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1.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24005, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954856

ABSTRACT

Background and objective It has been observed that peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) measured by pulse oximeter is consistently lower than arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measured directly by blood gas analysis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and compare the SpO2/FiO2 (SF) and PaO2/FiO2 (PF) ratios in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods In this observational study, SpO2 was recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed among 70 COVID-19 patients presenting on room air (FiO2 = 0.21). SaO2 and PaO2 were recorded from arterial blood gas analysis. The SF and PF ratios were then calculated. Results The strength of correlations between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and PaO2, were significant (p<0.001) and moderately positive [Pearson coefficient (r) = 0.68, 0.53]. SpO2 value (85%), i.e., SF ratio (404.7 or below), was the best estimate for mild ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) [PF ratio (300 or below)] with a sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 53%. Conclusion A pulse oximeter is a vital tool in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. In our study, SpO2 was found to have a positive correlation with SaO2 and PaO2 with acceptable sensitivity but low specificity in estimating mild ARDS. Therefore, pulse oximetry can be used as a tool for the early diagnosis of mild COVID-19 ARDS as per the given considerations and clinical correlation.

2.
J Mycol Med ; 32(4): 101307, 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914842

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although unexpected airway difficulties are reported in patients with mucormycosis, the literature on airway management in patients with mucormycosis associated with Coronavirus disease is sparse. METHODS: In this retrospective case record review of 57 patients who underwent surgery for mucormycosis associated with coronavirus disease, we aimed to evaluate the demographics, airway management, procedural data, and in-hospital mortality records. RESULTS: Forty-one (71.9%) patients had a diagnosis of sino-nasal mucormycosis, fourteen (24.6%) patients had a diagnosis of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and 2 (3.5%) patients had a diagnosis of palatal mucormycosis. A total of 44 (77.2%) patients had co-morbidities. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes mellitus in 42 (73.6%) patients, followed by hypertension in 21 (36.8%) patients, and acute kidney injury in 14 (28.1%) patients. We used the intubation difficulty scale score to assess intubating conditions. Intubation was easy to slightly difficult in 53 (92.9%) patients. In our study, mortality occurred in 7 (12.3%) patients. The median (range) mortality time was 60 (27-74) days. The median (range) time to hospital discharge was 53.5 (10-85) days. The median [interquartile range] age of discharged versus expired patients was 47.5 [41,57.5] versus 64 [47,70] years (P = 0.04), and median (interquartile range) D-dimer levels in discharged versus expired patients was 364 [213, 638] versus 2448 [408,3301] ng/mL (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing surgery for mucormycosis associated with the coronavirus disease, airway management was easy to slightly difficult in most patients. Perioperative complications can be minimized by taking timely and precautionary measures.

3.
Cureus ; 14(4), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837810

ABSTRACT

Background and objective It has been observed that peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) measured by pulse oximeter is consistently lower than arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measured directly by blood gas analysis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and compare the SpO2/FiO2 (SF) and PaO2/FiO2 (PF) ratios in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods In this observational study, SpO2 was recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed among 70 COVID-19 patients presenting on room air (FiO2 = 0.21). SaO2 and PaO2 were recorded from arterial blood gas analysis. The SF and PF ratios were then calculated. Results The strength of correlations between SpO2 and SaO2, and SpO2 and PaO2, were significant (p<0.001) and moderately positive [Pearson coefficient (r) = 0.68, 0.53]. SpO2 value (85%), i.e., SF ratio (404.7 or below), was the best estimate for mild ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) [PF ratio (300 or below)] with a sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 53%. Conclusion A pulse oximeter is a vital tool in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. In our study, SpO2 was found to have a positive correlation with SaO2 and PaO2 with acceptable sensitivity but low specificity in estimating mild ARDS. Therefore, pulse oximetry can be used as a tool for the early diagnosis of mild COVID-19 ARDS as per the given considerations and clinical correlation.

