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1.
BioDrugs ; 36(4): 509-520, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The comparative safety profile of SARS-Cov2 vaccines requires further characterization in real-world settings. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the VigilVacCOVID study was to assess the short-term safety of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 during the vaccination campaign of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) at a hospital clinic. METHODS: We conducted an observational, prospective, single-center, post-authorization study to characterize short-term adverse reactions (ARs) after vaccination. The primary endpoint was to assess between-vaccine differences (HCPs receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) and between-population differences (HCPs and SOTRs, both receiving mRNA-1273) in the risk of any ARs. Propensity score and covariate-adjusted multivariate models were used. The key secondary endpoint was to provide a descriptive assessment of the frequencies and intensity distribution of ARs. RESULTS: We included 5088 HCPs and 1289 patients. mRNA-1273 showed greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2, with an odds ratio (OR) for any AR of 3.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.48-3.73; p value: < 0.001) and a higher frequency and intensity of reported ARs. Compared with HCPs vaccinated with mRNA-1273, SOTRs showed a lower risk of ARs (OR = 0.36; 95% CI 0.25-0.50), with fewer and less severe ARs. Age, sex, and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were statistically significant covariates for the risk of any AR. A history of drug allergy was significant in the comparison between vaccines (BNT162b2 vs. mRNA-1273), but not in that between SOTRs and HCPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that mRNA-1273 had greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2. Overall, both vaccines had an adequate tolerability profile. mRNA-1273 vaccination caused fewer ARs with milder severity in SOTRs.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
2.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103805, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two doses of mRNA vaccination have shown >94% efficacy at preventing COVID-19 mostly in naïve adults, but it is not clear if the second dose is needed to maximize effectiveness in those previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and what other factors affect responsiveness. METHODS: We measured IgA, IgG and IgM levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens from the wild-type and S from the Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants of concern, after BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccination in a cohort of health care workers (N=578). Neutralizing capacity and antibody avidity were evaluated. Data were analyzed in relation to COVID-19 history, comorbidities, vaccine doses, brand and adverse events. FINDINGS: Vaccination induced robust IgA and IgG levels against all S antigens. Neutralization capacity and S IgA and IgG levels were higher in mRNA-1273 vaccinees, previously SARS-CoV-2 exposed, particularly if symptomatic, and in those experiencing systemic adverse effects (p<0·05). A second dose in pre-exposed did not increase antibody levels. Smoking and comorbidities were associated with 43% (95% CI, 19-59) and 45% (95% CI, 63-18) lower neutralization, respectively, and 35% (95% CI, 3-57%) and 55% (95% CI, 33-70%) lower antibody levels, respectively. Among fully vaccinated, 6·3% breakthroughs were detected up to 189 days post-vaccination. Among pre-exposed non-vaccinated, 90% were IgG seropositive more than 300 days post-infection. INTERPRETATION: Our data support administering a single-dose in pre-exposed healthy individuals as primary vaccination. However, heterogeneity of responses suggests that personalized recommendations may be necessary depending on COVID-19 history and life-style. Higher mRNA-1273 immunogenicity would be beneficial for those expected to respond worse to vaccination and in face of variants that escape immunity such as Omicron. Persistence of antibody levels in pre-exposed unvaccinated indicates maintenance of immunity up to one year. FUNDING: This work was supported by Institut de Salut Global de Barcelona (ISGlobal) internal funds, in-kind contributions from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, the Fundació Privada Daniel Bravo Andreu, and European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Health (grant number 20877), supported by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, a body of the European Union receiving support from the H2020 Research and Innovation Programme. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and State Research Agency through the "Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019-2023" Program (CEX2018-000806-S), and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program. L. I. work was supported by PID2019-110810RB-I00 grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science & Innovation. Development of SARS-CoV-2 reagents was partially supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (contract number HHSN272201400008C). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, the decision to publish, or the preparation of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(2): e513, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1717645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Preventive Medicine Department and the Occupational Health Department at Hospital Clinic de Barcelona (HCB), a large Spanish referral hospital, developed an innovative comprehensive SARS-CoV2 Surveillance and Control System (CoSy-19) in order to preserve patients' and health care workers' (HCWs) safety. We aim to describe the CoSy-19 and to assess the impact in the number of contacts that new cases generated along this time. METHODS: Observational descriptive study of the findings of the activity of contact tracing of all cases received at the HCB during the first peak of COVID-19 in Spain (February 25th-May 3rd, 2020). RESULTS: A team of 204 professionals and volunteers performed 384 in-hospital contact-tracing studies which generated contacts, detecting 298 transmission chains which suggested preventive measures, generated around 22 000 follow-ups and more than 30 000 days of work leave. The number of contacts that new cases generated decreased during the study period. CONCLUSION: Coordination between Preventive Medicine and Occupational Health departments and agile information systems were necessary to preserve non-COVID activity and workers safety.

