPRRS2) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in the lung tissue. Furthermore, a high incidence of androgenic alopecia among males with COVID-19 disease have been reported.Objective: This study aims to evaluate the telogen effluvium (TE) prevalence and its relationship with clinical and immunologic parameters in a sample of patients consecutively evaluated after recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia in Northern Italy.Methods: Overall 104 patients were recruited within three months from COVID-19 pneumonia recovery; 80 (77%) had been hospitalized in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit and the remaining ones had been treated at home. The extent of TE was assessed with a visual analogic scale for thick bundle of hairs. Demographic and clinical data and systemic inflammation biomarkers were also evaluated.Results. Thirty-two patients reported a history of TE and their mean TE-VAS score was 5.78 ± 1.72 (range 3-9). Women had about a 5-fold higher risk (odds) of complaining of TE compared to males (OR = 4.69, 95%CI: 1.91, 11.49; p = .001), and the association became stronger when adjusted for COVID-19 severity (hospital admission vs home care: OR = 6.09, 95%CI: 2.34, 15.88; p < .001). Levels of C-reactive protein >1.90 mg/l (ORadj: 2.43, 95%CI 0.85, 7.05, p = 0.096) or IL 1ß > 5 ng/l (ORadj 4.72, 95%CI: 1.31, 23.19, p = .03) were also significantly associated with TE.Conclusion: This exploratory study raises the hypothesis that hair shedding is more strictly related to the severity of COVID-19 disease and the underlying inflammation rather than to patients' hormonal status. KEY MESSAGESThe presence of Telogen effluvium (TE) was significantly more common in women.Higher severity of the Covid-19 disease seems to play a critical role, more important than the hormonal influence, in the development of TE.The severity of inflammation related to TE and Covid-19 could also play a role as suggested by the higher levels of CRP and platelets and IL1ß.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hair , Humans , Immunotherapy , Inflammation , Male
6.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742512

ABSTRACT

Forms of noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) have been widely used to avoid endotracheal intubation in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). However, inappropriate prolongation of NIRS may delay endotracheal intubation and worsen patient outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess whether the CARE score, a chest X-ray score previously validated in COVID-19 patients, may predict the need for endotracheal intubation and escalation of respiratory support in COVID-19 patients requiring NIRS. From December 2020 to May 2021, we included 142 patients receiving NIRS who had a first chest X-ray available at NIRS initiation and a second one after 48-72 h. In 94 (66%) patients, the level of respiratory support was increased, while endotracheal intubation was required in 83 (58%) patients. The CARE score at NIRS initiation was not predictive of the need for endotracheal intubation (odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.06) or escalation of treatment (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). In conclusion, chest X-ray severity, as assessed by the CARE score, did not allow predicting endotracheal intubation or escalation of respiratory support in COVID-19 patients undergoing NIRS.

7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3474, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721587

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased mortality in most critical settings. However, it is unclear whether its mild form (i.e. AKI stage 1) is associated with increased mortality also in non-critical settings. Here we conducted an international study in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection aiming 1. to estimate the incidence of AKI at each stage and its impact on mortality 2. to identify AKI risk factors at admission (susceptibility) and during hospitalization (exposures) and factors contributing to AKI-associated mortality. We included 939 patients from medical departments in Moscow (Russia) and Padua (Italy). In-hospital AKI onset was identified in 140 (14.9%) patients, mainly with stage 1 (65%). Mortality was remarkably higher in patients with AKI compared to those without AKI (55 [39.3%] vs. 34 [4.3%], respectively). Such association remained significant after adjustment for other clinical conditions at admission (relative risk [RR] 5.6; CI 3.5- 8.8) or restricting to AKI stage 1 (RR 3.2; CI 1.8-5.5) or to subjects with AKI onset preceding deterioration of clinical conditions. After hospital admission, worsening of hypoxic damage, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and coagulopathy were identified as hospital-acquired risk factors predicting AKI onset. Following AKI onset, the AKI-associated worsening of respiratory function was identified as the main contributor to AKI-induced increase in mortality risk. In conclusion, AKI is a common complication of Sars-CoV2 infection in non-intensive care settings where it markedly increases mortality risk also at stage 1. The identification of hospital-acquired risk factors and exposures might help prevention of AKI onset and of its complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Internationality , Length of Stay , Longitudinal Studies , Patient Admission , Risk Factors
8.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715447