4.
Lung India ; 39(3): 247-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810866

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 is one of the strongest predictors of mortality. Silent hypoxia is characterised by the presence of hypoxia without dyspnoea. Silent hypoxia has been shown to affect the outcome in previous studies. Methods: This was a retrospective study of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hypoxic at presentation. Clinical, laboratory and treatment parameters in patients with silent hypoxia and dyspnoeic hypoxia were compared. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the factors predicting mortality. Results: Among 2080 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, 811 patients were hypoxic with SpO2 <94% at the time of presentation. Among them, 174 (21.45%) did not have dyspnoea since the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Further, 5.2% of patients were completely asymptomatic for COVID-19 and were found to be hypoxic only on pulse oximetry. The case fatality rate in patients with silent hypoxia was 45.4% as compared to 40.03% in dyspnoeic hypoxic patients (P = 0.202). The odds ratio of death was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.41-2.97) in the patients with silent hypoxia after adjusting for baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment and in-hospital complications, which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.851). Conclusion: Silent hypoxia may be the only presenting feature of COVID-19. As the case fatality rate is comparable between silent and dyspnoeic hypoxia, it should be recognised early and treated as aggressively. Because home isolation is recommended in patients with COVID-19, it is essential to use pulse oximetry in the home setting to identify these patients.

5.
Lung India ; 39(3): 230-233, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810862

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has rapidly evolved into a pandemic, affecting more than 90 million people and more than 1.9 million deaths worldwide. Despite extensive study, the prognostic role of various hematological and biochemical parameters remains unclear. Methods: This study was carried out at a COVID care facility in Delhi. The demographic and clinical information, laboratory parameters (hematological, biochemical, and inflammatory), and the treatment of admitted COVID-19 patients during first wave were collected from electronic medical records and were subsequently analyzed. Results: Between March 2020 and November 2020, a total of 5574 patients were admitted to hospital due to COVID-19. Majority (77.2%) were male and had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 38.9 (14.9) years. The mean (SD) duration of hospital stay was significantly higher in nonsurvivors. Out of the entire cohort, 8.7% of the patients had comorbidities, whereas 47.1% of the patients were asymptomatic at presentation. Compared to the survivors, the nonsurvivors had a significantly higher proportion of comorbidities and were more likely to be symptomatic. Patients who died during hospital stay had significantly higher relative neutrophil percent and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and lower lymphocyte percent. The patients who died had significantly higher levels of ferritin, D-dimer, and fibrinogen. Conclusions: Analysis of various hematological and inflammatory parameters can provide useful prognostic information among COVID-19-affected patients. It can also help in identifying patients who merit aggressive institutional care and thereby potentially mitigate the mortality.

7.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S21-S26, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792222

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The coronavirus pandemic has put an unprecedented burden on the health-care workers who are the cornerstone of the work system, preparing to mitigate its effects. Due to the lack of protective equipments, guidelines for managing patients, or proper training and education regarding the same, health care professionals (HCPs) working in non-COVID areas may face even greater problems than those working in COVID areas of a hospital. Our aim was to find out the concerns of HCPs working in non-COVID areas. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: After obtaining institutional ethics approval, a descriptive cross-sectional study was planned. An online Google-based questionnaire was rolled out to all doctors through various social media platforms who were dealing with COVID-negative patients. RESULTS: We received a total of 110 responses. 84.5% of participants were concerned about the risk of infection to self and family, 67.3% were concerned by the disruption of their daily activities. 56.4% of HCPs were disturbed by the lack of any concrete protocol for patient management. Less staff availability, delay in discharging duties toward their patients, and increased workload were other concerns. More than half of the doctors received N-95 masks whenever required and were trained in donning and doffing of Personal protective equipment. Sixty-eight percemt of our respondents labeled their current quality of life as stressful. CONCLUSION: It is the need of the hour to develop a comprehensive strategy focussing on the above challenges that HCPs working in non-COVID areas are facing. This will go a long way in not only providing holistic care to the patients but also in controlling this pandemic.

