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1.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(3): 1243-1251, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increased mortality has been reported in the Latin American population. The objective is to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome of Latin American and Spanish populations in a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all the Latin American patients (born in South or Central America) hospitalized in our centre from February 2020 to February 2021 and compared them with an age- and gender-matched group of Spanish subjects. Variables included were demographics, co-morbidities, clinical and analytical parameters at admission and treatment received. The primary outcomes were ICU admission and mortality at 60 days. A conditional regression analysis was performed to evaluate the independent baseline predictors of both outcomes. RESULTS: From the 3216 patients in the whole cohort, 216 pairs of case-controls (Latin American and Spanish patients, respectively) with same age and gender were analysed. COPD was more frequent in the Spanish group, while HIV was more prevalent in the Latin American group. Other co-morbidities showed no significant difference. Both groups presented with similar numbers of days from symptom onset, but the Latin American population had a higher respiratory rate (21 vs. 20 bpm, P = 0.041), CRP (9.13 vs. 6.22 mg/dl, P = 0.001), ferritin (571 vs. 383 ng/ml, P = 0.012) and procalcitonin (0.10 vs. 0.07 ng/ml, P = 0.020) at admission and lower cycle threshold of PCR (27 vs. 28.8, P = 0.045). While ICU admission and IVM were higher in the Latin American group (17.1% vs. 13% and 9.7% vs. 5.1%, respectively), this was not statistically significant. Latin American patients received remdesivir and anti-inflammatory therapies more often, and no difference in the 60-day mortality rate was found (3.2% for both groups). CONCLUSION: Latin American patients with COVID-19 have more severe disease than Spanish patients, requiring ICU admission, antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapies more frequently. However, the mortality rate was similar in both groups.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5250, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764201

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone and tocilizumab have been associated with reduction in mortality, however, the beneficial effect is not for all patients and the impact on viral replication is not well defined. We hypostatized that C-reactive protein (CRP) could help in the identification of patients requiring anti-inflammatory therapy. Patients admitted for > 48 h in our hospital for a confirmed or suspected infection by SARS-CoV-2 from February 2020 to February 2021 were retrospectively evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality at 30 days. Demographics and the most relevant variables related with the outcome were included. CRP was stratified by percentiles. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. A total of 3218 patients were included with a median (IQR) age of 66 (74-78) years and 58.9% were males. The rate of intensive care unit admission was 24.4% and the 30-day mortality rate was 11.8%. Within the first 5 days from admission, 1018 (31.7%) patients received dexamethasone and 549 tocilizumab (17.1%). The crude analysis showed a mortality reduction in patients receiving dexamethasone when CRP was > 13.75 mg/dL and > 3.5 mg/dL for those receiving tocilizumab. Multivariate analysis identified the interaction of CRP > 13.75 mg/dL with dexamethasone (OR 0.57; CI 95% 0.37-0.89, P = 0014) and CRP > 3.5 mg/dL with tocilizumab (0.65; CI95%:0.44-0.95, P = 0.029) as independent predictors of mortality. Our results suggest that dexamethasone and tocilizumab are associated with a reduction in mortality when prescribed to patients with a certain inflammatory activity assessed by C-reactive protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0235121, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745797