4.
J Nephrol ; 35(3): 769-778, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701774

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Given the increased COVID-19 observed in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and haemodialysis patients, several studies have tried to establish the efficacy of mRNA vaccines in these populations by evaluating their humoral and cellular responses. However, there is currently no information on clinical protection (deaths and hospitalizations), a gap that this study aims to fill. METHODS: Observational prospective study involving 1,336 KTRs and haemodialysis patients from three dialysis units affiliated to Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, Spain, vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. The outcomes measured were SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed by a positive RT-PCR fourteen days after the second vaccine dose, hospital admissions derived from infection, and a severe COVID-19 composite outcome, defined as either ICU admission, invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: Six per cent (18/302) of patients on haemodialysis were infected, of whom four required hospital admission (1.3%), only one (0.3%) had severe COVID-19, and none of them died. In contrast, 4.3% (44/1034) of KTRs were infected, and presented more hospital admissions (26 patients, 2.5%), severe COVID-19 (11 patients, 1.1%) or death (4 patients, 0.4%). KTRs had a significantly higher risk of hospital admission than HD patients, and this risk increased with age and male sex (HR 3.37 and 4.74, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the need for booster doses in KTRs. In contrast, the haemodialysis population appears to have an adequate clinical response to vaccination, at least up to four months from its administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1325-1332, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provides a highly variable cycle threshold (Ct) value that cannot distinguish viral infectivity. Subgenomic ribonucleic acid (sgRNA) has been used to monitor active replication. Given the importance of long RT-PCR positivity and the need for work reincorporation and discontinuing isolation, we studied the functionality of normalized viral loads (NVLs) for patient monitoring and sgRNA for viral infectivity detection. METHODS: The NVLs measured through the Nucleocapsid and RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase genes and sgRNA RT-PCRs were performed in 2 consecutive swabs from 84 healthcare workers. RESULTS: The NVLs provided similar and accurate quantities of both genes of SARS-CoV-2 at 2 different timepoints of infection, overcoming Ct-value and swab collection variability. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, 51.19% were sgRNA-positive in the 1st RT-PCR and 5.95% in the 2nd RT-PCR. All sgRNA-positive samples had >4 log10 RNA copies/1000 cells, whereas samples with ≤1 log10 NVLs were sgRNA-negative. Although NVLs were positive until 29 days after symptom onset, 84.1% of sgRNA-positive samples were from the first 7 days, which correlated with viral culture viability. Multivariate analyses showed that sgRNA, NVLs, and days of symptoms were significantly associated (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The NVLs and sgRNA are 2 rapid accessible techniques that could be easily implemented in routine hospital practice providing a useful proxy for viral infectivity and coronavirus disease 2019 patient follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/standards , Adult , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4740, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345557

ABSTRACT

Unraveling the long-term kinetics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and the individual characteristics influencing it, including the impact of pre-existing antibodies to human coronaviruses causing common cold (HCoVs), is essential to understand protective immunity to COVID-19 and devise effective surveillance strategies. IgM, IgA and IgG levels against six SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the nucleocapsid antigen of the four HCoV (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1) were quantified by Luminex, and antibody neutralization capacity was assessed by flow cytometry, in a cohort of health care workers followed up to 7 months (N = 578). Seroprevalence increases over time from 13.5% (month 0) and 15.6% (month 1) to 16.4% (month 6). Levels of antibodies, including those with neutralizing capacity, are stable over time, except IgG to nucleocapsid antigen and IgM levels that wane. After the peak response, anti-spike antibody levels increase from ~150 days post-symptom onset in all individuals (73% for IgG), in the absence of any evidence of re-exposure. IgG and IgA to HCoV are significantly higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic seropositive individuals. Thus, pre-existing cross-reactive HCoVs antibodies could have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood
7.
Am J Transplant ; 21(12): 3971-3979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320381

ABSTRACT

Recently published studies have found an impaired immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in solid organ recipients. However, most of these studies have not assessed immune cellular responses in liver and heart transplant recipients. We prospectively studied heart and liver transplant recipients eligible for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Patients with past history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or SARS-CoV-2 detectable antibodies (IgM or IgG) were excluded. We assessed IgM/IgG antibodies and ELISpot against the S protein 4 weeks after receiving the second dose of the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. Side effects, troponin I, liver tests and anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSA) were also assessed. A total of 58 liver and 46 heart recipients received two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Median time from transplantation to vaccination was 5.4 years (IQR 0.3-27). Sixty-four percent of the patients developed SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies and 79% S-ELISpot positivity. Ninety percent of recipients developed either humoral or cellular response (87% in heart recipients and 93% in liver recipients). Factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness were hypogammaglobulinemia and vaccination during the first year after transplantation. Local and systemic side effects were mild or moderate, and none presented DSA or graft dysfunction after vaccination. Ninety percent of our patients did develop humoral or cellular responses to mRNA-1273 vaccine. Factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness were hypogammaglobulinemia and vaccination during the first year after transplantation, highlighting the need to further protect these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Liver , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
8.
Euro Surveill ; 26(20)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273317

