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2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 524: 11-17, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term kinetics of anti-RBD IgG and neutralizing antibodies were analyzed in a cohort of COVID-19 naïve health care workers (HCW) undergoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: An anti-RBD IgG immunoassay and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) were performed at different time points up to 6 months after vaccination in 57 HCWs. Values of anti-RBD IgG predicting an high neutralizing bioactivity (>60%) were also calculated. RESULTS: Mean (range) values of anti-RBD IgG were 294.7 (11.6-1554), 2583 (398-8391), 320.4 (42.3-1134) BAU/mL at T1 (21 days after the 1st dose [T0]), T2 (30 days after the 2nd dose) and T3 (+180 days after T0), respectively. Mean (range) percentages of neutralization (NS%) were 24 (0-76), 86 (59-96) and 82 (52-99) at T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Anti-RBD IgG values and NS% were positively correlated at T2 and T3 while anti-RBD IgG value predicting a NS% > 60 markedly differed at T2 and T3 (594 vs. 108 BAU/mL, respectively). CONCLUSION: While a high neutralizing bioactivity was maintained at least 6 months after vaccination in almost all individuals, the mean values of anti-RBD-IgG showed a marked decline at 6 months. The absolute value of anti-RBD IgG is a poor marker of neutralizing bioactivity.

3.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 576-583, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366407

ABSTRACT

The development of vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection has mainly relied on the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, but there is growing evidence that T cell immune response can contribute to protection as well. In this study, an anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody assay and an INFγ-release assay (IGRA) were used to detect humoral and cellular responses to the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine in three separate cohorts of COVID-19-naïve patients: 108 healthcare workers (HCWs), 15 elderly people, and 5 autoimmune patients treated with immunosuppressive agents. After the second dose of vaccine, the mean values of anti-RBD antibodies (Abs) and INFγ were 123.33 U/mL (range 27.55-464) and 1513 mIU/mL (range 145-2500) in HCWs and 210.7 U/mL (range 3-500) and 1167 mIU/mL (range 83-2500) in elderly people. No correlations between age and immune status were observed. On the contrary, a weak but significant positive correlation was found between INFγ and anti-RBD Abs values (rho = 0.354, p = 0.003). As to the autoimmune cohort, anti-RBD Abs were not detected in the two patients with absent peripheral CD19+B cells, despite high INFγ levels being observed in all 5 patients after vaccination. Even though the clinical relevance of T cell response has not yet been established as a correlate of vaccine-induced protection, IGRA testing has showed optimal sensitivity and specificity to define vaccine responders, even in patients lacking a cognate antibody response to the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
5.
Pract Lab Med ; 25: e00227, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203246

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently many serological assays for detection of antibodies to SARS-COV-2 virus were introduced on the market. Aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of an automated CLIA for quantitative detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies. Methods: A total of 354 sera, 89 from consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (43 mild, 32 severe and 13 critical) and 265 from asymptomatic and negative on rRT-PCR testing healthcare workers, were evaluated for IgM and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with MAGLUMI immunoassay. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% (95%CI: 77.6-92.8) and 98.5% (95%CI:96.2-99.6), respectively. PPV, PPN, LR+, LR- and OR were 95.1 (95%CI: 87.8-98.6), 95.6 (95%CI: 92.4-97.7), 57.3 (95%CI: 21.6-152.1), 7.3 (95%CI: 4.31-12.4) and 418.6 (95%CI: 131.2-1335.2), respectively. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were 1.22 â€‹± â€‹1.2 AU/mL and 15.86 â€‹± â€‹24.83 AU/mL, 2.86 â€‹± â€‹2.4 AU/mL and 69.3 â€‹± â€‹55.5 AU/mL, 2.47 â€‹± â€‹1.33 AU/mL and 83.9 â€‹± â€‹83.9 AU/mL in mild, severe and critical COVID-19 groups, respectively. A significant difference in antibody levels between mild and severe/critical subjects has been shown. Conclusions: The CLIA assay showed good diagnostic performance and a significant association between antibody levels and severity of the disease was found.

6.
Riv. Ital. Med. Labor. ; 1(16): 1-3, 20200301.
Article in Italian | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-661651

ABSTRACT

In the dramatic framework of COVID-19 pandemic, laboratory medicine has a critical role in research and clinical setting. The etiological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR methods is the basis for therapeutic and preventive interventions. The huge request of these results is determining heavy reorganizations and work in the laboratories. New tests for COVID-19 antibodies are growing in number but are not validated. They could be used for confirming diagnosis and defining immunization for therapeutic, epidemiologic and preventive purposes. Nevertheless, this critical diagnostics has to be determined in certificated Laboratories, by expert professionals, correctly interpreted, and connected to public healthcare institutions. The role of Laboratory Medicine is essential in the management of COVID-19 pandemic, like in the “normal” life of patients and citizens, and should not be forgotten, when the wave has passed.

7.
Riv. Ital. Med. Labor. ; 1(16): 7-17, 20200301.
Article in Italian | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-659439

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection (SARS-CoV-2) is a viral disease first encountered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, then rapidly spreading around the world. During this current public health emergency of international concern, screening and diagnosing patients quickly in order to aid containment is a priority. Most of our knowledge on diagnostics comes from previous studies on SARSCoV. Since SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same large family of viruses as those that cause the MERS and SARS outbreak, we could assume that its antibody generation process should be similar. The high contagiousness and the characteristics of high lethality of the epidemic require efficient diagnostics, able to quickly identify the sources of the infection. The identification of patients with active SARS-CoV-2 infection is currently based on the amplification of a viral genome sequence using molecular biology techniques (real-time polymerase chain reaction), which can be subsequently confirmed by gene sequencing. However, the variability linked to the execution of the swab and the limitations of the test (complexity, biosecurity levels, costs and long response times) makes molecular diagnostics unsuitable for use in the field. Consequently, new tools such as serological tests capable of tracking the virus through each phase of the disease are in great demand. Serological antibody tests are already being developed and have already been introduced to the market. To date, however, there is no robust scientific evidence on the clinical-diagnostic reliability of these tests which therefore, at the moment, cannot replace the molecular test. The few studies in the literature are of limited thickness, sometimes discordant with each other and conducted on a small scale mainly on the Chinese population. In the absence of specific references, there is an open debate on the best use of these serological tests and on the ideal moment of their execution. In this review we describe the main characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the diagnostic molecular strategies available today, and the first experimental data on the determination of antibodies directed towards SARS-CoV-2.

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