ABSTRACT

Microbiological diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a challenge. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) represents the gold standard method, strategies that allow rapid and simple diagnosis are necessary for the early identification of cases. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of six different commercial rapid antigen tests (Coronavirus antigen [Ag] rapid test cassette [Healgen Scientific, Houston, TX, USA], COVID-19 Ag FIA [Vircell, SD Biosensor Inc., Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea], Clinitest rapid COVID-19 antigen test [Siemens, Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany], SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test [SD Biosensor; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland], Panbio COVID-19 Ag rapid test device [Abbott, Chicago, IL, USA], and SARS-CoV-2 test [MonLab, Barcelona, Spain]) in 130 nasopharyngeal swab samples tested previously by RT-PCR. The overall sensitivity of the rapid tests ranged from 65% to 79%, and the specificity was 100% for all of them. The sensitivity was higher for those samples with RT-PCR cycle threshold (CT) values below 25 and those from patients presenting within the first week of symptoms. The Siemens test showed the highest sensitivity for patients with high viral loads while the Vircell test performed better than the rest for CT values of ≥25. IMPORTANCE The rapid detection of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 is essential for a correct and effective control of the disease it causes. This process must be sensitive, fast, and simple, and it must be possible to carry out in any type of health center. Rapid antigen tests are the answer to this need. Knowing its ability to detect the virus in different stages of the disease is essential for a correct diagnosis, which is why this study has been carried out to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of 6 different antigens tests in nasopharyngeal smear samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of COVID-19 pandemic in Catalonia (Spain), the present study analyses respiratory samples collected by the primary care network using Acute Respiratory Infections Sentinel Surveillance System (PIDIRAC) during the 2019-2020 season to complement the pandemic surveillance system in place to detect SARS-CoV-2. The aim of the study is to describe whether SARS-CoV-2 was circulating before the first confirmed case was detected in Catalonia, on February 25th, 2020. METHODS: The study sample was made up of all samples collected by the PIDIRAC primary care network as part of the Influenza and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) surveillance system activities. The study on respiratory virus included coronavirus using multiple RT-PCR assays. All positive samples for human coronavirus were subsequently typed for HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E. Every respiratory sample was frozen at-80°C and retrospectively studied for SARS-CoV-2 detection. A descriptive study was performed, analysing significant differences among variables related to SARS-CoV- 2 cases comparing with rest of coronaviruses cases through a bivariate study with Chi-squared test and statistical significance at 95%. RESULTS: Between October 2019 and April 2020, 878 respiratory samples from patients with acute respiratory infection or influenza syndrome obtained by PIDIRAC were analysed. 51.9% tested positive for influenza virus, 48.1% for other respiratory viruses. SARS-CoV-2 was present in 6 samples. The first positive SARS-CoV-2 case had symptom onset on 2 March 2020. These 6 cases were 3 men and 3 women, aged between 25 and 50 years old. 67% had risk factors, none had previous travel history nor presented viral coinfection. All of them recovered favourably. CONCLUSION: Sentinel Surveillance PIDIRAC enhances global epidemiological surveillance by allowing confirmation of viral circulation and describes the epidemiology of generalized community respiratory viruses' transmission in Catalonia. The system can provide an alert signal when identification of a virus is not achieved in order to take adequate preparedness measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Surveillance , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(Suppl 3): iii33-iii49, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether real-time (rt)-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values can be utilized to guide clinical and infection-control decisions. This systematic review assesses the association between respiratory pathogen rt-PCR Ct values and clinical presentation or outcomes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases on 14-17 January 2020 for studies reporting the presence or absence of an association between Ct values and clinical presentation or outcomes, excluding animal studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and non-English language studies. RESULTS: Among 33 studies identified (reporting on between 9 and 4918 participants by pathogen), influenza (n = 11 studies; 4918 participants), human rhinovirus (HRV, n = 11; 2012) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, n = 8; 3290) were the most-studied pathogens. Low influenza Ct values were associated with mortality in 1/3 studies, with increased disease severity/duration or ICU admission in 3/9, and with increased hospitalization or length of hospital stay (LOS) in 1/6. Low HRV Ct values were associated with increased disease severity/duration or ICU admission in 3/10 studies, and with increased hospitalization or LOS in 1/3. Low RSV Ct values were associated with increased disease severity/duration or ICU admission in 3/6 studies, and with increased hospitalization or LOS in 4/4. Contradictory associations were also identified for other respiratory pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory infection Ct values may inform clinical and infection-control decisions. However, the study heterogeneity observed in this review highlights the need for standardized workflows to utilize Ct values as a proxy of genomic load and confirm their value for respiratory infection management.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313213

