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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331285

ABSTRACT

Background: Quarantine and isolation measures during COVID-19 pandemic may have caused additional stress and challenged mental health of the youth. Aim of the study is to investigate the COVID-19 pandemic impact on neuropsychological disorders (NPD) of Italian children and adolescents to provide general pediatric recommendations.Material and methodsA retrospective multicenter observational study was planned by the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP) to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the access of children to pediatric Emergency Departments (pED) for the evaluation of neuropsychological symptoms, collecting the classification codes of diagnoses between March 1, 2019 and March 2, 2021. The period study was split into two sub-periods: a pre COVID-19 period (from March 1 2019 to March 1, 2020) and a COVID-19 period (from March 2, 2020 to March 2, 2021). As additional information, data on NPD hospitalizations in any pediatric department of the involved centers were recorded.ResultsDuring the study period, a total of 533,318 children were admitted to the pED involved in the study. Despite a 48.2% decline of pED admissions, there was a significant increase (83.1%) in patient admissions for NPD. The most frequent NPD conditions which increased during the COVID-19 pandemic were suicidal ideation (+ 147%), depression (+ 115%), eating disorder (+ 78.4%), and psychosis (+ 17.2%). During the pandemic period, a 39.5% increase in NPD hospitalizations was observed as well. The NPD disorders that mostly required hospitalizations were suicidal ideation (+ 134%), depression (+ 41.4%), eating disorder (+ 31.4%), and drug abuse (+ 26.7%).DiscussionThe COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on children's health, mainly on their NPD development. Neuropsychological assessment should be required at the primary level, in the pediatrician's office, to facilitate early capture of the sign of impairment and provide an adequate treatment.Conclusion. SIP underlines the psychological consequences of COVID 19 pandemic on the youngest and recommend an early identification of NPD in the pediatric population to avoid other serious consequences for children's physical and mental health.

2.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748380

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and home confinement had a significant impact on children, especially on those with eating disorders (ED). The primary objective of this retrospective study was to describe and analyze the demographic and clinical profiles of children presenting with ED during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of clinical charts of patients with ED younger than 18 years who accessed the emergency department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, between March 2019 and March 2021. Of these, we reported and compared the demographic, clinical and laboratory data before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and looked for predictors of ED severity. RESULTS: A total of 211 admissions for ED were recorded. The patients, mostly females (86.3%) were on average 14.1 years old. The mean weight loss on admission was 11 kg. Bradycardia was observed in 31.3% of the study sample. 16.6% of patients had an associated psychiatric disorder and 60.2% required psychotropic drugs. 68.7% of the patients required hospitalization. Respectively, 96 and 115 patients were admitted before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The latter were hospitalized more (78.3 vs 57.3%; p = 0.001), yet for less time (19 vs 26 days; p = 0.004), had a higher mean serum creatinine (0.68 vs 0.47; p < 0.001) and were more frequently diagnosed with an associated psychiatric disorder (23.5 vs 8.3%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our study shows a significant increase of hospitalizations of children with ED during the COVID-19 pandemic, along with a shorter length of stay, more psychiatric comorbidities, and some distinctive features at the laboratory work-up, such as an increase of serum creatinine and/or a reduction of serum albumin. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies.

3.
Acta Paediatr ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735870

ABSTRACT

AIM: Emergency room admissions have decreased globally during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for respiratory diseases. We evaluated hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in the first year of the Italian pandemic and compared them with the corresponding period in 2016-2017. METHODS: The study was carried out at the Sapienza University in Rome, Italy, and covered 9 March to 28 February 2020-2021 and 2016-2017. We tested 85 hospitalised children who were negative for the virus that causes COVID-19 in 2020-2021 and compared them with 476 hospitalised children from 2016-2017, as we had also tested nasal washing samples for 14 respiratory viruses during that period. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute respiratory tract infections were 82.2% lower in 2020-2021 than 2016-2017. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and several other viruses were detected less frequently during the pandemic. An extraordinary finding was that rhinoviruses remained seasonal. In 2020-2021, we detected a virus in 54.1% of the hospitalised children: rhinoviruses in 41, RSV in 4 and other viruses in 1. This was significantly lower than the 71.6% in 2016-2017: RSV in 130, rhinoviruses in 128 and other viruses in 83. CONCLUSION: Pandemic measures dramatically reduced childhood respiratory infections, particularly RSV, but were less effective at reducing rhinoviruses.