8.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S99-S105, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792216

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization has declared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a pandemic. The interventions employed by various health authorities in combating the infection may help in eliminating the threat; however, they have long-term cognitive and mental health effects on the population. AIMS: The primary objective was to assess the prevalent concerns and coping strategies and perspectives in persons suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection under institutional quarantine in India during the period from April 2020 to May 2020. SETTING AND DESIGN: Its a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the National Cancer Institute, Jhajjar, India. METHODOLOGY: After ethical clearance, convenience sampling was done. Relevant demographic details were obtained. Health-care professionally administered questionnaire to assess psychological concerns and coping mechanisms. All statistics are deemed to be descriptive only. RESULTS: The most common physical concern was fever seen in 37% of respondents, followed by cough in 31% and sore throat in 29%. In terms of emotional concerns, 55.3% of respondents were worried and 43% were anxious and 33% were sad. About 80.6% of participants selected support from family and friends helped them cope during the institutional quarantine. 57% maintained a daily routine, 70% selected praying, and 45% used music as a coping strategy. Only 2% felt that they were unable to cope. CONCLUSION: It highlights that the psychological impact of illness on affected individuals should not be overlooked as it may have the potential to cause major psychiatric morbidity. It also provides a crucial assessment of their coping mechanisms.

9.
J Educ Health Promot ; 11: 58, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world is worsely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Increased mortality has been observed in older adults with multiple comorbidities. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) at admission can help us to guide the requirement of oxygen during hospital stay that can be used to determine which patient can be managed at home. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a prospective observational study conducted on COVID-19 patients admitted at AIIMS, New Delhi, from October to December 2020. Patients aged more than 60 years were included in the study and underwent 6-min walk tests. Polypharmacy and multimorbidity were also assessed along with dyspnea which was measured on BORG scale. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical software STATA (version 14.2) was used for all the analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 68.76 (7.4). Oxygen saturation prior to the 6-MWT was normal and has significantly higher than the post test (P ≤ 0.001). 6MWD was significantly correlated with pre values of oxygen saturation. 6MWD was observed more in patients who did not require oxygen during hospital stay. Self-reported dyspnea, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the patients who had an oxygen requirement during the hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Self-reported dyspnea after 6MWT was found to be associated with oxygen requirement during hospital stay. Patients who have covered more distance in 6-min walk test have less oxygen requirement during hospital stay hence can be managed at home. This will reduce the health-care burden and will help to tackle the outburst during the ongoing pandemic.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318838

ABSTRACT

Background: - The sharp uptick in the cases of mucormycosis in the background of the COVID19 pandemic is a cause of concern and the reasons and it’s impact remains to be seen. We studied the clinical characteristics in patients with mucormycosis and COVID19 co-infection and performed a literature review. Methods: - This retrospective study was conducted at tertiary centre in India. All patients admitted with COVID19 and mucormycosis were included, clinical details were obtained from hospital records. We did review of literatures using the terms “SARS-CoV2” OR “COVID19” AND “Mucormycosis” AND “co-infection” on Pubmed published before February 20, 2021. Results: - Sixteen cases (M:F–13:3), mean age 46·5 years (24-75years), were included. Fourteen had known risk factors for mucormycosis, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Most patients (n=14) were symptomatic with mucormycosis before diagnosis of COVID19. There was delay in surgery by 22.5 days (IQR–>17.75–29.5), pending SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity. There were six deaths in this cohort, unrelated to the COVID19 severity. The literature review revealed eleven case reports on co-infection. Patients who had developed mucormycosis were found to have history of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: - The apparent increase in the incidence of mucormycosis may be due to decompensation of underlying comorbidities (decreased access to healthcare), and increased use of immunosuppressants in COVID19. Patients with co-infection were noted to have poorer outcomes.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317240