ABSTRACT

In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic in Catalonia (Spain), the first SARS-CoV-2 case confirmed was notified to the Catalonia Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RVEC) on 25 February 2020. The present study describes and analyses the respiratory samples obtained in primary care using PIDIRAC epidemiological sentinel surveillance system to complement the pandemic surveillance system activated, and describe whether SARS‑CoV-2 was circulating before the first case detected in Catalonia, between October 2019 and April 2020.During this period, 878 respiratory samples from patients with acute respiratory infection or influenza syndrome obtained by PIDIRAC epidemiological sentinel surveillance system were analysed. Of the total sample, 51.9% tested positive to influenza virus and 48.1% to other respiratory viruses, with SARS-CoV-2 being present in 6 samples. The first SARS‑CoV‑2 positive case showed the first symptoms on 2 March 2020. These were 3 men and 3 women aged between 25 and 50 years old (mean age 44.5 years old). Fever, general discomfort, coughing, chills, and arthromyalgia were the most frequent symptoms in the SARS-CoV-2 cases. Likewise, 44 samples that had tested positive for coronavirus during 2018-2019 were typed. They were all typed as one of the regular CoV, none of them being SARS-CoV-2.The acute respiratory infections sentinel surveillance system (PIDIRAC) reinforces the global epidemiological surveillance, allows to corroborate whether there is virus circulation or not, and helps confirm that generalised community transmission in Catalonia took place in mid-March.

7.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(1): 587-593, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682191

ABSTRACT

The immense impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health systems has motivated the scientific community to search for clinical prognostic factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Low cycle threshold values (Ct) of diagnostic real-time RT-PCR assays in hospitalized patients have been associated with a poor prognosis in several studies, whereas other studies did not find this association. We explored whether SARS-CoV-2 Ct values at diagnosis were associated with a poor outcome (admission to hospital and death) in 604 community patients diagnosed at primary health centers. Although lower Ct values were found in patients who died of COVID-19, the Ct value was not significantly associated with a worse outcome in a multivariate analysis, while age remained an independent prognostic factor. We did not find evidence to support the role of Ct values as a prognostic factor of COVID-19 in community cases.

8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0160921, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637303

ABSTRACT

Determining SARS-CoV-2 viral infectivity is crucial for patient clinical assessment and isolation decisions. We assessed subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) as a surrogate marker of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in SARS-CoV-2-positive reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) respiratory samples (n = 105) in comparison with viral culture as the reference standard for virus replication. sgRNA and viral isolation results were concordant in 99/105 cases (94%), indicating highly significant agreement between the two techniques (Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.97, P < 0.001). sgRNA RT-PCR showed a sensitivity of 97% and a positive predictive value of 94% to detect replication-competent virus, further supporting sgRNA as a surrogate marker of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. sgRNA RT-PCR is an accurate, rapid, and affordable technique that can overcome culture and cycle threshold (CT) value limitations and be routinely implemented in hospital laboratories to detect viral infectivity, which is essential for optimizing patient monitoring, the efficacy of treatments/vaccines, and work reincorporation policies, as well as for safely shortening isolation precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Humans , RNA , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcription
9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596325

ABSTRACT

Minimizing the effect of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires an adequate policy response that relies on good governance and coordination. This study aims to have a better comprehension of how AMR is understood and perceived by policy-makers and stakeholders in a multinational context. A digital survey was designed to capture the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions (KAP) towards AMR, and it was distributed to politicians, policy advisors, and stakeholders. A total of 351 individuals from 15 different countries participated, 80% from high-income countries (HICs) and 20% from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Netherlands, Spain, and Myanmar were the top 3 represented countries. Participants had sufficient knowledge regarding AMR and reported the importance of political willingness to tackle AMR. Overall, LMIC participants demonstrated better knowledge of AMR but showed poor perception and attitude towards antimicrobial use compared to HIC participants. In addition, level of education and field of expertise were significantly associated with knowledge, perception, and practices regardless of demographic characteristics. Inter-regional differences in KAP regarding AMR exist among politicians, policy advisors, and relevant stakeholders. This study captures multinational policy-maker and stakeholder mapping that can be used to propose further policy implementation on various governance levels.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl_5): S454-S464, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), a postmortem procedure that uses core needle biopsy samples and does not require opening the body, may be a valid alternative to complete autopsy (CA) in highly infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). This study aimed to (1) compare the performance of MITS and CA in a series of COVID-19 deaths and (2) evaluate the safety of the procedure. METHODS: From October 2020 to February 2021, MITS was conducted in 12 adults who tested positive before death for COVID-19, in a standard, well-ventilated autopsy room, where personnel used reinforced personal protective equipment. In 9 cases, a CA was performed after MITS. A thorough histological evaluation was conducted, and the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The diagnoses provided by MITS and CA matched almost perfectly. In 9 patients, COVID-19 was in the chain of events leading to death, being responsible for diffuse alveolar damage and mononuclear T-cell inflammatory response in the lungs. No specific COVID-19 features were identified. Three deaths were not related to COVID-19. All personnel involved in MITS repeatedly tested negative for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 was identified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in the MITS samples, particularly in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: MITS is useful for evaluating COVID-19-related deaths in settings where a CA is not feasible. The results of this simplified and safer technique are comparable to those of CA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Infect Dis ; 225(4): 587-592, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569705