ABSTRACT

As the clinical outcome of octogenarian patients hospitalised for COVID-19 is very poor, here we assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients aged 80 year or older hospitalised for COVID-19 receiving non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS). A multicentre, retrospective, observational study was conducted in seven hospitals in Northern Italy. All patients aged ≥80 years with COVID-19 associated hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) undergoing NIRS between 24 February 2020, and 31 March 2021, were included. Out of 252 study participants, 156 (61.9%) and 163 (64.6%) died during hospital stay and within 90 days from hospital admission, respectively. In this case, 228 (90.5%) patients only received NIRS (NIRS group), while 24 (9.5%) were treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) after NIRS failure (NIRS+IMV group). In-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between NIRS and NIRS+IMV group (61.0% vs. 70.8%, respectively; p = 0.507), while survival probability at 90 days was significantly higher for NIRS compared to NIRS+IMV patients (0.379 vs. 0.147; p = 0.0025). The outcome of octogenarian patients with COVID-19 receiving NIRS is quite poor. Caution should be used when considering transition from NIRS to IMV after NIRS failure.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307195

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains controversial. Current literature mainly examined efficacy, safety and potential predictors of NIV failure provided out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). On the contrary, the outcomes of ICU patients, intubated after NIV failure, remain to be explored. The aims of the present study are: 1) investigating in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ICU patients receiving endotracheal intubation after NIV failure and 2) assessing whether the length of NIV application affects patient survival. Methods: This observational multicenter study included all consecutive COVID-19 adult patients, admitted into the twenty-five ICUs of the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February-April 2020), who underwent endotracheal intubation after NIV failure. Results: Among the 704 patients admitted to ICU during the study period, 280 (40%) presented the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. The median age was 69 [60-76] years;219 patients (78%) were male. In-hospital mortality was 43%. Only the length of NIV application before ICU admission (OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06 - 4.98), p = 0.03) and age (OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04 - 1.33), p < 0.01) were identified as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality;whilst the length of NIV after ICU admission did not affect patient outcome. Conclusions: In-hospital mortality of ICU patients intubated after NIV failure was 43%. Days on NIV before ICU admission and age were assessed to be potential risk factors of greater in-hospital mortality.

10.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686844

ABSTRACT

Severe asthma patients are at an increased risk of major complications and they need to be monitored regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic has notably impacted on the health care resources. The telemedicine approach applied to the follow-up of asthmatic patients has been proven to be effective in monitoring their disease and their adherence to the therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the satisfaction of severe asthma patients before the activation of a telemedicine management, as well as their current experience with self-administration of injection therapy. An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent by e-mail to 180 severe asthma patients. Most of subjects, 82%, were confident with the idea of doing self-measurements and self-managing their disease. Further, 77% of subjects favoured to carry out virtual visits and telemedicine. Regarding the home treatment, 93% of patients considered the self-injection therapy easy, 94% of subjects felt safe, and 93% were not worried while self-administering. Only mild adverse events were reported in 22% of patients after self-administration. Our results showed an agreement between what is considered necessary and practicable by healthcare personnel and what is perceived by the severe asthma patients in terms of treatment and monitoring of the disease with Telehealth. Biologics have a safety profile and can be easily self-administred at home.