4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 32, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency Departments play a pivotal role in detecting cases of child abuse. Despite the efforts made in the past decades on the need for a screening method for the early detection of abuse victims, a unique instrument shared by the international scientific community has not been made. These instruments should be able to help recognizing whether it is necessary to further investigate the child's condition. The aim of the study is to illustrate the screening indicators in use since 2010 in the Emergency Department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital to early recognise the victims of abuse and the modifying process of the screening tool undertaken over the years. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the process that led to the editing of the indicators of child abuse in use nowadays at the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital. We codified three clinical pathways to apply in case of suspected abuse. Furthermore, we investigated the medical records of screening-positive accesses in the Paediatric Emergency Department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital from January 2008 to October 2020. RESULTS: An estimation of positive screening, regarding the type of abuse suspected, and the number of accessed in ED was made, resulting in a cohort of 956 patients. In 2010 we created a list of 14 items grouped in three clusters: anamnestic declarations or incongruences, carelessness/neglect and evident lesions at physical examination. Positivity to one of the items allows the actuation of the investigating protocol named as clinical pathway.In 2013, after three years of experience, the criteria were edited to increase specificity. The application of screening led to a median number of 82 suspected cases/year from 2013 to 2020. CONCLUSION: A screening tool is essential and productive for the early recognition of victims of abuse. An in-deep analysis of suspected cases through a standardized method, such as the clinical pathway, allowed reaching the diagnosis in a more accurate and precise manner.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Hospitals, Pediatric , Child , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Retrospective Studies
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323262

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) involvement has been occasionally reported in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or among those with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We aimed to investigate the clinical, radiological and histopathological GI characteristics in order to identify factors associated with severe outcome.Methods: In this multicenter retrospective nationwide cohort study, symptomatic children with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C were enrolled. Children who received a diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis, intussusception, pancreatitis, diffuse adeno-mesenteritis or abdominal fluid collections requiring surgical consultation and temporally correlated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were classified as having a severe GI involvement. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR [95% confidence intervals]) between potential explanatory factors and severe outcome.Findings: 685 children were enrolled between February 2020 and January 2021. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospital admission (OR 2·64 [1·89–3·69]) and of intensive care support (OR 3·90 [1·98–7·68]).Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed a severe GI involvement featuring atypical presentations including disseminated adeno-mesenteritis (39·6%), appendicitis (33·5%), abdominal fluid collections (21·3%), pancreatitis (6·9%) or ileal intussusception (4·6%). Twenty-seven (42%) of these children underwent surgery, and remarkably only half of clinically suspected appendicitis were histologically confirmed. Children aged 5-10 years (OR 8·33 [2·62–26·5]) or > 10 years of age (OR 6·37 [2·12-19·1]) had a higher chance of severe outcome, compared to preschool-age children. Severe GI outcomes were more frequent in patients with abdominal pain (aOR 34·5 [10·1–118]), lymphopenia (aOR 8·93 [3·03-26·3]) or MIS-C (aOR 6·28 [1·92–20·5]). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adeno-mesenteritis (aOR 3·13 [1·08–9·12]) and abdominal fluid collections (aOR 3·22 [1·03-10]).Interpretation: About 10% of symptomatic children with COVID-19 may have severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. Early identification of at-risk patients can improve the management of serious complications.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: All authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of the coordinating center (protocol number 0031296) as well as by independent ethics committees and/or institutional review boards of any single enrolling center.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322116

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and adolescents are limited. We propose a retrospective study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. Methods: : A pediatric population admitted with COVID-19 to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome (Italy) in the period from the end of February to May 2020 has been studied taking into account gender. Medical history, comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory findings were obtained from patients' electronic medical records. Results: : In 41 patients (21 males and 20 females) we found that: i) fever and cough were the dominant symptoms, while gastrointestinal symptoms were rare;and ii) all ages of childhood were susceptible to COVID-19. Moreover, we found that females with COVID-19, were significantly (p = 0.04) older than males and required more days of hospitalization (p = 0.01). Moreover, compared to females, a greater number of males had high values of C reactive protein (3 males vs 1 female) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (2 males vs 1 female). Conclusions: Compared to the adults we found that COVID-19 infection in children is a non-severe inflammatory disease in both males and females. In any case, many detailed studies should be conducted.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307887