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since 2019 has made mask-wearing, physical distancing, hygiene, and disinfection complementary measures to control virus transmission. Especially for health facilities, we evaluated the efficacy of an UV-C autonomous robot to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 desiccated on potentially contaminated surfaces. ASSUM (autonomous sanitary sterilization ultraviolet machine) robot was used in an experimental box simulating a hospital intensive care unit room. Desiccated SARS-CoV-2 samples were exposed to UV-C in 2 independent runs of 5, 12, and 20 minutes. Residual virus was eluted from surfaces and viral titration was carried out in Vero E6 cells. ASSUM inactivated SARS-CoV-2 by ≥ 99.91% to ≥ 99.99% titer reduction with 12 minutes or longer of UV-C exposure and onwards and a minimum distance of 100cm between the device and the SARS-CoV-2 desiccated samples. This study demonstrates that ASSUM UV-C device is able to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 within a few minutes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Robotics , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sterilization/methods , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans
13.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(1): 587-593, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509379

ABSTRACT

The immense impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health systems has motivated the scientific community to search for clinical prognostic factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Low cycle threshold values (Ct) of diagnostic real-time RT-PCR assays in hospitalized patients have been associated with a poor prognosis in several studies, whereas other studies did not find this association. We explored whether SARS-CoV-2 Ct values at diagnosis were associated with a poor outcome (admission to hospital and death) in 604 community patients diagnosed at primary health centers. Although lower Ct values were found in patients who died of COVID-19, the Ct value was not significantly associated with a worse outcome in a multivariate analysis, while age remained an independent prognostic factor. We did not find evidence to support the role of Ct values as a prognostic factor of COVID-19 in community cases.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1325-1332, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provides a highly variable cycle threshold (Ct) value that cannot distinguish viral infectivity. Subgenomic ribonucleic acid (sgRNA) has been used to monitor active replication. Given the importance of long RT-PCR positivity and the need for work reincorporation and discontinuing isolation, we studied the functionality of normalized viral loads (NVLs) for patient monitoring and sgRNA for viral infectivity detection. METHODS: The NVLs measured through the Nucleocapsid and RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase genes and sgRNA RT-PCRs were performed in 2 consecutive swabs from 84 healthcare workers. RESULTS: The NVLs provided similar and accurate quantities of both genes of SARS-CoV-2 at 2 different timepoints of infection, overcoming Ct-value and swab collection variability. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, 51.19% were sgRNA-positive in the 1st RT-PCR and 5.95% in the 2nd RT-PCR. All sgRNA-positive samples had >4 log10 RNA copies/1000 cells, whereas samples with ≤1 log10 NVLs were sgRNA-negative. Although NVLs were positive until 29 days after symptom onset, 84.1% of sgRNA-positive samples were from the first 7 days, which correlated with viral culture viability. Multivariate analyses showed that sgRNA, NVLs, and days of symptoms were significantly associated (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The NVLs and sgRNA are 2 rapid accessible techniques that could be easily implemented in routine hospital practice providing a useful proxy for viral infectivity and coronavirus disease 2019 patient follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/standards , Adult , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12): 3296-3302, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of remdesivir has demonstrated a significant reduction in the time to recovery in patients with COVID-19. However, the impact on mortality is still controversial. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate whether there is a specific subgroup of patients in whom an active antiviral therapy also reduces the mortality. METHODS: Patients admitted for >48 h in our hospital for a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected infection from February 2020 to February 2021 were retrospectively analysed. The primary outcome of the study was mortality at 30 days. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: In total, 2607 patients (438 receiving remdesivir and 2169 not) were included with a median (IQR) age of 65 (54-77) years and 58% were male. Four hundred and seventy-six were admitted to the ICU (18.3%) and 264 required invasive mechanical ventilation (10.1%). The global 30 day mortality rate was 10.7%. Pre-admission symptom duration of 4-6 days and ≤3 days was associated with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold increase in the mortality rate, respectively, in comparison with >6 days and treatment with remdesivir was independently associated with a lower mortality rate (OR = 0.382, 95% CI = 0.218-0.671). The analysis showed that the major difference was among patients with shorter pre-admission symptom duration (<6 days). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ≤3 days and 4-6 days from symptom onset to admission are associated with a 2.5- and 1.5-fold higher risk of death, respectively. Remdesivir was associated with 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care and its survival benefit increased with shorter duration of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(8): e0008921, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315793

