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1.
Blood ; 138(19):4875-4875, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601730

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have an increased vulnerability to SARS-Cov-2 (Sharma et al, Lancet Haematology 2020;Ljungman et al, Leukemia 2021), the reason why international guidelines strongly support the need for a protective vaccination for these subjects. The most relevant data currently available on the response to a complete anti-SARS-Cov-2 vaccination cycle in HM patients after HSCT refer to 314 patients reported in a Lithuanian national survey (Maneikis et al, Lancet Haematol 2021). In this study, the median titers of antibodies against SARS-Cov-2, determined 7-21 days after the second vaccination, were comparable to that of healthy controls (HC) in both autologous and allogeneic groups, with no patient found below the protective threshold of 50 arbitrary units (AU)/ml. Notably, the large majority of patients had received the transplant more than 1 year before vaccination. In a prospective, cohort study, we compared 114 patients, who had received an autologous or allogeneic HSCT at least three months before the first dose of vaccination, to 107 HC, matched for age and sex. Study population and HC received two doses of BNT162b2 anti-SARS-Cov-2 mRNA vaccine on days 1 and 21, between April and May 2021. Serological tests were performed by a commercially available immunoassay for the quantitative determination of anti-spike IgG antibodies to SARS-Cov-2. The cut-off for defining responders was 50 or greater AU/ml. Patients and HC samples were collected four weeks after the second dose of the vaccine. Table 1 reports the main clinical characteristics of patients and HC. Eighteen of 114 patients (16%) did not respond (24% in the allogeneic group, 6% in autologous recipients). Overall, median antibodies titers did not differ between HC and the entire cohort of transplanted patients, recipients of allogeneic HSCT, all patients responding to the vaccine or responders in the autologous subgroup (Figure 1A). All autologous HSCT recipients had significantly lower titers of antibodies than HC, while higher levels were found in responders who had received allogeneic HSCT (Figure 1A). Responders in the allogeneic subgroup showed antibodies titers significantly higher than responders in the autologous subgroup (Figure 1B). We further stratified patients in three groups, according to the time elapsed from transplant to vaccination: G1:<1 year;G2:1-5 years;G3:>5 years. Higher antibodies titers were observed in HC compared to all transplanted patients in G1 (Figure 1C), including both allogeneic (Figure 1D) and autologous (Figure 1E) HSCT recipients. No differences emerged in G2 between HC and all patients (Figure 1C), allogeneic (Figure 1D) or autologous (Figure 1E) HSCT recipients. Finally, no differences were found in G3 when comparing HC with all patients (Figure 1C) or allogeneic recipients (Figure 1D), whereas patients in the autologous subgroup showed significantly lower titers than HC (Figure 1E). Myeloma patients with controlled disease showed higher titers than patients with active disease (Figure 1F). According to median age, autologous HSCT recipients older than 57 years had significantly lower antibody levels than younger patients (Figure 1G). Autologous vs allogeneic HSCT, age of all patients and of allogeneic HSCT recipients, sex, type of allogeneic HSCT, conditioning regimen, age and sex of donor, occurrence of GVHD, disease type and single vs double autologous HSCT did not significantly impact on antibody levels (data not shown). No relevant side effects were recorded after vaccination. With a median follow up of 12 weeks, no case of COVID19 occurred among vaccinated patients. In our single center study, patients with a previous history of HSCT tolerated well BNT162b2 vaccine and mounted a potentially protective immune response in the majority of cases one month after two doses of vaccine. However, lack of response was not rare, especially in the allogeneic setting. The main factor associated with the quality of response was the tim from HSCT, with lower responses within the first year from transplant and differences between autologous and allogeneic groups transplanted more than five years before vaccination. Here, a consolidated, complete immune reconstitution in allogeneic HSCT recipients, as well as age and a still active disease in the autologous setting, could have played opposite pivotal roles. Figure 1 Disclosures Delia:  Gilead: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy;abbvie: Consultancy;Jazz pharmaceuticals: Consultancy.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, human lifestyles and occupational settings have changed in the workplace. This survey explores associations of home working employment and related physical activity (PA-MET min/week). METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted between March 2020 and March 2021. A standardized method for assessing PA and sedentary time, the Italian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), was used through the Microsoft Forms® platform for self-administering the questionnaire. Baseline data were collected, and four follow-ups were performed; a full calendar year was observed. RESULTS: In total, 310 home workers were recruited in this investigation. The average body mass index (BMI- kg/m2) was 21.4 ± 4.2 at baseline. The value increased at the first follow-up and fluctuated in the other recalls. The t-test of MET values of the four activities (Total PA, Vigorous-intensity activity, Moderate-intensity activity, Walking) show similar results; the total PA, at baseline 275.7 ± 138.6, decreased statistically significantly at the first (198.5 ± 84.6), third (174.9 ± 98.4), and fourth (188.7 ± 78.5) follow-ups, while it increased statistically significantly at the second follow-up (307.1 ± 106.1) compared to the baseline. Sedentary time was constant until the second follow-up, while it increased statistically significantly at the 3rd and 4th follow-up. CONCLUSION: workers involved reduced and reorganized their PA during this pandemic year. Each business company should intervene to improve the PA levels of workers and reduce sedentary behavior in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Exercise , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463852