ABSTRACT

Background: There is mounting evidence on the existence of a Pediatric Multi-inflammatory Syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), sharing similarities with Kawasaki Disease (KD). The main outcome of the study were to better characterize the clinical features and the treatment response of PIMS-TS and to explore its relationship with KD determining whether KD and PIMS are two distinct entities. Methods: : The Rheumatology Study Group of the Italian Pediatric Society launched a survey to enroll patients diagnosed with KD (Kawasaki Disease Group – KDG) or KD-like (Kawacovid Group - KCG) disease. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, treatment information, and patients’ outcome were collected in an online anonymized database (RedCAP). Relationship between clinical presentation and SARS-CoV-2 infection was also taken into account. Chi square test or exact Fisher test and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test were used to study differences between two groups Results: : One-hundred-forty-nine cases were enrolled, (96 KDG and 53 KCG). KCG children were significantly older and presented more frequently from gastrointestinal and respiratory involvement. Cardiac involvement was more common in KCG, with 60,4% of patients with myocarditis and 37,8% with hypotension/non-cardiogenic shock. Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) were more common in the KDG. The risk of ICU admission were higher in KCG. Lymphopenia, higher CRP levels, elevated Ferritin and Troponin-T characterized KCG. KDG received more frequently immunoglobulins (IVIG) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (81,3% vs 66%;p=0.04 and 71,9% vs 43,4%;p=0.001 respectively) as KCG more often received glucocorticoids (56,6% vs 14,6%;p<0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 assay more often resulted positive in KCG than in KDG (75,5% vs 20%;p<0.0001). Short-term follow data showed minor complications. Comparing KDG with a KD-Historical Italian cohort (598 patients), no statistical difference was found in terms of clinical manifestations and laboratory data. Conclusion: Our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection might determine two distinct inflammatory diseases in children: KD and PIMS-TS. Older age at onset and clinical peculiarities like the occurrence of myocarditis characterize this multi-inflammatory syndrome. Our patients had an optimal response to treatments and a good outcome, with few complications and no deaths.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317622

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the lung ultrasound (LUS) patterns in combination with clinical-laboratory profiles of children hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in relation to temporal trend of the Italian epidemic. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at a pediatric tertiary referral hospital from 15th March 2020 to 15th March 2021. We compared the characteristics of two periods of the pandemic outbreak, the first one in spring and summer (15th March-30th September 2020) and the second one in autumn and winter (1st October 2020-15th March 2021). Results: 28 patients (53.85%) were in the first period, 24 patients (46.15%) were in the second period. The disease severity score was significantly higher in the second period (p=0.02). We observed that the occurrence of the irregular pleural line was seen more frequently in the second period (87.5% vs 60.71%;p=0.03). The B-lines were significantly more frequent in children in the second period (87.5% vs 60%;p=0.03). The several but not-coalescent B-lines were significantly more frequent in the second period (80% vs 41.7%;p=0.05). The LUS score correlated significantly with the disease severity score with a strong relationship (r=0.51, p=0.002). The second phase of the COVID-19 epidemic outbreak had a higher disease severity score than the first phase with a moderate correlation (r= 0.42;p=0.01). Conclusion: The LUS plays an important role in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in children affected by COVID-19 during different periods of the pandemic in combination with clinical-laboratory findings.

9.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667210

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccine in young people with Down syndrome (DS), and to compare their humoral immune response with those of the healthy controls (HC). Individuals with DS and HC received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Longitudinal blood samples were collected on the day of vaccination, twenty-one days after the first dose, seven days after the second dose, and six months after the first dose. Both the local and systemic adverse events reported by participants were mild. Pain at the injection site was the most reported local adverse event, while fever was the systemic adverse event. Humoral responses showed a significant increase of anti-S and anti-S trimeric antibody (Ab) levels after both doses of vaccine in both groups. In comparison with HC, Ab levels in individuals with DS were similar at T21, but significantly lower, both in terms anti-S and anti-S trimeric, at T28 (respectively p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0001). At T180 both groups showed a significant reduction of anti-S trimeric Ab levels compared to T28 (p = 0.0004 and p < 0.0001 for DS and HC, respectively). Individuals with DS exhibit a good humoral response to the BNT162b2 vaccine; however, similarly to in HC, the immune response wanes over time.

