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1.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964107

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: As the pandemic months progress, more and more evidence shows that the placenta acts as a "barrier" to SARS-CoV-2, although rare cases of vertical transmission have been described. (2) Methods: In an attempt to investigate whether the symptoms' severity was related to different placental histological characteristics and the immune microenvironment, we subdivided 29 placentas from 29 mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 into two groups, depending on the symptomatology (moderate/severe vs. asymptomatic/mild), performing immunohistochemical investigations for CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, as well as for CD68 + macrophage. We also evaluated the immuno-expression of the ACE2 receptor at the placental level. These two groups were compared to a control group of 28 placentas from 28 SARS-CoV-2-negative healthy mothers. (3) Results: The symptoms (likely to be related to viremia) were statistically significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with histopathological changes, such as maternal malperfusion, decidual arteriopathy, blood vessel thrombus of fetal relevance. Furthermore, the immuno-expression of ACE2 was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2-positive groups vs. control group (p = 0.001). (4) Conclusions: There is still much to study and discover regarding the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and histological changes in placentas and how the latter might contribute to various neonatal clinical outcomes, such as prematurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Viruses ; 14(6):1330, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894188

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: As the pandemic months progress, more and more evidence shows that the placenta acts as a 'barrier';to SARS-CoV-2, although rare cases of vertical transmission have been described. (2) Methods: In an attempt to investigate whether the symptoms' severity was related to different placental histological characteristics and the immune microenvironment, we subdivided 29 placentas from 29 mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 into two groups, depending on the symptomatology (moderate/severe vs. asymptomatic/mild), performing immunohistochemical investigations for CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, as well as for CD68 + macrophage. We also evaluated the immuno-expression of the ACE2 receptor at the placental level. These two groups were compared to a control group of 28 placentas from 28 SARS-CoV-2-negative healthy mothers. (3) Results: The symptoms (likely to be related to viremia) were statistically significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with histopathological changes, such as maternal malperfusion, decidual arteriopathy, blood vessel thrombus of fetal relevance. Furthermore, the immuno-expression of ACE2 was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2-positive groups vs. control group (p = 0.001). (4) Conclusions: There is still much to study and discover regarding the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and histological changes in placentas and how the latter might contribute to various neonatal clinical outcomes, such as prematurity.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780025

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to verify the role of laminar necrosis (LN) in the diagnosis of hypoxic damage of the placenta. This is a retrospective case-control study in which 50 cases with laminar necrosis were compared with 100 gestational age-matched controls without laminar necrosis in a 1:2 ratio. The parameters analyzed were: the presence of other placental lesions, obstetric characteristics and neonatal outcome. For each of the 50 cases, the area affected by the lesion was detected, and the lesions were classified into three groups based on the morphology and time of onset of the lesion in order to understand whether these characteristics of the lesion had a clinical-pathology. The results showed that including the search for LN among placental lesions generally examined is useful to guide the pathologist in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction of hypoxic origin.


Subject(s)
Placenta Diseases , Placenta , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia , Infant, Newborn , Necrosis/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 142, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy has been invoked as one of the most important mechanisms of damage in COVID-19 patients. Protease ADAMTS13 is a marker of microangiopathy responsible for controlling von Willebrand multimers size. Von Willebrand factor/ADAMTS13 ratio has been found impaired in COVID-19 patients outside pregnancy. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 90 pregnant women admitted to two tertiary academic hospitals in Italy with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic, clinical information and routine laboratory data were collected at the hospital admission and until discharge. We investigated whether vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis imbalance is a predictor of adverse outcomes. Logistic regression analysis, which controlled for potential confounders, was performed to evaluate the association between laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Most women (55.6%) were parae, with median gestational age at admission of 39 weeks. At hospital admission, 63.3% were asymptomatic for COVID-19 and 24.4% showed more than one sign or symptom of infection. Nulliparae with group O showed Willebrand / ADA MTS-13 ratios significantly lower than non-O, whereas in multiparae this difference was not observed. Logistic regression showed that ratio von Willebrand to ADAMTS13 was significantly and independently associated with preterm delivery (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.5). CONCLUSION: This study shows an imbalance of vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis in pregnant women with COVID-19, leading to a significantly higher and independent risk of preterm delivery. Monitoring these biomarkers might support decision making process to manage and follow-up pregnancies in this setting.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Premature Birth/blood , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Academic Medical Centers , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Young Adult
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648796