12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 97: 42-49, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been used worldwide to contrast SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since April 2020, it has also been used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 in the Veneto region (Italy), along with all the other available drugs and therapeutic tools. Here we report data analysis and clinical results in 1,517 COVID-19 inpatients treated with CP containing high-titre neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (CCP). Mortality after 30 days of hospitalization has been considered primary outcome, by comparing patients treated with CCP vs all COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals of the Veneto region in a one-year period (from April 2020 to April 2021). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult inpatients with a severe form of COVID-19 have been enrolled, with at least one of the following inclusion criteria: 1) tachypnea with respiratory rate (RR) ≥ 30 breaths/min; 2) oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 93% at rest and in room air; 3) partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 200 mmHg, 4) radiological picture and/or chest CT scan showing signs of interstitial disease and/or rapid progression of lung involvement. Patients received a maximum of three therapeutic fractions (TFs) of CCP with a neutralizing antibody titre of ≥ 1:160, administered over a period of 3-5 days. If TFs of CCP with titre ≥ 1:160 were unavailable, 2 with antibody titre of ≥ 1:80 have been administered. RESULTS: Of the 1,517 patients treated with CCP, 209 deceased at the 30-day follow-up (14%). Death was significantly associated with an older age (p<0.001), a longer time of hospitalization before CCP infusion (p<0.001), a greater number of inclusion criteria (p<0.001) and associated comorbidities (p<0.001). Conditions significantly associated with an increased frequency of death were PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 (p<0.001) and tachypnea with RR>30 (p<0.05) at entry, concurrent arterial hypertension (p<0.001), cardiovascular disease (p<0.001), chronic kidney disease (p<0.001), dyslipidemia (p<0.05) and cancer (p<0.05). Moreover, factors leading to an unfavorable prognosis were a life-threatening disease (p<0.001), admission to Intensive Care Unit (p<0.001), high flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation (p<0.05) and a chest X-ray showing consolidation area (p<0.001). By analyzing the regional report of hospitalized patients, a comparison of mortality by age group, with respect to our series of patients treated with CCP, has been made. Mortality was altogether lower in patients treated with CCP (14% v. 25%), especially in the group of the elderly patients (23% vs 40%,), with a strong significance (p<0.001). As regards the safety of CCP administration, 16 adverse events were recorded out of a total of 3,937 transfused TFs (0,4%). CONCLUSIONS: To overcome the difficulties of setting up a randomized controlled study in an emergency period, a data collection from a large series of patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to CCP therapy with well-defined inclusion criteria has been implemented in the Veneto region. Our results have shown that in patients with severe COVID-19 early treatment with CCP might contribute to a favourable outcome, with a reduced mortality, in absence of relevant adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inpatients , Registries , Treatment Outcome
13.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(3): 307-316, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518385

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), a pathological outcome of chronic and acute interstitial lung diseases associated to compromised wound healing, is a key component of the "post-acute COVID-19 syndrome" that may severely complicate patients' clinical course. Although inconclusive, available data suggest that more than a third of hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop lung fibrotic abnormalities after their discharge from hospital. The pathogenesis of PF in patients recovering from a severe acute case of COVID-19 is complex, and several hypotheses have been formulated to explain its development. An analysis of the data that is presently available suggests that biomarkers of susceptibility could help to identify subjects with increased probability of developing PF and may represent a means to personalize the management of COVID-19's long-term effects. Our review highlights the importance of both patient-related and disease-related contributing risk factors for PF in COVID-19 survivors and makes it definitely clear the possible use of acute phase and follow-up biomarkers for identifying the patients at greatest risk of developing this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Survivors
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444244

ABSTRACT

The most common hereditary disorder in adults, α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), is characterized by reduced plasma levels or the abnormal functioning of α1-antitrypsin (AAT), a major human blood serine protease inhibitor, which is encoded by the SERine Protein INhibitor-A1 (SERPINA1) gene and produced in the liver. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the geographic differences in COVID-19 infection and fatality rates may be partially explained by ethnic differences in SERPINA1 allele frequencies. In our review, we examined epidemiological data on the correlation between the distribution of AATD, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 mortality rates. Moreover, we described shared pathogenetic pathways that may provide a theoretical basis for our epidemiological findings. We also considered the potential use of AAT augmentation therapy in patients with COVID-19.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17730, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397894