10.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(3): 400-408.e4, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650182

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated individuals are considered a consequence of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and functional B cell memory in vivo against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6, and 9 months after the second dose in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs). While we observed physiological decline of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, memory B cells persist and increase until 9 months after immunization. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum and anti-Spike IgA in the saliva. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 7, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634416

ABSTRACT

The fast diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have called for an equally rapid evolution of the therapeutic options.The Human recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) in subjects aged ≥12 with SARS-CoV-2 infection and specific risk factors.Currently the indications are specific for the use of two different mAbs combination: Bamlanivimab+Etesevimab (produced by Eli Lilly) and Casirivimab+Imdevimab (produced by Regeneron).These drugs have shown favorable effects in adult patients in the initial phase of infection, whereas to date few data are available on their use in children.AIFA criteria derived from the existing literature which reports an increased risk of severe COVID-19 in children with comorbidities. However, the studies analyzing the determinants for progression to severe disease are mainly monocentric, with limited numbers and reporting mostly generic risk categories.Thus, the Italian Society of Pediatrics invited its affiliated Scientific Societies to produce a Consensus document based on the revision of the criteria proposed by AIFA in light of the most recent literature and experts' agreement.This Consensus tries to detail which patients actually have the risk to develop severe disease, analyzing the most common comorbidities in children, in order to detail the indications for mAbs administration and to guide the clinicians in identifying eligible patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Patient Selection , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , Child , Consensus , Drug Combinations , Humans , Italy , Risk Factors , Societies, Medical
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139974, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589283

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been sporadically reported in children with COVID-19; however, their frequency and clinical outcome are unknown. Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic characteristics of children with COVID-19 presenting with severe GI manifestations to identify factors associated with a severe outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study (February 25, 2020, to January 20, 2021) enrolled inpatient and outpatient children (aged <18 years) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or fulfilling the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The study was conducted by pediatricians working in primary care or hospitals in Italy participating in the COVID-19 Registry of the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The occurrence of severe GI manifestations, defined by a medical and/or radiological diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis (complicated or not by perforation and/or peritonitis), intussusception, pancreatitis, abdominal fluid collection, and diffuse adenomesenteritis requiring surgical consultation, occurring during or within 4 to 6 weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of factors potentially associated with severe outcomes. Results: Overall, 685 children (386 boys [56.4%]; median age, 7.3 [IQR, 1.6-12.4] years) were included. Of these children, 628 (91.7%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 57 (8.3%) with MIS-C. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospitalization (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.89-3.69) and intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.98-7.68). Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed severe GI involvement, including disseminated adenomesenteritis (39.6%), appendicitis (33.5%), abdominal fluid collection (21.3%), pancreatitis (6.9%), or intussusception (4.6%). Twenty-seven of these 65 children (41.5%) underwent surgery. Severe GI manifestations were associated with the child's age (5-10 years: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.62-26.5; >10 years: OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 2.12-19.1, compared with preschool-age), abdominal pain (adjusted OR [aOR], 34.5; 95% CI, 10.1-118), lymphopenia (aOR, 8.93; 95% CI, 3.03-26.3), or MIS-C (aOR, 6.28; 95% CI, 1.92-20.5). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adenomesenteritis (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.08-9.12) or abdominal fluid collection (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.03-10.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study of Italian children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C, 9.5% of the children had severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. These findings suggest that prompt identification may improve the management of serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there are no data regarding the systematic application of Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasound (PoC-LUS) in children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). The main aim of this study is to show the role of Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasound as an additional aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19-related Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). METHODS: Between April 2020 and April 2021, patients aged 0-18 years referred to our emergency department for fever, and later hospitalized without a specific diagnosis, underwent PoC-LUS. Ultrasound images of patients with a final diagnosis of MIS-C were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Ten patients were enrolled. All were described to have pleural irregularities and B-lines. In particular: 8/10 children presented with isolated B-lines in at least half of the lung areas of interest; 8/10 presented with multiple B-lines and 3/8 had them in at least 50% of lung areas; 5/10 had a white lung appearance in at least one lung area and 1/5 had them in half of the areas of interest. Pleural effusion was described in 9/10. CONCLUSIONS: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we suggest performing PoC-LUS in febrile patients with high levels of inflammatory indices and clinical suspicion of MIS-C, or without a certain diagnosis; the finding of many B-lines and pleural effusion would support the diagnosis of a systemic inflammatory disease.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572687