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Till date, no drug has shown definite benefit in non-severe COVID-19. Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug which has in-vitro efficacy in reducing coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) load in severe disease. Objectives: To determine if a single oral administration of Ivermectin to patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 is effective in converting SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR to negative result and in reducing viral load. Methods: : In this double-blind trial, patients were randomized to elixir formulation of Ivermectin in 24 mg, 12 mg or placebo in 1:1:1 ratio. The co-primary outcomes were conversion of RT-PCR to negative result and the decline of viral load at day 5 of enrolment and were assessed in patients with positive RT-PCR at enrolment (modified intention-to-treat population). Safety outcomes included total and serious adverse events and were assessed in all patients who received the trial drug (intention-to-treat population). Results: : Among 157 patients randomized, 125 patients were included in mITT analysis. Forty patients each were assigned to Ivermectin 24 mg and 12 mg, and 45 patients to placebo. The RT-PCR negativity at day 5 was higher in the two Ivermectin arms but failed to attain statistical significance (Ivermectin 24 mg, 47.5%;12 mg, 35.0%;and placebo, 31.1%;p= 0.30). The decline of viral load at day 5 was similar in the three arms. No serious adverse events were encountered. Conclusion: In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, a single administration of Ivermectin elixir (either 24 mg or 12 mg) demonstrated a trend towards higher proportion of RT-PCR negativity at day 5 of enrolment. The protocol was registered in the Clinical Trial Registry – India (CTRI) vide ref No CTRI/2020/06/026001.

12.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622789

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Details pertaining to demographics, presentation, radiological characteristics, management and outcome were collected. Cases were classified into spontaneous and barotraumatic PTX/PM and a between-group comparison was performed using Chi-square and t-test. A total of 45 cases (mean age: 53.2 years, 82% males) out of 8,294 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed PTX/PM, the calculated incidence being 0.54%. 29 cases had spontaneous PTX/PM and the remaining 17 cases were attributed to barotrauma. The most common comorbidities were diabetes-mellitus (65.3%) and hypertension (42.3%). The majority of the cases had large PTX (62.1%) with tension in 8 cases (27.5%). There were predominant right-sided pneumothoraces and five were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula. 37.7% of cases had associated subcutaneous emphysema. The median duration of PTX/PM from symptom onset was delayed at 22.5 and 17.6 days respectively. The mean CT severity score (CTSS) was 20.5 (± 4.9) with fibrosis (53.8%), bronchiectatic changes (50%) and cystic-cavitary changes (23%). There was no statistically significant difference between the spontaneous and barotrauma cohort. 71% of cases died and the majority belonged to the barotrauma cohort. It is imperative to consider the possibility of PTX/PM in patients having COVID-19, especially in those with deterioration in the disease course, both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. These patients may also have a high incidence of death, reflecting the gravity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
13.
Lung India ; 39(1): 16-26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. RESULTS: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5-11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18-44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4-0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5-3.1], P < 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2-4.7], P < 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2-13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297009

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple vaccines have received emergency-use authorization in different countries in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. India had started its vaccination campaign using the COVISHIELD (ChAdOx nCoV-19) and the COVAXIN (BBV152) vaccines. However, there is a lack of head-to-head comparisons of the different vaccines. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study during the second wave of the pandemic in India with predominant circulation of the delta strain of SARS-CoV-2. We enrolled adult patients who were hospitalized with breakthrough COVID-19 infection after vaccination. We compared in-hospital outcomes between patients who had received the COVISHIELD (n=181) or COVAXIN vaccines. Results: Between April and June 2021, a total of 353 patients were enrolled, among whom 181 (51.3%) received COVAXIN (156 partially vaccinated and 25 fully vaccinated) and 172 (48.7%) received COVISHIELD (155 partially vaccinated and 17 fully vaccinated). The in-hospital mortality did not differ between the recipients of COVISHIELD or COVAXIN in either the fully vaccinated [2 deaths (11.8%) vs 0 deaths (0%), respectively p=0.08] or the partially vaccinated cohorts [31 deaths (20%) vs 28 deaths (17.9%), respectively, p=0.65]. Conclusions: Patients who are hospitalized with breakthrough COVID-19 had similar in-hospital outcome irrespective of whether they received COVISHIELD or COVAXIN. Keywords: COVID-19, vaccine, ChAdOx nCoV-19, Covishield, BBV152, Covaxin