ABSTRACT

A ceftolozane-tazobactam- and ceftazime-avibactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate was recovered after treatment (including azithromycin, meropenem, and ceftolozane-tazobactam) from a patient that had developed ventilator-associated pneumonia after COVID-19 infection. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the strain, belonging to ST274, had acquired a nonsense mutation leading to truncated carbapenem porin OprD (W277X), a 7-bp deletion (nt213Δ7) in NfxB (negative regulator of the efflux pump MexCD-OprJ), and two missense mutations (Q178R and S133G) located within the first large periplasmic loop of MexD. Through the construction of mexD mutants and complementation assays with wild-type nfxB, it was evidenced that resistance to the novel cephalosporin-ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations was caused by the modification of MexD substrate specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pseudomonas Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporinase , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/pharmacology
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 592500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229231

ABSTRACT

On March 12, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic following the exponential increase of SARS-CoV-2 cases. The rapid spread of the virus is due to both its high infectivity and the free circulation of unrecognized infectious cases. Thus, diagnostic testing is a key element to prevent further dissemination of the virus. Urged by WHO's call, laboratories worldwide have been working on nucleic acid tests protocols and immunoassays that became available, albeit poorly validated, within a comparatively short time. Since then, external studies evaluating these diagnostic tests have been published. The present study is a review of the COVID-19 diagnostic approaches, discussing both direct and indirect microbiological diagnoses. A compendium of the literature on commercial assays kits available to date is provided together with the conclusions drawn as well as RT-PCR protocols published by the WHO. Briefly, diagnostic accuracy varies according to time elapsed since symptom onset and evolves together with understanding of the COVID-19 disease. Taking into account all these variables will allow determining the most adequate diagnostic test to use and how to optimize diagnostic testing for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
J Autoimmun ; 117: 102580, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is increasing interest regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AI/IMID) with some discrepancies in different cohorts about their risk and outcomes. The aim was to describe a multidisciplinary cohort of patients with AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a single tertiary center and analyze sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic factors associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted from the 1st of March until May 29th, 2020 in a University tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Patients with an underlying AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified in our local SARS-CoV-2 infection database. Controls (2:1) were selected from the same database and matched by age and gender. The primary outcome was severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was a composite endpoint including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation (MV), and/or death. Several covariates including age, sex, and comorbidities among others were combined into a multivariate model having severe SARS-CoV-2 as the dependent variable. Also, a sensitivity analysis was performed evaluating AID and IMID separately. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of AI/IMID patients was 1.3%. Eighty-five patients with AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were identified, requiring hospitalization in 58 (68%) cases. A total of 175 patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 (58 with AI/IMID and 117 matched-controls) were analyzed. In logistic regression analysis, a significant inverse association between AI/IMID group and severe SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.12-0.61; p = 0.001), need of MV (OR 0.20; IC 95% 0.05-0.71; p = 0.014), and ICU admission (OR 0.25; IC 95% 0.10-0.62; p = 0.003) was found. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AI/IMID who require admission for SARS-CoV-2 infection have a lower risk of developing severe disease, including the need to stay in the ICU and MV.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Interdisciplinary Communication , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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