ABSTRACT

To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, a mass vaccination campaign was initiated in Italy on 27 December 2020. The vaccine available to immunize Italian healthcare workers (HCWs) was the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty). This study evaluated the effectiveness of the vaccine against documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptomatic diseases in the medium- to long-term. HCWs at Bari Policlinico University-Hospital (Italy) who completed the vaccination schedule were matched with HCWs who had refused vaccination; the two groups were followed-up for 5 months (January-May 2021). Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against infection was 97.7% (95.4-99.0%) at 14-34 days after the first dose, and 94.8% (87.0-97.8%), 83.0% (65.0-92.0%), and 81.0% (42.0-94.0%) at 14-41, 42-69, and >69 days, respectively, after the second dose. The estimated VE for documented symptomatic disease was 99.2% (96.4-99.8%) at 14-34 days after the first dose and 97.2% (90.3-99.2%), 85.0% (63.0-94.2%), and 88.0% (42.0-97.6%) at 14-41, 42-69, and >69 days, respectively, after the second dose. Efforts to increase vaccination rates should be strengthened, including mandatory vaccination for HCWs and greater incentives to increase vaccine acceptance by the general population.

5.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonia (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 in China, spreading worldwide. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the immunological response and the clinical subset of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19 infection. METHODS: the study was conducted on four different clinical groups (n = 4; total n = 138). Each individual was assigned to different groups based on specific criteria evaluated at the admission such as fever, dyspnea, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), oral-nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR, and thoracic CT-scan. Treatment was performed only after blood samples were collected from each patient (PP and PP) at day 1. The blood samples were analyzed and tested the same day (CBC and Flowcytometry). The positive-positive group (PP n = 45; F = 18/ M = 27; median age = 62.33), comprised individuals affected by COVID-19 who showed fever, dyspnea (ABG = pO2 < 60), confirmed positive by oral-nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR and with CT-scan showing ground-glass opacities. The negative-positive (NP; n = 37; F = 11/M = 26; median age = 75.94) or "COVID-like" group comprised individuals with fever and dyspnea (ABG = pO2 < 60), who tested negative to nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR, with CT-scans showing ground-glass opacities in the lungs. The negative-affected group (NA; n = 40; F = 14/M = 26; median age = 58.5) included individuals negative to COVID-19 (RT-PCR) but affected by different chronic respiratory diseases (the CT-scans didn't show ground-glass opacities). Finally, the negative-negative group (NN; n = 16; F = 14/M = 2) included healthy patients (NN; n = 16; median age = 42.62). Data and findings were collected and compared. RESULTS: Lymphocytes (%) cells showed a decline in COVID-19 patients. The subsets showed a significant association with the inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially with regard to increased neutrophils, T-killer, T-active, T-suppressor, and T-CD8+CD38+ in individuals belong to the either COVID-19 and Covid-like NP group. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration was associated with the clinical characteristics and progression of COVID-19. The level of sub-set cells T-lymphocytes (either high or low) and B-lymphocytes could be used as an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity and treatment efficacy.