15.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296029

ABSTRACT

Purpose Although unexpected airway difficulties are reported in patients with mucormycosis, the literature on airway management in patients with mucormycosis associated with Coronavirus disease is sparse. Methods In this retrospective case record review of 57 patients who underwent surgery for mucormycosis associated with coronavirus disease, we aimed to evaluate the demographics, airway management, procedural data, and mortality records. Results Forty-one (71.9%) patients had a diagnosis of sino-nasal mucormycosis, fourteen (24.6%) patients had a diagnosis of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and 2 (3.5%) patients had a diagnosis of palatal mucormycosis. A total of 44 (77.2%) patients had co-morbidities. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes mellitus in 42 (73.6%) patients, followed by hypertension in 21 (36.8%) patients, and acute kidney injury in 14 (28.1%) patients. We used the intubation difficulty scale score to assess intubating conditions. Intubation was easy to slightly difficult in 53 (92.9%) patients. In our study, mortality occurred in 7 (12.3%) patients. The median (range) mortality time was 60 (27–74) days. The median (range) time to hospital discharge was 53.5 (10–85) days. The median [interquartile range] age of discharged versus expired patients was 47.5 [41,57.5] versus 64 [47,70] years (P = 0.04), and median (interquartile range) D-dimer levels in discharged versus expired patients was 364 [213, 638] versus 2448 [408,3301] ng/mL (P = 0.03). Conclusion In patients undergoing surgery for mucormycosis associated with the coronavirus disease, airway management was easy to slightly difficult in most patients. Perioperative complications can be minimized by taking timely and precautionary measures.

16.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295883

ABSTRACT

Background Due to the unprecedented speed of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development, their efficacy trials and issuance of emergency use approvals and marketing authorizations, additional scientific questions remain that need to be answered regarding vaccine effectiveness, vaccination regimens and the need for booster doses. While long-term studies on the correlates of protection, vaccine effectiveness, and enhanced surveillance are awaited, studies on breakthrough infections help us understand the nature and course of this illness among vaccinated individuals and guide in public health preparedness. Methods This observational cohort study aimed at comparing the differences in clinical, biochemical parameters and the hospitalization outcomes of 53 fully vaccinated individuals with those of unvaccinated (1,464) and partially vaccinated (231) individuals, among a cohort of 2,080 individuals hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results Completing the course of vaccination protected individuals from developing severe COVID-19 as evidence by lower proportions of those with hypoxia, abnormal levels of inflammatory markers, requiring ventilatory support and death compared to unvaccinated and partially vaccinated individuals. There were no differences in these outcomes among patients who received either vaccine type approved in India. Conclusion With a current rate of only 9.5% of the Indian population being fully vaccinated, efforts should be made to improve the vaccination rates as a timely measure to prepare for the upcoming waves of this highly transmissible pandemic. Vaccination rates of the communities may also guide in the planning of the health needs and appropriate use of medical resources. Research in context Evidence before this study The Government of India started vaccinating its citizens from the 16 th of January 2021, after emergency use authorization had been received for the use of two vaccines, BBV152, a COVID-19 vaccine based on the whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain NIV-2020-770, (Covaxin) and the recombinant replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector encoding the spike protein ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Covishield). These have been approved by the Indian regulatory authority based on randomized controlled studies. In these studies, was found that the vaccines led to more than 90% reduction in symptomatic COVID-19 disease. However, there is scarce evidence of the efficacy of these vaccines in real-world scenarios. A few studies have looked at vaccinated cohorts such as health care workers in whom the vaccines had an efficacy similar to the RCTs. In a study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, it was found that mortality in fully vaccinated patients was 12.5% as compared to 31.5% in the unvaccinated cohort. Added-value of this study This cohort of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was studied during the peak of the second wave of COVID-19 in India during which the delta variant of concern was the predominant infecting strain and had 26% patients who were partially vaccinated and 71.4% who were unvaccinated. Only 3% of the patients were fully vaccinated and developed a breakthrough infection. At the time of presentation, 13% of the individuals with breakthrough infection and 48·5% in the non-vaccinated group were hypoxic. Inflammatory markers were significantly lower in the completely vaccinated patients with breakthrough infection. The need for use of steroids and anti-viral agents such as remdesivir was also significantly low in the breakthrough infection group. A significantly less proportion of the individuals with breakthrough infection required oxygen supplementation or ventilatory support. Very few deteriorated or progressed to critical illness during their hospital stay. Only 3 individuals (5.7%) out of the 53 who developed breakthrough infection succumbed to illness while case fatality rates were significantly higher in the unvaccinated (22.8%) and pa tially vaccinated (19.5%) groups. Propensity score weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed lower odds of developing hypoxia, critical illness or death in those who were completely vaccinated. Implications of all the available evidence The real-world effectiveness of the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 seems to be similar to the randomized controlled trials. The vaccines are very effective in reducing the incidence of severe COVID-19, hypoxia, critical illness and death. The reduced need for oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation and the requirement of corticosteroids or other expensive medications such as anti-viral drugs could go a long way in redistributing scarce health care resources. All nations must move forward and vaccinate the citizens, as the current evidence suggests that ‘prevention is better than cure’.