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPopulation-based studies characterising outcomes of COVID-19 in European settings are limited, and effects of socio-economic status (SES) on outcomes have not been widely investigated. AimWe describe the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases, highlighting incidence and mortality rate differences across SES during the first wave in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.MethodsThis population-based study reports individual-level data of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases diagnosed from 24 February to 4 May 2020, notified to the Public Health Agency of Barcelona and followed until 15 June 2020. We analysed end-of-study vital status and the effects of chronic conditions on mortality using logistic regression. Geocoded addresses were linked to basic health area SES data, estimated using the composed socio-economic index. We estimated age-standardised incidence, hospitalisation, and mortality rates by SES.ResultsOf 15,554 COVID-19-confirmed cases, the majority were women (n = 9,028; 58%), median age was 63 years (interquartile range: 46-83), 8,046 (54%) required hospitalisation, and 2,287 (15%) cases died. Prevalence of chronic conditions varied across SES, and multiple chronic conditions increased risk of death (≥ 3, adjusted odds ratio: 2.3). Age-standardised rates (incidence, hospitalisation, mortality) were highest in the most deprived SES quartile (incidence: 1,011 (95% confidence interval (CI): 975-1,047); hospitalisation: 619 (95% CI: 591-648); mortality: 150 (95% CI: 136-165)) and lowest in the most affluent (incidence: 784 (95% CI: 759-809); hospitalisation: 400 (95% CI: 382-418); mortality: 121 (95% CI: 112-131)).ConclusionsCOVID-19 outcomes varied markedly across SES, underscoring the need to implement effective preventive strategies for vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Status , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2727-2739, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243589

ABSTRACT

According to preliminary data, seroconversion after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination might be unsatisfactory in Kidney Transplant Recipients (KTRs). However, it is unknown if seronegative patients develop at least a cellular response that could offer a certain grade of protection against SARS-CoV-2. To answer this question, we prospectively studied 148 recipients of either kidney (133) or kidney-pancreas (15) grafts with assessment of IgM/IgG spike (S) antibodies and ELISpot against the nucleocapside (N) and the S protein at baseline and 2 weeks after receiving the second dose of the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. At baseline, 31 patients (20.9%) had either IgM/IgG or ELISpot positivity and were considered to be SARS-CoV-2-pre-immunized, while 117 (79.1%) patients had no signs of either cellular or humoral response and were considered SARS-CoV-2-naïve. After vaccination, naïve patients who developed either humoral or cellular response were finally 65.0%, of which 29.9% developed either IgG or IgM and 35.0% S-ELISpot positivity. Factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness were diabetes and treatment with antithymocytes globulins during the last year. Side effects were consistent with that of the pivotal trial and no DSAs developed after vaccination. In conclusion, mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicits either cellular or humoral response in almost two thirds of KTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 147816, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240609

