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1.
Virus Res ; 316: 198791, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815257

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents an unprecedented threat for the human population, necessitating rapid and effective intervention measures. Given the main infection route by airborne transmission, significant attention has been bestowed upon the use of antiseptic mouthrinses as a way to possibly reduce infectious viral titers. However, clinical evaluations are still sparse. Thus, we evaluated a wide variety of antiseptic agents that can be used as mouthrinses for their antiviral effects in vitro and their respective mode of action. One of the most promising antiseptic agents (benzalkoniumchloride, BAC) was used in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with subsequent analysis of viral loads by RT-qPCR and virus rescue in cell culture. Mechanistic analysis revealed that treatment with BAC and other antiseptic agents efficiently inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by primarily disrupting the viral envelope, without affecting viral RNA integrity. However, the clinical application only resulted in a mild reduction of viral loads in the oral cavity. These results indicate that gargling with mouthrinses comprising single antiseptic agents may play a minor role towards a potential reduction of transmission rates and thus, these findings are of utmost importance when considering alternative COVID-19 prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785192

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prominent symptoms of acute COVID-19. Although both senses recover in many patients within weeks to months, persistency has been described in up to 60%. However up to now most reports on the course of chemosensitive disorders after COVID-19 are not based on psychophysical testing but only on subjective patients' ratings. In this study we assessed both olfaction and gustation using psychophysical tests eight months after COVID-19. Validated psychophysical testing revealed hyposmia in 18% and hypogeusia in even 32% of 303 included patients. This shows that olfactory and especially gustatory disorders have to be seen as important chronic symptoms post-COVID-19. The high prevalence of gustatory dysfunction indicates that gustatory function does not recover or might even deteriorate in the months following the acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Threshold
3.
Laryngoscope ; 132(5): 1082-1087, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gustatory function during COVID-19 is self-reported by around 50% of patients. However, only a few studies assessed gustation using psychophysical testing during acute infection. The objective of this study is to test gustatory function on threshold tests in the very first days of COVID-19. METHODS: Psychophysical testing consisted of validated and blinded tests for olfaction (NHANES Pocket Smell Test) and gustation (Taste Strips Test). These test kits were sent to home-quarantined patients and self-administered using a detailed instruction sheet. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in this study. Testing was performed 6.5 ± 2.7 days after sampling of respiratory swabs. At this time 37% of patients stated to currently experience a gustatory impairment. The mean Taste Strips score was 10.0 ± 3.4 with 28% scoring in the range of hypogeusia. Interestingly, no significant difference in the results of gustatory testing could be observed between the group with subjectively preserved gustation and the group with self-rated taste impairment. CONCLUSION: During the very first days of COVID-19, psychophysical gustatory testing revealed hypogeusia in 28%. This is far lower than patients' self-reports. Different from previous studies, we did not find clear evidence for an impairment of only certain taste qualities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 132:1082-1087, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
4.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(10): 3707-3713, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 is mainly transmitted by inhalation of droplets and aerosols. This puts healthcare professionals from specialties with close patient contact at high risk of nosocomial infections with SARS-CoV-2. In this context, preprocedural mouthrinses with hydrogen peroxide have been recommended before conducting intraoral procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 1% hydrogen peroxide mouthrinse on reducing the intraoral SARS-CoV-2 load. METHODS: Twelve out of 98 initially screened hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were included in this study. Intraoral viral load was determined by RT-PCR at baseline, whereupon patients had to gargle mouth and throat with 20 mL of 1% hydrogen peroxide for 30 s. After 30 min, a second examination of intraoral viral load was performed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, virus culture was performed for specimens exhibiting viral load of at least 103 RNA copies/mL at baseline. RESULTS: Ten out of the 12 initially included SARS-CoV-2-positive patients completed the study. The hydrogen peroxide mouthrinse led to no significant reduction of intraoral viral load. Replicating virus could only be determined from one baseline specimen. CONCLUSION: A 1% hydrogen peroxide mouthrinse does not reduce the intraoral viral load in SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects. However, virus culture did not yield any indication on the effects of the mouthrinse on the infectivity of the detected RNA copies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The recommendation of a preprocedural mouthrinse with hydrogen peroxide before intraoral procedures is questionable and thus should not be supported any longer, but strict infection prevention regimens are of paramount importance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (ref. DRKS00022484).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Male , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Young Adult
6.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc100, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972199

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Due to the circumstances of the Covid-19 pandemic, the teaching during the block internship at the Department for Otorhinolaryngology was switched to digital learning. Various online courses were created and the utilisation by the students was analyzed. Material & methods: Examination videos, surgical images and videos were created and live lectures were held. In addition, patient cases of common otorhinolaryngological diseases were reconstructed on an interactive platform. A total of 16 cases were offered in weekly rotation. These cases are provided with gap texts, open and selection questions, links and videos and thematically appropriate digression offers. The time-consuming creation was carried out as a HTML 5 learning package with the authoring program Exelearning 2.5. Each case was to be evaluated separately after being worked on by the students. Results: The direct feedback and the evaluation results of the students on the internship and case presentations were consistently positive. However, on average only 50.72% of the registered students took part in the weekly video meetings. In the course of the semester, the willingness to participate decreased. In addition, the willingness to evaluate the patient cases was low. Discussion: With the case presentation tool, concrete patient examples can be well presented, especially when patient contact is not possible (especially in an ENT clinic due to violation of distance and hygienic rules). Even though the evaluations were positive in terms of content, the frequency of utilisation and also the motivation for feedback seems disappointing. This seems to be associated above all with an increasing return to everyday life after the end of the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/physiopathology , Educational Measurement , Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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