17.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409406

ABSTRACT

Head and neck pathologies requiring surgical intervention are considered a high-risk subsite in the context of COVID-19 pandemic by virtue of its close proximity to the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Retrospective review of all head and neck surgical procedures is undertaken during the pandemic from 23rd April 2020 to 30th September 2020. One hundred procedures were performed on 98 patients. COVID-19 status determined by SARS-Cov-2 RT-PCR at baseline was negative for 81, positive in 8 and unknown in 11. The RT-PCR negative subgroup included 40 diagnostic procedures and 41 ablative and or reconstructive procedures for head and neck neoplasms. None of the patients or health-care workers converted to COVID-19-positive status during the duration of the hospital stay. There were no cases with 30-day mortality. Clavien-Dindo grading for postoperative complications was as follows: 1-4, 2-12, 3a-2, 3b-1. Eleven patients with unknown COVID-19 status at baseline underwent emergency tracheostomy in a COVID-19 designated operating room for upper airway obstruction secondary to head and neck cancer. Of the 8 procedures conducted on known cases of COVID-19, 6 were tracheostomies performed for COVID-19 ARDS. The rest were maxillectomy for acute invasive mucormycosis and incision and drainage for parotid abscess. A matched-pair analysis was performed with similarly staged historical cohort operated during January to December 2016 to compare peri-operative complication rates (Clavien-Dindo Score). Incidence of complication with higher Clavien Dindo Score (>/=3a) was found to be lower in those patients operated during the pandemic (p=0.007). By meticulous preoperative COVID-19 screening and isolation, head and neck surgical procedures can be continued to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment without jeopardising the risk of transmission of COVID-19 to the patients or health-care workers.

