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1.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(9): 614-623, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children can develop long COVID symptoms. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of long-lasting symptoms, the duration and intensity of symptoms, quality of life, number of sick days and absences from daycare or school, and psychological and social outcomes in children aged 0-14 years who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 relative to controls with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted including children with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR test (cases) and matched controls from Danish national registers. A survey was sent to mothers (proxy reporting) of children aged 0-14 years who had had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test between Jan 1, 2020, and July 12, 2021, and a control group matched (1:4) by age and sex. The survey included the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Children's Somatic Symptoms Inventory-24 (CSSI-24) to capture current overall health and wellbeing, and ancillary questions about the 23 most common long COVID symptoms. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Clinically relevant differences were defined as those with a Hedges'g score greater than 0·2. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04786353). FINDINGS: Responses to the survey were received from 10 997 (28·8%) of 38 152 cases and 33 016 (22·4%) of 147 212 controls between July 20, 2021, and Sept 15, 2021. Median age was 10·2 years (IQR 6·6-12·8) in cases and 10·6 years (6·9-12·9) in controls. 5267 (48·2%) cases and 15 777 (48·3%) controls were female, and 5658 (51·8%) cases and 16 870 (51·7%) controls were male. Cases had higher odds of reporting at least one symptom lasting more than 2 months than did controls in the 0-3 years age group (478 [40·0%] of 1194 vs 1049 [27·2%] of 3855; OR 1·78 [95% CI 1·55-2·04], p<0·0001), 4-11 years age group (1912 [38·1%] of 5023 vs 6189 [33·7%] of 18 372; 1·23 [1·15-1·31], p<0·0001), and 12-14 years age group (1313 [46·0%] of 2857 vs 4454 [41·3%] of 10 789; 1·21 [1·11-1·32], p<0·0001). Differences in CSSI-24 symptom scores between cases and controls were statistically significant but not clinically relevant. Small clinically relevant differences in PedsQL quality-of-life scores related to emotional functioning were found in favour of cases in the children aged 4-11 years (median score 80·0 [IQR 65·0-95·0]) in cases vs 75·0 [60·0-85·0] in controls; p<0·0001) and 12-14 years (90·0 [70·0-100·0] vs (85·0 [65·0-95·0], p<0·0001). PedsQL social functioning scores were also higher in cases (100·0 [90·0-100·0] than controls (95·0 [80·0-100·0]) in the 12-14 years age group (p<0·0001; Hedges g>0·2). INTERPRETATION: Compared with controls, children aged 0-14 years who had a SARS-CoV-2 infection had more prevalent long-lasting symptoms. There was a tendency towards better quality-of-life scores related to emotional and social functioning in cases than in controls in older children. The burden of symptoms among children in the control group requires attention. Long COVID must be recognised and multi-disciplinary long COVID clinics for children might be beneficial. FUNDING: A P Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(4): 240-248, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many adolescents have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic either directly by being infected with the virus or indirectly by lockdowns and restrictions influencing normal living. We aimed to investigate health, including symptoms of long COVID, in adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with a control group. METHODS: LongCOVIDKidsDK was a national, cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark, which included SARS-CoV-2-positive adolescents and matched controls. All Danish adolescents aged 15-18 years with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test during the period Jan 1, 2020, to July 12, 2021, and a control group matched (1:4) by age and sex were sent a survey from July 20, 2021. Participants had until Sept 15, 2021, to respond. Symptoms associated with COVID-19, school attendance, and health-related quality of life were investigated using ancillary questions and validated questionnaires (Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory [PedsQL] and Children's Somatic Symptoms Inventory-24 [CSSI-24]). Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04786353. FINDINGS: 24 315 adolescents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (case group) and 97 257 matched controls were invited to participate. 3013 matched controls were excluded because of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. 6630 (27·3%) responded in the case group and 21 640 (22·3%) responded and were eligible to participate in the control group. Across both groups, median age was 17·6 years (IQR 16·4-18·5), 16 277 (57·6%) of 28 270 responders were female, and 11 993 (42·4%) were male. Participants in the case group had greater odds of having at least one long COVID symptom lasting at least 2 months compared with the control group (3159 [61·9%] vs 12 340 [57·0%], odds ratio 1·22 [95% CI 1·15-1·30]; p<0·0001). Participants in the case group reported significantly lower symptom scores (ie, less somatic distress) on the CSSI-24 than in the control group: mean 10·7 (SD 11·4, median 7·0 [IQR 2·0-15·0]) versus 11·9 (10·6, 9·0 [4·0-17·0]; p<0·0001). Participants in the case group had better quality of life scores on the PedsQL than in the control group: physical functioning mean score 88·7 (SD 13·9, median 93·8 [IQR 84·4-100·0]) versus 86·5 (14·3, 90·6 [81·3-96·9]; p<0·0001); emotional functioning 77·1 (20·3, 80·0 [65·0-95·0]) versus 71·7 (21·4, 75·0 [60·0-90·0]; p<0·0001); social functioning 93·1 (12·5, 100·0 [90·0-100·0]) versus 88·4 (16·2, 95·0 [80·0-100·0]; p<0·0001); and school functioning 66·9 (22·5, 65·0 [60·0-85·0]) versus 62·9 (22·1, 65·0 [50·0-80·0]; p<0·0001). More participants in the case group than in the control group reported 16 or more sick days (1205 [18·2%] vs 2518 [11·6%]; p<0·0001) and 16 or more days of school absence (695 [10·5%] vs 1777 [8·2%]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Participants with SARS-CoV-2-positive tests had more long-lasting symptoms and sick leave, whereas participants in the control group had more short-lasting symptoms and worse quality of life. Knowledge of long COVID in adolescents is important to guide clinical recognition and management of this condition. FUNDING: AP Møller and Chastine McKinney Møller Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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