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1.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481018

ABSTRACT

A SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) has been associated with increased transmissibility, hospitalization, and mortality. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with B.1.1.7 VOC infection in the context of vaccination. On March 2021, we detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal samples from 14 of 22 individuals vaccinated with a single-dose of ChAdOx1 (outbreak A, n = 26), and 22 of 42 of individuals with two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine (outbreak B, n = 52) for breakthrough infection rates for ChAdOx1 of 63.6% and 52.4% for CoronaVac. The outbreaks were caused by two independent clusters of the B.1.1.7 VOC. The serum of PCR-positive symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals had ~1.8-3.4-fold more neutralizing capacity against B.1.1.7 compared to the serum of asymptomatic individuals. These data based on exploratory analysis suggest that the B.1.1.7 variant can infect individuals partially immunized with a single dose of an adenovirus-vectored vaccine or fully immunized with two doses of an inactivated vaccine, although the vaccines were able to reduce the risk of severe disease and death caused by this VOC, even in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Adenoviridae , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Vaccines, Inactivated , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
3.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(23): 2495-2501, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317113

ABSTRACT

In this cross-sectional study, we investigate the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Ribonucleic Acid (SARS-CoV-2 RNA) in the tears of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. After laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, tear samples from both eyes of each patient were collected using conjunctival swab for RT-PCR. Detailed demographic profile, systemic and ocular symptoms, comorbidities, clinical, ancillary, and ocular manifestations were evaluated. Of the 83 patients enrolled in the study, 7 (8.43%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in the tear samples. Neutrophils' count, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected in tears than in patients without virus in ocular surface samples. One patient with SARS-CoV-2 in tears showed mild ocular eyelid edema, hyperemia, and chemosis. No relevant ocular manifestations were detected in the other patients. Although the levels of viral RNA on ocular surface samples were low for most patients (5/7), with positivity only for gene N and CT higher than 30, two patients were positive for all viral targets tested (N, E, and RpRd), with viral load near 1 × 105 ePFU/mL, indicating that the ocular transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a possibility that needs to be considered, especially in the hospital environment. Further studies need to be conducted to demonstrate whether infective viral particles could be isolated from tears.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Eye/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Eye Infections, Viral/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Viral/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tears/virology , Viral Load
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1737-1740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191601

ABSTRACT

We documented 4 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reinfection by non-variant of concern strains among healthcare workers in Campinas, Brazil. We isolated infectious particles from nasopharyngeal secretions during both infection episodes. Improved and continued protection measures are necessary to mitigate the risk for reinfection among healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Reinfection/diagnosis , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Reinfection/therapy
5.
Cell Metab ; 32(3): 437-446.e5, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670096

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF-1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Female , Glycolysis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
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