18.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(12): 1743-1749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370593

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug which has in-vitro efficacy in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load. Hence, Ivermectin is under investigation as a repurposed agent for treating COVID-19. METHODS: In this pilot, double blind, randomized controlled trial, hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 were assigned to a single oral administration of an elixir formulation of Ivermectin at either 24 mg or 12 mg dose, or placebo in a 1:1:1 ratio. The co-primary outcomes were conversion of RT-PCR to negative result and the decline of viral load at day 5 of enrolment. Safety outcomes included total and serious adverse events. The primary outcomes were assessed in patients who had positive RT-PCR at enrolment (modified intention-to-treat population). Safety outcomes were assessed in all patients who received the intervention (intention-to-treat population). RESULTS: Among the 157 patients randomized, 125 were included in modified intention-to-treat analysis. 40 patients each were assigned to Ivermectin 24 mg and 12 mg, and 45 patients to placebo. The RT-PCR negativity at day 5 was higher in the two Ivermectin arms but failed to attain statistical significance (Ivermectin 24 mg, 47.5%; 12 mg arm, 35.0%; and placebo arm, 31.1%; p-value = 0.30). The decline of viral load at day 5 was similar in each arm. No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, a single oral administration of Ivermectin did not significantly increase either the negativity of RT-PCR or decline in viral load at day 5 of enrolment compared with placebo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
19.
Indian J Psychol Med ; 43(5): 428-435, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Year 2020 started with global health crisis known as COVID-19. In lack of established tools and management protocols, COVID-19 had become breeding ground for fear and confusion, leading to stigma toward affected individuals. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of stigma in discharged COVID-19 patients from a COVID hospital in India. Participants were approached telephonically using a semistructured questionnaire to record their experiences. Questions were asked regarding stigma at six major domains of daily life. Among total 1,673 discharged participants, 600 were conveniently selected and out of them 311 responded on telephonic interviews. RESULT: We found that 182 (58.52%) participants (95% CI: 53.04-64.00) have self-perceived stigma, 163 (52.41%) participants (95% CI: 46.86-57.96) experienced quarantine-related stigma, 222 (71.38%) participants (95% CI: 66.36-76.40) experienced neighborhood stigma, 214 (68.81%) participants (95% CI: 63.66-73.95) experienced stigma while going out in marketplaces, 180 (57.88%) participants (95% CI: 52.39-63.37) experienced stigma at their work place, and 207 (66.56%) participants (95% CI: 61.31-71.80) reported stigma experienced by their family members. With a total of 84.5% (95% CI: 80.06-88.39) participants experiencing stigma at some domain and about 42.8% of participants facing stigma at all six domains. The commonest noted cause of stigma was fear of getting infected, reported by 184 (59.2%) participants. CONCLUSION: This study shows high prevalence of stigma in COVID-19 patients suffering in their common domains of daily lives.

20.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 37(1): 51-56, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute loss of smell or anosmia is a common and sometimes the only symptom observed in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, time of onset, and duration of anosmia in patients with COVID-19 infection and the association of anosmia with other symptoms and eosinophil count. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, who were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic were assessed for olfaction with a nonirritant odor. The presence of anosmia was recorded, and a questionnaire integrating the anosmia reporting tool was filled. Patients with anosmia/hyposmia were followed telephonically at 7 and 14 days for resolution of anosmia and other symptoms. The presence of anosmia was correlated with eosinophil count. RESULTS: Of the 200 COVID-19 patients, 87% were symptomatic. More than half of the patients had fever (56%). Anosmia was observed in 30% of the patients and hyposmia in 4% of patients. In 41% of the patients, olfactory loss was reported before diagnosis. The mean duration of anosmia was 7.8 (± 5) days; 97% of patients recovered with a resolution of symptoms within 2 weeks. Ageusia was the most commonly and significantly associated symptom with anosmia (66%, n = 45) followed by sore throat (41%), and rhinorrhea (28%). The symptoms in both the sexes were comparable. Absolute eosinophil count of <40/µL was observed in 59 patients (29.5%) and an absolute eosinophil count of 0 in 17 patients (8.5%). Among the 68 anosmic patients, 36 (47%) patients had eosinopenia, which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Anosmia is an early and sometimes the only symptom in approximately one-third of the patients with COVID-19 infection. Eosinophil count should be checked in anosomic patient with suspicion of COVID-19 infection. Objective tools for olfactory and gustatory assessment should be brought into practice for early and prompt diagnosis to control the spread of the disease.

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