ABSTRACT

The effects of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on pregnant women and neonates are mainly unknown, since limited data are available in the literature. We conducted a monocentric and cross-sectional study enrolling 122 un-vaccinated pregnant women with COVID-19 infection tested by RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab. Only 4.1% of the patients had severe COVID-19 symptoms together with major respiratory symptoms and intensive care unit admission, whereas 35.25% of women had comorbidities and two-thirds of them were overweight or obese. COVID-19 was detected mainly in the third trimester (98.36%) and multiparous women (59.02%). The mode of delivery was influenced by mild-severe COVID-19 symptoms, with a higher number of urgent or emergent cesarean sections than spontaneous or operative vaginal births. Preterm births were associated with high BMI, mode of delivery (higher among cesarean sections), nulliparity, and severe COVID-19 symptoms. In cases of severe COVID-19 symptoms, there was a higher rate of respiratory distress syndrome among newborns. In the end, only the presence of a severe COVID-19 infection worsened the obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, with higher rates of urgent or emergent cesarean section, preterm births, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

6.
Neonatology ; 118(6): 665-671, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463073

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible of the pandemic declared in March 2020 and still ongoing. COVID-19 affects all ages but presents less complications and fatalities in children. Neonatal infections have rarely been reported worldwide, and vertical transmission is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all infants born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers admitted to 2 hospitals in South (Bari) and North (Varese) of Italy from April to December 2020. A molecular nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was made at birth for all enrolled newborns to evaluate vertical transmission of infection. We also evaluated postnatal transmission with a second nasopharyngeal swab made at 1 month of life and described maternal and neonatal clinical findings and short-term outcomes. RESULTS: 176/179 (97%) newborns were SARS-CoV-2 negative at birth and 151/156 (97%) infants were still negative at 1 month of life. All newborns were asymptomatic. Seventy percent of newborns were breastfed during hospitalization. At 1 month of life, 76% of infants were breastfed. CONCLUSION: According to our results, vertical and perinatal infection is very rare. Breastfeeding does not increase the risk of COVID-19 and should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244151

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus pandemic has affected, in a short time, various and different areas of medicine. Among these, the obstetric field has certainly been touched in full, and the knowledge of the mechanisms potentially responsible for placental damage from SARS-CoV-2 occupy a certain importance. Here we present here a rare case of dichorionic twins born at 30 weeks and 4 days of amenorrhea, one of whom died in the first few hours of life after placental damages potentially related to SARS-CoV-2. We also propose a brief review of the current literature giving ample emphasis to similar cases described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Obstetric Labor Complications/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Twin , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202172

ABSTRACT

The study of SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women is of some importance for gynecologists, obstetricians, neonatologists and women themselves. In recent months, new works have tried to clarify what happens at the fetal-placental level in women positive for the virus, and different pathogenesis mechanisms have been proposed. Here, we present the results of a large series of placentas of Coronavirus disease (COVID) positive women, in a reference center for COVID-positive pregnancies, on which we conducted histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopy investigations. A case-control study was conducted in order to highlight any histopathological alterations attributable to SARS-CoV-2. The prevalence of maternal vascular malperfusion was not significantly different between cases and controls (54.3% vs. 43.7% p = 0.19), whereas the differences with regard to fetal vascular malperfusion (21.1% vs. 4.2% p < 0.001) were significant. More frequent in cases with respect to controls were decidual arteriopathy (40.9% vs. 1.4% p < 0.0001), decidual inflammation (32.4% vs. 0.7% p < 0.0001), perivillous fibrin deposition (36.6% vs. 3.5% p < 0.0001) and fetal vessel thrombi (22.5% vs. 0.7% p < 0.0001). No significant differences in the percentage of terminal villous hyperplasia and chorioamnionitis were observed between the two groups. As the pandemic continues, these studies will become more urgent in order to clarify the possible mechanism of maternal-fetal transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fetus/pathology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Middle Aged , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Trimesters
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