6.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has involved a severe increase of cases worldwide in a wide range of populations. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate recent insights about COVID-19 infection in children, infants and pregnant subjects. METHODS: a literature overview was performed including clinical trials, in vitro studies, reviews and published guidelines regarding the present paper topic. A descriptive synthesis was performed to evaluate recent insights and the effectiveness of therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, infants and pregnant subjects. RESULTS: Insufficient data are available regarding the relationship between COVID-19 and the clinical risk of spontaneous abortion and premature foetus death. A decrease in the incidence of COVID-19 could be correlated to a minor expression of ACE2 in childrens' lungs. At present, a modulation of the dose-effect posology for children and infants is necessary. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant vertical transmission has been hypothesised for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccines are necessary to achieve mass immunity for children and also pregnant subjects.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID is a syndrome characterized by the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms. Among HCWs, prolonged COVID symptoms could lead to the inability to perform work tasks. The aim of this study is to investigate 35-day long-COVID (35-LC) characteristics and risk factors in a one-year period. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study during the COVID-19 pandemic at University Hospital of Bari. A total of 5750 HCWs were tested for close contact with a confirmed case, in the absence of personal protective equipment, or for symptom development. RESULTS: Each positive HCW was investigated for cardiovascular risk factors or respiratory diseases. An amount of 352 HCWs (6.1%) were infected by SARS-CoV-2, and 168 cases evolved to long COVID. The 35-LC group showed mean BMI values higher than the non-35-LC group (25.9 kg/m2 vs. 24.8 kg/m2, respectively), and this difference was significant (p-value: 0.020). Moreover, HCWs who suffered from pulmonary disease (OR = 3.7, CL 95%: 1.35-10.53; p-value = 0.007) or overweight (OR = 1.6 CL 95%: 1.05-2.56; p-value = 0.029) had an increased risk of developing 35-LC. CONCLUSIONS: Long COVID is an emerging problem for hospital managers as it may reduce the number of HCWs deployed in the fight against COVID-19. High BMI and previous pulmonary disease could be risk factors for 35-LC development in exposed HCWs.

8.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on recent findings, we speculated the existence of the lung, heart, and kidney axis as the main pathway for the COVID-19 disease progression. METHODS: This paper reports on an observational study conducted by a team of researchers and doctors of the 118-Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department of SG Moscati of Taranto City in Italy. The study was conducted on a totality of 185 participants that were divided into three groups. The study group included COVID-19 affected patients (PP n = 80), the first control group included patients with different pathologies (non-COVID-19 NNp n = 62) of the SG Moscati Hospital, and the second control group included healthy individuals (NNh n = 43). The core of the current trial was focused on assessing the level of the vitamin D (serum 25(OH) D concentration), IL-6, and the renal glomerular filtrate (eGFR) in COVID-19 disease and non-COVID-19 patients in both groups. RESULTS: It was observed that the majority of COVID-19-infected patients showed a progressive multi-organ involvement, especially in regard to the lung, kidney, and heart. The majority of the COVID-19 patients exhibited preexisting comorbidities which include cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal disorders accompanied by a severely low level of vitamin D, extremely high level of IL-6, and low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The significant overall damages exerted by the immune-mediated responses under the hyper-expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interleukins, such as IL-6, may be facilitated by either a decreased level of vitamin D or the ageing process. The reduced presence of vitamin D was often found together with a reduced functionality of renal activity, as revealed by the low eGFR, and both were seen to be concomitant with an increased mortality risk in patients with lung disorders and heart failure (HF), whether it is showed at baseline or it develops during manifestation of COVID-19. Therefore, the documentation of the modifiable risk factors related to SARS-CoV-2 and lung impairment in older patients with kidney and heart disease may help the clinician to better manage the situation. CONCLUSIONS: This paper addresses how a low level of vitamin D and older age may be indicative of systemic worsening in patients with COVID-19, with a goal of providing a broader context in which to view a better therapeutic approach.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e754-e764, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the drivers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is crucial for control policies, but evidence of transmission rates in different settings remains limited. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to estimate secondary attack rates (SARs) and observed reproduction numbers (Robs) in different settings exploring differences by age, symptom status, and duration of exposure. To account for additional study heterogeneity, we employed a beta-binomial model to pool SARs across studies and a negative-binomial model to estimate Robs. RESULTS: Households showed the highest transmission rates, with a pooled SAR of 21.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]:17.4-24.8). SARs were significantly higher where the duration of household exposure exceeded 5 days compared with exposure of ≤5 days. SARs related to contacts at social events with family and friends were higher than those for low-risk casual contacts (5.9% vs 1.2%). Estimates of SARs and Robs for asymptomatic index cases were approximately one-seventh, and for presymptomatic two-thirds of those for symptomatic index cases. We found some evidence for reduced transmission potential both from and to individuals younger than 20 years of age in the household context, which is more limited when examining all settings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exposure in settings with familiar contacts increases SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential. Additionally, the differences observed in transmissibility by index case symptom status and duration of exposure have important implications for control strategies, such as contact tracing, testing, and rapid isolation of cases. There were limited data to explore transmission patterns in workplaces, schools, and care homes, highlighting the need for further research in such settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence
10.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335156