ABSTRACT

Several countries have targeted adolescents for immunization against SARS-CoV-2 to mitigate COVID-19 spread. In Italy, immunization for children ≥ 12 years has been available starting from June 2021. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the knowledge, attitude and intention to vaccinate children < 18 years in Italian families. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with intention to vaccinate. We collected a total of 1696 responses. Among the 491 families of children ≥ 12 years, 41.2% would not vaccinate their children and 21.2% were uncertain, while among the 1205 families of children < 12 years, 36.1% would not vaccinate and 33.8% were uncertain. Determinants of intention to vaccinate both age groups were perceived safety and efficacy of vaccines and perceived risk of transmitting infection to adults. For children < 12 years, additional determinants were perceived risk of being infected and being hospitalized because of COVID-19. In view of the expanding strategy to vaccinate adolescents and the availability of immunization for children < 12 years, our results call for a communication strategy targeted at families of children focused on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine in children and on the dynamics of infection spread across different age groups. As perceptions in families are volatile and may change rapidly over time, repeated surveys for measuring attitudes to vaccinate would be advisable.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicella is a common pediatric infection. Even if it generally has a benign course, it may complicate and require hospitalization. The aim of our study was to estimate the acute hospitalization cost (AHC) for varicella in the acute phase in a pediatric population. METHODS: We calculated the AHC of pediatric patients admitted for varicella at Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome, Italy, from 1 November 2005 to 1 November 2020. RESULTS: In the study period, 825 pediatric patients affected by varicella were hospitalized. The mean hospitalization cost was EUR 4015.35 (range from EUR 558.44 to EUR 42,608.00). Among patients, 55% were unvaccinable due to either their age or their immunosuppression status. They would benefit from herd immunity, reducing the overall AHC by EUR 182,196,506. Since the introduction of the compulsory vaccination against varicella in Italy, we observed a significant reduction in AHC cost of 60.6% in 2019 and of 93.5% in 2020. Finally, from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we documented a decline of 81.2% and 76.9% in varicella hospitalization, compared to 2018 and 2019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella AHC is an important economic and health assessment point and can be useful for improving preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292059

ABSTRACT

Background: Breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated HCWs are considered a marker of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most visible and measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B-cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, thus preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and in vivo functional B-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6 and 9 months after the second dose. Methods: We assessed the duration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immunity by measuring specific antibodies and memory B cells 3, 6 and 9 months after vaccination. In fully vaccinated HCWs with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, we evaluated the humoral and mucosal response of vaccine-induced memory B cells. Findings: Whereas specific serum antibodies decline, anti-Spike memory B cells continue to increase until 9 months after the last vaccine dose. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity on the day of the first positive swab. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum. In the saliva, anti-Spike IgA also rapidly increased in response to the infection. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies physiologically decline months after vaccination. By contrast, memory B cells persist and increase over time. Parenteral administered vaccines do not generate mucosal immunity and serum antibodies reach mucosal sites in small amounts by transudation. In HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections, memory B cells react by rapidly differentiating into antibody-producing cells and generating IgA for protection of mucosal sites.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing measures are used to reduce the spreading of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of local restrictions on the transmission of respiratory virus infections. METHODS: we retrospectively analyzed the nasopharyngeal samples of all patients (0-18 years old) admitted with respiratory symptoms in a large Italian tertiary hospital during the last three seasons from 2018 to 2021. RESULTS: A strong reduction in all viral respiratory infections was observed in the last season (2020-2021) compared to the two previous seasons (-79.69% and -80.66%, respectively). In particular, we found that during the epidemic period 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, the total number of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) cases was, respectively 726 and 689, while in the last season a total of five cases was detected. In the first months of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, the total flu infections were 240 and 354, respectively, while in the last season we did not detect any influenza virus. As other viruses, the presence of Rhinovirus declined, but to a lesser extent: a total of 488 cases were assessed compared to the 1030 and 1165 cases of the two previous respective epidemic seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions and distancing (including continuous use of face masks) settled to counter the pandemic spread of COVID-19 had a macroscopic impact on all respiratory virus transmission and related diseases, with a partial exception of Rhinovirus. The absence of viruses' circulation could result in a lack of immunity and increased susceptibility to serious infections in the next seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
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