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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317149

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to COVID-19 usually results in respiratory disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are of major clinical interest. Intestinal symptoms of COVID-19 are present in a significant number of patients, and include nausea, diarrhea, and viral RNA shedding in feces. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived intestinal organoids (HIOs) represent an inexhaustible cellular resource that could serve as a valuable tool to study SARS-CoV-2 as well as other enteric viruses that infect the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 productively infects both proximally and distally patterned HIOs, leading to the release of infectious viral particles while stimulating a robust transcriptomic response, including a significant upregulation of interferon-related genes that appeared to be conserved across multiple epithelial cell types. These findings illuminate a potential inflammatory epithelial-specific signature that may contribute to both the multisystemic nature of COVID-19 as well as its highly variable clinical presentation.Funding: This work was supported by Evergrande MassCPR and Fast Grants awards to EM. AM is supported by the Kilachand Multicellular Design Program at Boston University. GM is supported by NIH Grants N0175N92020C00005 and 1R01DA051889-01.Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.

2.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 322(3): L462-L478, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622104

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to understand how SARS-CoV-2 infects the airway epithelium and in a subset of individuals leads to severe illness or death. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a near limitless supply of human cells that can be differentiated into cell types of interest, including airway epithelium, for disease modeling. We present a human iPSC-derived airway epithelial platform, composed of the major airway epithelial cell types, that is permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Subsets of iPSC-airway cells express the SARS-CoV-2 entry factors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Multiciliated cells are the primary initial target of SARS-CoV-2 infection. On infection with SARS-CoV-2, iPSC-airway cells generate robust interferon and inflammatory responses, and treatment with remdesivir or camostat mesylate causes a decrease in viral propagation and entry, respectively. In conclusion, iPSC-derived airway cells provide a physiologically relevant in vitro model system to interrogate the pathogenesis of, and develop treatment strategies for, COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Epithelial Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750471

ABSTRACT

The most severe and fatal infections with SARS-CoV-2 result in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a clinical phenotype of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is associated with virions targeting the epithelium of the distal lung, particularly the facultative progenitors of this tissue, alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s). Little is known about the initial responses of human lung alveoli to SARS-CoV-2 infection due in part to inability to access these cells from patients, particularly at early stages of disease. Here we present an in vitro human model that simulates the initial apical infection of the distal lung epithelium with SARS-CoV-2, using AT2s that have been adapted to air-liquid interface culture after their derivation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iAT2s). We find that SARS-CoV-2 induces a rapid global transcriptomic change in infected iAT2s characterized by a shift to an inflammatory phenotype predominated by the secretion of cytokines encoded by NF-kB target genes, delayed epithelial interferon responses, and rapid loss of the mature lung alveolar epithelial program. Over time, infected iAT2s exhibit cellular toxicity that can result in the death of these key alveolar facultative progenitors, as is observed in vivo in COVID-19 lung autopsies. Importantly, drug testing using iAT2s confirmed the efficacy of TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating putative mechanisms used for viral entry in human alveolar cells. Our model system reveals the cell-intrinsic responses of a key lung target cell to infection, providing a platform for further drug development and facilitating a deeper understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

5.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(4): 940-953, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually results in respiratory disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are of major clinical interest. Intestinal symptoms of COVID-19 are present in a significant number of patients, and include nausea, diarrhea, and viral RNA shedding in feces. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids (HIOs) represent an inexhaustible cellular resource that could serve as a valuable tool to study SARS-CoV-2 as well as other enteric viruses that infect the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 productively infects both proximally and distally patterned HIOs, leading to the release of infectious viral particles while stimulating a robust transcriptomic response, including a significant upregulation of interferon-related genes that appeared to be conserved across multiple epithelial cell types. These findings illuminate a potential inflammatory epithelial-specific signature that may contribute to both the multisystemic nature of COVID-19 as well as its highly variable clinical presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Colon/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Organoids/pathology , Cell Line , Colon/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Inflammation/virology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Models, Biological , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1104-1122.e9, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933377

ABSTRACT

Human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causative pathogen of the COVID-19 pandemic, exerts a massive health and socioeconomic crisis. The virus infects alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s), leading to lung injury and impaired gas exchange, but the mechanisms driving infection and pathology are unclear. We performed a quantitative phosphoproteomic survey of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived AT2s (iAT2s) infected with SARS-CoV-2 at air-liquid interface (ALI). Time course analysis revealed rapid remodeling of diverse host systems, including signaling, RNA processing, translation, metabolism, nuclear integrity, protein trafficking, and cytoskeletal-microtubule organization, leading to cell cycle arrest, genotoxic stress, and innate immunity. Comparison to analogous data from transformed cell lines revealed respiratory-specific processes hijacked by SARS-CoV-2, highlighting potential novel therapeutic avenues that were validated by a high hit rate in a targeted small molecule screen in our iAT2 ALI system.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Cytoskeleton , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Transport , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells
7.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(6): 962-973.e7, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779662

ABSTRACT

A hallmark of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is SARS-CoV-2 infection of the facultative progenitors of lung alveoli, the alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s). However, inability to access these cells from patients, particularly at early stages of disease, limits an understanding of disease inception. Here, we present an in vitro human model that simulates the initial apical infection of alveolar epithelium with SARS-CoV-2 by using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived AT2s that have been adapted to air-liquid interface culture. We find a rapid transcriptomic change in infected cells, characterized by a shift to an inflammatory phenotype with upregulation of NF-κB signaling and loss of the mature alveolar program. Drug testing confirms the efficacy of remdesivir as well as TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating a putative mechanism used for viral entry in alveolar cells. Our model system reveals cell-intrinsic responses of a key lung target cell to SARS-CoV-2 infection and should facilitate drug development.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Inflammation/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Drug Development , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , RNA-Seq , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637839

ABSTRACT

The most severe and fatal infections with SARS-CoV-2 result in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a clinical phenotype of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is associated with virions targeting the epithelium of the distal lung, particularly the facultative progenitors of this tissue, alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s). Little is known about the initial responses of human lung alveoli to SARS-CoV-2 infection due in part to inability to access these cells from patients, particularly at early stages of disease. Here we present an in vitro human model that simulates the initial apical infection of the distal lung epithelium with SARS-CoV-2, using AT2s that have been adapted to air-liquid interface culture after their derivation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iAT2s). We find that SARS-CoV-2 induces a rapid global transcriptomic change in infected iAT2s characterized by a shift to an inflammatory phenotype predominated by the secretion of cytokines encoded by NF-kB target genes, delayed epithelial interferon responses, and rapid loss of the mature lung alveolar epithelial program. Over time, infected iAT2s exhibit cellular toxicity that can result in the death of these key alveolar facultative progenitors, as is observed in vivo in COVID-19 lung autopsies. Importantly, drug testing using iAT2s confirmed an antiviral dose-response to remdesivir and demonstrated the efficacy of TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating a putative mechanism used for viral entry in human alveolar cells. Our model system reveals the cell-intrinsic responses of a key lung target cell to infection, providing a physiologically relevant platform for further drug development and facilitating a deeper understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

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