ABSTRACT

To date, several cases of thrombosis have been confirmed to be related to Sars-CoV-2 infection. Multiple attempts detected the prolonged occurrence of Sars-CoV-2 viral RNA (long COVID) in whole blood suggesting that virus byproducts may remain within cells and tissues well over the disease has finished. Patients may develop severe thrombocytopenia, acute anemia of inflammation and, systemic thrombosis with the fatal course of disease, which is suggestive of further interferences of Sars-CoV-2 on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) within the differentiation process towards erythroid and megakaryocytic cells. Therefore, we speculated whether Sars-CoV-2 propagates in or compartmentalizes with hematopoietic progenitor, erythroid, and megakaryocytic cells as the main cause of thrombotic events in either COVID-19 patients or vaccinated individuals. Results: The Sars-CoV-2 RNA replication, protein translation and infectious particle formation as the spike proteins in hematopoietic cell lines take place via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) entry pathway within primary CD34+ HSCs inducing, ex vivo, the formation of defected erythroid and megakaryocytic cells that eventually become targets of humoral and adaptive immune cells. Conclusions: Viral particles from affected CD34+ HSCs or the cellular component of RBC units and eventually platelets, present the greatest risk for sever thrombosis-transmitted Sars-CoV-2 infections.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 224(3): 431-434, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233856

ABSTRACT

In the preregistration trial, data on efficacy of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection were not collected. This study aimed to evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against documented infection. Bari Policlinico University Hospital health care workers (HCWs) who completed the vaccination schedule were matched with HCWs who had refused vaccination. VE for documented infection was 61.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.2%-82.0%) 14-20 days after first dose, 87.9% (95% CI, 51.7%-97.0%) 21-27 days after first dose, and 96.0% (95% CI, 82.2%-99.1%) 7 or more days after second dose. Unvaccinated HCWs remain a concern in the context of the pandemic emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227042

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The first clusters of SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified in an occupational setting, and to date, a significant portion of the cases may result from occupational exposure; thus, COVID-19 should also be considered a new occupational risk that both directly and indirectly impacts the health of workers. Given the significance of occupational-exposure-related infections and deaths, this study aims to assess the roles and tasks of occupational physicians (OPs) in countering the spread of the infection. Indeed, despite the OP's centrality in risk management in the workplace, its activity in the current epidemic context has rarely been mentioned. Materials and Methods: Three different databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase) were questioned using the main keywords "COVID-19" and "SARS-CoV-2" that were crossed, according to different needs, with the terms "occupational medicine", "occupational physician", "workplace", and "risk assessment" using, when possible, the MeSH database research. Additionally, a systematic research of the regulatory changes of workplaces health surveillance was performed on reference sites of international, European, and Italian authorities. Results: Fundamental tasks and duties of OPs in the current COVID-19 outbreak are highlighted by examining their clinical activity and technical action. A risk assessment and management workflow is proposed, and medico-legal implications in case of infection at work are also discussed in the light of recent regulatory changes that clearly attribute to OPs an important role in safeguarding public health. Conclusion: The proposed approach can provide new instruments to contrast the spread of the infection as part of a comprehensive system response to the current pandemic, for which OPs are called to assume full responsibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5788, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132103