ABSTRACT

A new bioinspired computational model was developed for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic using the available epidemiological information, high-resolution population density data, travel patterns, and the average number of contacts between people. The effectiveness of control measures such as contact reduction measures, closure of communities (lockdown), protective measures (social distancing, face mask wearing, and hand hygiene), and vaccination were modelled to examine possibilities for control of the disease under several protective vaccination levels in the population. Lockdown and contact reduction measures only delay the spread of the virus in the population because it resumes its previous dynamics as soon as the restrictions are lifted. Nevertheless, these measures are probably useful to avoid hospitals being overwhelmed in the short term. Our model predicted that 56% of the Spanish population would have been infected and subsequently recovered over a 130 day period if no protective measures were taken but this percentage would have been only 34% if protective measures had been put in place. Moreover, this percentage would have been further reduced to 41.7, 27.7, and 13.3% if 25, 50 and 75% of the population had been vaccinated, respectively. Finally, this percentage would have been even lower at 25.5, 12.1 and 7.9% if 25, 50 and 75% of the population had been vaccinated in combination with the application of protective measures, respectively. Therefore, a combination of protective measures and vaccination would be highly efficacious in decreasing not only the number of those who become infected and subsequently recover, but also the number of people who die from infection, which falls from 0.41% of the population over a 130 day period without protective measures to 0.15, 0.08 and 0.06% if 25, 50 and 75% of the population had been vaccinated in combination with protective measures at the same time, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(4): 29, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a matter of great concern worldwide. After the first wave, several countries, notably in the European Union, are suffering a very rapid increase in the number of cases in the pandemic second wave. Health systems are under stress; hospital beds and ICU beds are increasingly occupied by COVID-19 patients, and hospitals are struggling to keep their normal operations. We review some basic epidemiological data of this new disease, regarding its appearance, reproductive rate, ways of transmission, number of cases, death rate, usefulness of diagnostic tests, basic treatment options, and prevention and control strategies, including vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: The basic control strategy falls into two well established categories: active attack (control) or organized defense (mitigation). The control strategy relies on classic testing, tracing, and tracking possible cases of COVID-19. Those actions draw from classical epidemiology: to actively find and detect cases, isolate if positive for 10 days and treat when needed. At the same time, the search for close contacts, test them when needed and quarantine and monitor for 10 to 14 days in order to break chains of transmission. The mitigation strategy include basic measures to protect people at increased risk of severe illness, like social distancing, wearing a mask when social distancing is not possible, avoiding crowds, avoiding indoor crowded spaces, increase ventilation indoors and washing or sanitizing hands often. They include also targeted restrictions in people's mobility, and lock-downs, widely used during the first wave in order to spare the health system, become overwhelmed and increasingly used in Europe once more in the current strong second wave. Waiting for effective and safe vaccines and treatments, stopping the ongoing COVID-19 transmission is our only defense wall. We do not know yet which strategy or strategies worked best. We all must work as a team to give an adequate response to this pandemic. We have just one world and one health. Nobody will be safe until everybody is safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187071

ABSTRACT

We developed an agent-based stochastic model, based on P Systems methodology, to decipher the effects of vaccination and contact tracing on the control of COVID-19 outbreak at population level under different control measures (social distancing, mask wearing and hand hygiene) and epidemiological scenarios. Our findings suggest that without the application of protection social measures, 56.1% of the Spanish population would contract the disease with a mortality of 0.4%. Assuming that 20% of the population was protected by vaccination by the end of the summer of 2021, it would be expected that 45% of the population would contract the disease and 0.3% of the population would die. However, both of these percentages are significantly lower when social measures were adopted, being the best results when social measures are in place and 40% of contacts traced. Our model shows that if 40% of the population can be vaccinated, even without social control measures, the percentage of people who die or recover from infection would fall from 0.41% and 56.1% to 0.16% and 33.5%, respectively compared with an unvaccinated population. When social control measures were applied in concert with vaccination the percentage of people who die or recover from infection diminishes until 0.10% and 14.5%, after vaccinating 40% of the population. Vaccination alone can be crucial in controlling this disease, but it is necessary to vaccinate a significant part of the population and to back this up with social control measures.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 62-71, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the COVID-19 spring 2020 pandemic peak in Spain, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of 578 randomly selected health care workers (HCWs) from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona was 11.2%. METHODS: A follow-up survey 1 month later (April-May 2020) measured infection by rRT-PCR and IgM, IgA, and IgG to the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein by Luminex. Antibody kinetics, including IgG subclasses, was assessed until month 3. RESULTS: At month 1, the prevalence of infection measured by rRT-PCR and serology was 14.9% (84/565) and seroprevalence 14.5% (82/565). We found 25 (5%) new infections in 501 participants without previous evidence of infection. IgM, IgG, and IgA levels declined in 3 months (antibody decay rates 0.15 [95% CI, .11-.19], 0.66 [95% CI, .54-.82], and 0.12 [95% CI, .09-.16], respectively), and 68.33% of HCWs had seroreverted for IgM, 3.08% for IgG, and 24.29% for IgA. The most frequent subclass responses were IgG1 (highest levels) and IgG2, followed by IgG3, and only IgA1 but no IgA2 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous and improved surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in HCWs remains critical, particularly in high-risk groups. The observed fast decay of IgA and IgM levels has implications for seroprevalence studies using these isotypes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3500, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635939

ABSTRACT

Health care workers (HCW) are a high-risk population to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection from patients or other fellow HCW. This study aims at estimating the seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of HCW from a large hospital in Spain. Of the 578 participants recruited from 28 March to 9 April 2020, 54 (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1-12.0) were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG and/or IgA against SARS-CoV-2. The cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (presence of antibodies or past or current positive rRT-PCR) was 11.2% (65/578, 95% CI: 8.8-14.1). Among those with evidence of past or current infection, 40.0% (26/65) had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19. Here we report a relatively low seroprevalence of antibodies among HCW at the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Spain. A large proportion of HCW with past or present infection had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19, which calls for active periodic rRT-PCR testing in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
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