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Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 131: 261-276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866754


Numerous viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit or alter the host cell's apoptotic response as part of their coevolution with their hosts. The analysis of virus-host protein interactions require an in-depth understanding of both the viral and host protein structures and repertoires, as well as evolutionary mechanisms and pertinent biological facts. Throughout the course of a viral infection, there is constant battle for binding between virus and cellular proteins. Exogenous interfaces facilitating viral-host interactions are well known for constantly targeting and suppressing endogenous interfaces mediating intraspecific interactions, such as viral-viral and host-host connections. In these interactions, the protein-protein interactions (PPIs), are mostly shown as networks (protein interaction networks, PINs), with proteins represented as nodes and their interactions represented as edges. Host proteins with a higher degree of connectivity are more likely to interact with viral proteins. Due to technical advancements, three-dimensional interactions may now be visualized computationally utilizing molecular modeling and cryo-EM approaches. The uniqueness of viral domain repertoires, their evolution, and their activities during viral infection make viruses fascinating models for research. This chapter aims to provide readers a complete picture of the viral hijacking mechanism in protein-protein interactions.

Host Microbial Interactions , Viral Proteins , Humans , Viral Proteins/chemistry
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 129: 163-188, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653881


Selectin enzymes are glycoproteins and are an important adhesion molecule in the mammalian immune system, especially in the inflammatory response and the healing process of tissues. Selectins play an important role in a variety of biological processes, including the rolling of leukocytes in endothelial cells, a process known as the adhesion cascade. It has recently been discovered and reported that the selectin mechanism plays a role in cancer and thrombosis disease. This process begins with non-covalent interactions-based selectin-ligand binding and the glycans play a role as a connector between cancer cells and the endothelium in this process. The selectin mechanism is critical for the immune system, but it is also involved in disease mechanisms, earning the selectins the nickname "Selectins-The Two Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Faces". As a result, the drug for selectins should have a multifaceted role and be a dynamic molecule that targets the disease mechanism specifically. This chapter explores the role of selectins in the disease mechanism at the mechanism level that provides the impact for identifying the selectin inhibitors. Overall, this chapter provides the molecular level insights on selectins, their ligands, involvement in normal and disease mechanisms.

Endothelial Cells , Selectins , Animals , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Ligands , Mammals/metabolism , Selectins/metabolism