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, yet limited information is available on risk factors of infection. We pooled data on occupational surveillance of 10,654 HCW who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in six Italian centers. Information was available on demographics, job title, department of employment, source of exposure, use of personal protective equipment (PPEs), and COVID-19-related symptoms. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of infection. The prevalence of infection ranged from 3.0 to 22.0%, and was correlated with that of the respective areas. Women were at lower risk of infection compared to men. Fever, cough, dyspnea and malaise were the symptoms most strongly associated with infection, together with anosmia and ageusia. No differences in the risk of infection were detected according to job title, or working in a COVID-19 designated department. Reported contact with a patient inside or outside the workplace was a risk factor. Use of a mask was strongly protective against risk of infection as was use of gloves. The use of a mask by the source of exposure (patient or colleague) had an independent effect in reducing infection risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e754-e764, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the drivers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is crucial for control policies, but evidence of transmission rates in different settings remains limited. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to estimate secondary attack rates (SARs) and observed reproduction numbers (Robs) in different settings exploring differences by age, symptom status, and duration of exposure. To account for additional study heterogeneity, we employed a beta-binomial model to pool SARs across studies and a negative-binomial model to estimate Robs. RESULTS: Households showed the highest transmission rates, with a pooled SAR of 21.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]:17.4-24.8). SARs were significantly higher where the duration of household exposure exceeded 5 days compared with exposure of ≤5 days. SARs related to contacts at social events with family and friends were higher than those for low-risk casual contacts (5.9% vs 1.2%). Estimates of SARs and Robs for asymptomatic index cases were approximately one-seventh, and for presymptomatic two-thirds of those for symptomatic index cases. We found some evidence for reduced transmission potential both from and to individuals younger than 20 years of age in the household context, which is more limited when examining all settings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exposure in settings with familiar contacts increases SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential. Additionally, the differences observed in transmissibility by index case symptom status and duration of exposure have important implications for control strategies, such as contact tracing, testing, and rapid isolation of cases. There were limited data to explore transmission patterns in workplaces, schools, and care homes, highlighting the need for further research in such settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence
15.
Environ Res ; 195: 110793, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection given their specific tasks. The IgG-IgM serological assay has demonstrated good accuracy in early detection in symptomatic patients, but its role in the diagnosis of asymptomatic patients is uncertain. The aim of our study was to assess IgM and IgG prevalence in sera in a large cohort of HCWs previously subjected to Nasopharyngeal swab test (NST) after accurate risk assessment due to positive COVID-19 patient exposure during an observation period of 90 days. METHODS: 2407 asymptomatic HCWs that had close contact with COVID-19 patients in the period between April 8th and June 7th were screened with NST based on the RT-PCR method. In parallel, they underwent large-scale chemiluminescence immunoassays involving IgM-IgG serological screening to determine actual viral spread in the same cohort. RESULTS: During the 90-day observation period, 18 workers (0.75%) resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the NST, whereas the positivity rates for IgM and IgG were 11.51% and 2.37%, respectively (277 workers). Despite high specificity, serological tests were inadequate for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with previous positive NST results (IgM and IgG sensitivities of 27.78% and 50.00%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a widespread low viral load of SARS-CoV-2 among hospital workers. However, serological screening showed very low sensitivity with respect to NST in identifying infected workers, and negative IgG and IgM results should not exclude the diagnosis of COVID-19. IgG-IgM chemiluminescence immunoassays could increase the diagnosis of COVID-19 only in association with NST, and this association is considered helpful for decision-making regarding returning to work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 532-537, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) after preventive protocol implementation. METHODS: A total of 5750 HCWs were included in the study. Those in contact with COVID-19 patients were allocated into a high-risk or a low-risk group based on contact type (PPE- or non-PPE-protected); high-risk workers underwent nasopharyngeal swab tests, while among low-risk workers, swab tests were carried out only for symptomatic workers (active surveillance). The prevalence was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: 3570 HCWs had contact with 1065 COVID-19 patients. Among them, 3494 were subjected to active surveillance (low-risk group); 2886 (82.60%) were subjected to a swab test; and 15 were positive (0.52%). Seventy-six HCWs (2.13% of exposed) were included in the high-risk group, and a swab test was mandatory for each participant. Overall, 66 (86.84% of high-risk) were negative, and 10 were positive (13.16%), resulting in a higher risk of infection than in the low-risk group [OR = 29.00; 95% CI:12.56-66.94; p < 0.0001]. CONCLUSION: To date, the SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence is 0.70% among exposed HCWs and 0.435% among all HCWs working at the examined university hospital. The correct use of PPE and the early identification of symptomatic workers are essential factors to avoiding nosocomial clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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