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains controversial. Current literature mainly examined efficacy, safety and potential predictors of NIV failure provided out of the intensive care unit (ICU). On the contrary, the outcomes of ICU patients, intubated after NIV failure, remain to be explored. The aims of the present study are: (1) investigating in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ICU patients receiving endotracheal intubation after NIV failure and (2) assessing whether the length of NIV application affects patient survival. This observational multicenter study included all consecutive COVID-19 adult patients, admitted into the twenty-five ICUs of the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February-April 2020), who underwent endotracheal intubation after NIV failure. Among the 704 patients admitted to ICU during the study period, 280 (40%) presented the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. The median age was 69 [60-76] years; 219 patients (78%) were male. In-hospital mortality was 43%. Only the length of NIV application before ICU admission (OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-4.98), p = 0.03) and age (OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.33), p < 0.01) were identified as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality; whilst the length of NIV after ICU admission did not affect patient outcome. In-hospital mortality of ICU patients intubated after NIV failure was 43%. Days on NIV before ICU admission and age were assessed to be potential risk factors of greater in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination has been recommended for severe asthmatics. We aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and impact on disease control and patient's quality of life of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccine in severe asthma patients regarding biologic treatment. METHODS: Severe asthmatic patients regularly managed by two big allergy and respiratory referral centers were offered to undergo Pfizer COVID 19 vaccination at the hospital site. Patients filled in an adverse events questionnaire after the first and second dose, as well as the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). RESULTS: Overall, 253 patients were vaccinated; only 16 patients refused. No serious events were detected. Less than 20% of patients reported side effects, most of which were classified as very common side effects. No differences were reported according to the ongoing biologic drug. A significant improvement in both ACT and AQLQ was observed between the first and the second dose administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the optimal safety and tolerability profile of mRNA SARS- CoV-2/COVID-19 in severe asthma patients on biologic treatment, as well as their positive attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination. The negligible proportion of patients reporting side effects and the absence of asthma exacerbations are relevant to support the COVID-19 vaccination campaign in severe asthma patients worldwide.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 may experience hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure (hARF) requiring O2-therapy by High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNO). Although Prone Positioning (PP) may improve oxygenation in COVID-19 non-intubated patients, the results on its clinical efficacy are controversial. The present study aims to prospectively investigate whether PP may reduce the need for endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients with COVID-19 receiving HFNO. METHODS: All consecutive unselected adult patients with bilateral lung opacities on chest X-ray receiving HFNO after admission to a SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit (RICU) were considered eligible. Patients who successfully passed an initial PP trial (success group) underwent PP for periods ≥ 2 h twice a day, while receiving HFNO. The study's primary endpoint was the intubation rate during the stay in the RICU. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were included in the study. PP was feasible and safe in 50 (54%) patients. Sixteen (17.2%) patients received ETI and 27 (29%) escalated respiratory support, resulting in a mortality rate of 9/93 (9.7%). The length of hospital stay was 18 (6-75) days. In 41/50 (80%) of subjects who passed the trial and underwent PP, its use was associated with clinical benefit and survival without escalation of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: PP is feasible and safe in over 50% of COVID-19 patients receiving HFNO for hARF. Randomized trials are required to confirm that PP has the potential to reduce intubation rate.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278196

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate if reduced muscle mass, assessed with Computed Tomography (CT), is a predictor of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this Institution Review Board approved study, we retrospectively evaluated COVID-19 patients treated in our tertiary center from March to November 2020 who underwent an unenhanced chest CT scan within three weeks from hospitalization.We recorded the mean Hounsfield Unit (Hu) value of the right paravertebral muscle at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, the hospitalization unit (ICU and COVID-19 wards), clinical symptoms, Barthel Index, and laboratory findings.Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess if muscle loss (Hu<30) is a predictor of ICU admission and outcome.Fisher's exact and Student's tests were applied to evaluate if differences between patients with and without muscle loss occurred (p<0.05). RESULTS: One-hundred-fifty patients matched the inclusion criteria (46 females; mean age±SD 61.3±15 years-old), 36 treated in ICU. Patients in ICU showed significantly lower Hu values (29±24 vs 39.4±12, p = 0.001). Muscle loss was a predictor of ICU admission (p = 0.004).Patients with muscle loss were significantly older (73.4±10 vs 56.4±14 years), had lower Barthel Index scores (54.4±33 vs 85.1±26), red blood-cell count (3.9±1 vs 4.6±1×1012L-1), and Hb levels (11.5±2 vs 13.2±2g/l) as well as higher white blood-cell count (9.4±7 vs 7.2±4×109L-1), C-reactive protein (71.5±71 vs 44±48U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase levels (335±163 vs 265.8±116U/L) (p<0.05, each). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle loss seems to be a predictor of ICU hospitalization in COVID-19 patients and radiologists reporting chest CT at admission should note this finding in their reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Muscles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscles/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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